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Welcome to “Literacy Across the Curriculum” Training. Mommy, will you read to me? By Rachel Meendering. Purpose: “Every Teacher is a Teacher of Reading?” How? By addressing cross-curricular strategies. 1. Social Studies 2. Science 3. Physical Education 4. Math

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Mommy will you read to me by rachel meendering
Mommy, will you read to me?By Rachel Meendering


Purpose every teacher is a teacher of reading how by addressing cross curricular strategies
Purpose: “Every Teacher is a Teacher of Reading?” How? By addressing cross-curricular strategies

1. Social Studies

2. Science

3. Physical Education

4. Math

5. Etc. (Music, Art, Media)


Ten tips to improve reading in content areas
TEN TIPS TO IMPROVE READING IN CONTENT AREAS

  • 1) The most important way to provide students with reading strategies within content areas is through modeling. Modeling begins with the way in which you structure your classroom and curriculum. Take some time to make sure that your tests and assignments stress what you want students to know. If you only test them on vocabulary but want them to really understand key concepts, the key concepts will be lost because students will hone in on the vocabulary. In addition, use class discussions as a way to show students what you pay attention to when you read. Ask them to read a short passage then to discuss what the key concepts are. Next, ask why they identified these things as key concepts. If they miss anything or get anything incorrect, walk them through the process of what you found important and why. After such an introduction, leave them on their own to practice and learn good reading strategies. (At the beginning of the semester, in particular, always provide for some time to review what they did find and what should be found in the reading.)


Tip 2
TIP #2

  • 2. To help students focus their attention while reading, develop guided practice questions. The questions can be answered in a journal format or as a quiz. Each question can structure and introduce what is taught and discussed during a particular class. Always provide some feedback on how students have answered the questions, though, preferably in a way that will not adversely affect students’ grades.


Tip 3
TIP #3

  • 3. Don’t assume that students are or should be as well-versed in a discipline as you are. Instead of watching a whole class fail and lamenting about what they don’t know, help them in their reading process by taking five minutes to entertain questions about the reading or to quickly review difficult vocabulary and subject areas. In addition, provide background knowledge about topics that students nowadays will know little about. Studies show that readers cannot really learn material unless they have something similar to connect with it. If you do not want to take class time to review background knowledge, a simple list of introductory sources about the topic will suffice. Students can then use this list to supplement their background knowledge, as necessary.


Tip 4
TIP #4

  • 4. Structure opportunities for students to synthesize material from a variety of different sources. Students can learn critical reading by testing sources against one other. Too often, students believe everything that is in print so it is important to challenge them to analyze and judge sources that say different things about the same topic.


Tip 5
TIP #5

  • Don’t prioritize summaries at the expense of critical reading skills. To encourage students in their critical thinking and reading, provide opportunities for them to generate questions about topics then to read about the topic and generate more questions. Students have to know how to prepare or to predict about topics, how to comprehend facts and, finally, how to reflect. Using a QRQ method (question, read, question) helps student to develop these reading strategies.


Tip 6
TIP #6

  • 6. Provide on-going responses to students’ reading processes. The easiest way to do so is through journals that you respond to but do not necessarily grade. The journals allow you to see that students are doing the reading, and they help you to identify parts of the reading that the students have missed or are confused about.


Tip 7
TIP #7

  • 7. Always be ‘clear about what the purpose for the reading assignment is. Students are better able to structure their reading when they know why they are doing it. If you want students to understand the concept of dissociative disorders, say so or provide them with a reading outline that simply lists key concepts and vocabulary (they can fill in the rest). Giving them your reasons for the reading helps them to read more efficiently and selectively.


Tip 8
TIP #8

  • 8. Whenever possible, use a variety of presentations for the information you want them to learn. Lecture about it, have group discussions, have them read it individually, have them write about it and then entertain questions. Incorporating reading, writing and speaking about topics helps all types of learners to master subject material. In addition, working in groups allows students to share background knowledge and reading strategies.


Tip 9
TIP #9

  • 9. Remember that specialized vocabulary can cause comprehension failures even in good readers. Encourage students to keep logs of unknown vocabulary words, and, whenever possible, review words that students may need help with.


Tip 10
TIP #10

  • 10. Consider applying the techniques of “reciprocal learning” (Annemarie Palinscar). This learning method involves talk about the meaning of texts. After reading materials, the students and the teacher take turns leading the dialogue about it. During discussions, questions are generated, key material is summarized, unclear points are reviewed and upcoming content is predicted using clues in the text or prior knowledge about the topic.


Activity time
Activity Time!

Reading Strategies for Non-Fiction

Eleven Strategies For Building Reading Success



Comprehension analysis sheet
Comprehension Analysis Sheet match.

  • TOPICS

  • Finding Main Idea

  • The main idea of reading passage is a sentence that tells what the passage is mostly about. Questions about main idea might ask you to find what a passage is mostly about or mainly about. The question about main idea, ask yourself, What is the passage mostly about?

  • Recalling Facts and Details

  • Every reading passage contains facts and details. The facts and details tell more about the main idea. Questions about facts and details ask you about something that was stated in the passage. To answer a question about a fact or detail, look back to the passage to find the answer.

  • Understand Sequence

  • Sometimes, a passage is told in order, or sequence. Different things happen at the beginning, middle, and ending of a passage. Questions about sequence ask you to remember and put events or details in order. Question about sequence often contain key words such as first, then, last, after, or before.

  • Recognizing Cause and Effect

  • A cause is something that happens. An effect is something that happens because of the cause. Read this sentence: “I forgot to set my alarm clock, so I was late for school” The cause of being late for school was forgetting to set the alarm clock. The effect of forgetting to set the alarm clock is being late for school. Questions about cause and effect usually begin with the key words why, what happened, or because.

  • Comparing and Contrasting

  • Some questions ask you to find how two things are alike or different. This is called compare contrast, or finding likenesses and differences. Questions that ask you to compare or contrastusually contain the key words such as most like, different, alike, or similar.

  • Making Predictions

  • A prediction is something you think will happen in the future. Questions about predictions ask what will probably or most likely happen next. You will not find the answer to these questions in the passage. But there are clues you can use from the passage to make a good guess about what might happen next.


Understanding the strategies
Understanding the Strategies match.

  • • Finding Main Idea The main idea of a reading passage is a sentence that tells what the passage is mostly about. Questions about main idea might ask you to find what a passage is mostly about or mainly about. The questions might also ask you to choose the best title for a passage. When answering a question about main idea, ask yourself, What is the passage mostly about? Then choose your answer.

  • • Recalling Facts and Details Every reading passage contains facts and details. The facts and details tell more about the main idea, Questions about facts and details ask you about something that was stated in the passage. To answer a question about a fact or detail, look back to the passage to find the answer.

  • • Understanding Sequence Sometimes, a passage is told in order, or sequence. Different things happen at the beginning, middle, and ending of a passage. Questions about sequence ask you to remember and put events or details in order. Questions about sequence often contain key words such as first, then, last, after, or before.

  • • Recognizing Cause and Effect A cause is something that happens. An effect is something that happens because of the cause. Read this sentence: “I forgot to set my alarm clock, so I was late for school.” The cause of being late for school was forgetting to set the alarm clock. The effect of forgetting to set the alarm clock is being Late for school. Questions about cause and effect usually begin with the key words why, what happened, or because.

  • • Comparing and Contrasting Some questions ask you to find how two things are alike or different. This is called compare and contrast, or finding likenesses and differences. Questions that you to compare or contrast usually contain key words such as most like, different, alike, or similar.


Understanding the strategies cont
Understanding the Strategies (cont.) match.

  • • Making Predictions A prediction is something you think will happen in the future. Questions about predictions ask what will probably or most likely happen next. You will not find the answer to these questions in the passage. But there are clues you can use from the passage to make a good guess about what might happen next.

  • • Finding Word Meaning in Context Sometimes when you read, you find a word whose meaning you do not know. Often you can tell the meaning of the word by the way the word is used in the sentence. This is called understanding word meaning in context. Questions about meaning in context ask you to find the meaning of a word that may not be familiar to you. If you have trouble choosing an answer for a question like this, try each answer choice in the sentence where the word appears in the passage. See which answer choice makes the most sense.

  • • Drawing Conclusions and Making Inferences When you read, many times you must figure out things on your own. The author doesn’t always tell you everything. For example, you might read these sentences:

  • Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion Questions about facts and opinions ask you to find which statements: are fact statements and which statements are opinion statements. Remember, a fact is something that is true. An opinion is how a person feels about something. Facts can be proven Opinion cannot. Statements that are opinions often contain key words such as most, best, nicest,and greatest.


Understanding the strategies cont1
Understanding the Strategies (cont.) match.

  • • Identifying Author’s Purpose Questions about author’s purpose ask you why the author wrote the passage. Most authors write for one of these reasons: to persuade (make someone want to do something), to give information, to describe, or to entertain. You can remember these four reasons by remembering P.I.D.E.—P for persuade, I for information, D for description, and E for entertain.

  • • Interpreting Figurative Language Sometimes, writers use words in such a way that their meaning is different from their usual meaning. For example, someone who has told a secret might say, “I spilled the beans.” This is an example of figurative language. These words do not mean that the person actually spilled some beans. These words mean “I didn’t mean to tell the secret”

  • • Summarizing Questions about the best summary of a passage ask you about the main points of the passage. When you answer questions about summary, first ask yourself, “What is the main idea of the passage?” A good summary is closer to the main idea than to any single detail found in the passage.


Comprehension analysis sheet cont
Comprehension Analysis Sheet (cont.) match.

  • TOPIC

  • Finding Word Meaning in Context

  • Sometimes when you read, you find a word whose meaning you do not know. Often you can tell the meaning of the word by the way the word is used in the sentence. This is called understanding word meaning in context. Questions about meaning in context ask you to find the meaning of a word that may not be familiar to you. If you have trouble choosing an answer for a question like this, try each answer choice in the sentence where the word appears in the passage. See which answer choice makes the most sense.

  • Drawing conclusions and Making Inferences

  • When you read, many times you must figure out things on your own. The author doesn’t always tell you everything. For example, you might read these sentences: “The moon cast an eerie glow in Jake’s room. Suddenly, he saw a shadow by the window. Jake sat up in bed, frozen with fear.” From what the author has written, you can tell that it is probably nighttime, because the moon is out and Jake is in bed. Questions about drawing conclusions often contain the key words you can tell or probably.

  • Distinguishing Between Fact and Opinion

  • Questions about facts and opinions ask you to find which statements are fact statements and which statements are opinion statements. Remember, a fact is something that is true. An opinion tells how a person feels about something. Facts can be proven. Opinions cannot. Statements that are opinions often contain key words such as most, best, nicest, and greatest.

  • Identifying Author’s Purpose

  • Questions about author’s purpose as you why the author wrote the passage. Most authors write for one of these reasons: to persuade (make someone want to do something), to give information, to describe, or to entertain. You can remember these four reasons by remembering P.I.D.E. – P for persuade, I for information, D for description, and E for entertain.

  • Interpreting Figurative Language

  • Sometimes, writers use words in such a way that their meaning is different from their usualmeaning. For example,someone whohas told a secret might say, “I spilled the beans.” This is an example of figurative language. These words do not mean that the person actually spilled some beans. These words mean “I didn’t mean to tell the secret.”

  • Summarizing

  • Questions about the best summary of a passage ask you about the main points of the passage. When you answer questions about summary, first ask yourself, “What is the main idea of the passage?” A good summary is closer to the main idea than to any single detail found in the passage.


Using the data
Using the Data match.

1. Plan Accordingly

2. Use Goal Summaries

3. Classroom Assessments (formative/unit summative)

4. Etc. (Benchmark Testing, Renaissance, Success Maker, AR Math, Test Magic, Discovery Probes) page 0059, 0060, 0063, 0064, 0065


Reading
Reading match.


Math match.





A back to school activity
A Back to School Activity match.

Find, organize, and disaggregate data that is pertinent to YOUR school for training.


Basics
Basics match.

1. Appropriate Grade Level Sight Words

2. Affixes (prefixes/suffixes, root words)

3. Phonics

4. How text is organized (bold, italics, underlining, paragraphing)

**All of this SHOULD be emphasized with K-2


Grammar basic punctuation conventions of writing
Grammar/Basic Punctuation (Conventions of Writing) match.

1. Four basic rules of a comma

2. End Punctuation

3. Capitalization


Reasons to read concentration on content reading sample testing passages fiction nonfiction
Reasons to Read (Concentration on content reading/sample testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)

1. Pleasure (Fiction, magazines, comic strips/books, graphic novel)

2. Information (Non-fiction, Science articles, Social Studies material, National Geographic for Kids, Ranger Rick, Weekly Reader, Newspapers, etc.)

**Use different strategies for each


Activity
Activity testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)

Explore the following web site to find resources for the conventions of writing and various reading selections.

www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/interactive/literacy/index.htm

For SMARTBOARD Activities:

www.coxhoe.durham.sch.uk/curriculum/literacy.htm


Clues strategies to attain meaning from the written word
Clues/Strategies to attain meaning from the written word testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)

1. Close Procedure

2. Context Clues

3. SQ3R

4. Outlining

5. Underlining

6. Etc. (QAR) page 0002, QAR,


Ten tips on reading in content area
Ten Tips on Reading in testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)Content Area


Continued
continued testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)


Qar relationship
QAR Relationship testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)


Activity1
Activity testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)

1. Analyze the DPI selection provided using one of the strategies previously discussed.

2. Collaborate with your group on which strategy you used to analyze this selection.

3. Be prepared to share with the entire group.

4. Share any successful strategies that were not discussed.

http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/accountability/testing/eog/reading/20080122gr4set4.pdf


End of grade needed reading skills
End of Grade Needed Reading Skills testing passages, Fiction/Nonfiction)

  • * finding the main idea * recalling facts and details * understanding sequence * recognizing cause and effect * comparing and contrasting * making predictions * finding word meaning in context * drawing conclusions and. making inferences * distinguishing between fact and opinion * identifying author’s purpose * interpreting figurative language * distinguishing between real and make-believe * summarizing


Major reading focus strategies content and informational literacy
Major Reading Focus Strategies (Content and Informational Literacy)

  • 1. Comprehension/High Level Critical Thinking Skills

    -Main Idea

    -Predicting Outcomes

    -Cause and Effect

    -Etc.

    2. Cumulative Vocabulary Development

    3. Reading Fluency, including Oral Reading Skills

    4. Phonemic Awareness

    ***2,3,4 SHOULD be emphasized with K-2

    2 focus handouts pp.3-4


Activity2
Activity Literacy)

1. Using the chart paper provided, as a group, create your own Comprehension Tree (complete with a trunk and branches)

2. Be sure to give your tree a name

3. Be prepared to share with the entire group.


How to help struggling readers
How to Help Struggling Readers Literacy)

  • Echo Reading

  • Recorded Books

  • Neurological Impress

  • Shared Reading

  • Sonday Kits


Literary terms
Literary Terms Literacy)

1. From all subjects

2. Cross-Curricular

page 0007


Required grade level reading list
Required Grade Level Reading List Literacy)

Use PSRC Suggested Reading list for supplemental reading material (found on PSRC website)


Required grade level vocabulary
Required Grade Level Vocabulary Literacy)

1. Active, Cumulative Word Walls

2. Posted in classroom as well as in student notebooks

Other Strategies for Developing Vocabulary Across the Curriculum

KIM charts

Concept Maps

Word Sort

Frayer Model

www.justreadnow.com


Steps to the Literacy) Frayer Model:

  • Explain the Frayer model graphical organizer to the class. Use a common word to demonstrate the various components of the form. Model the type and quality of desired answers when giving this example.

  • Select a list of key concepts from a reading selection. Write this list on the chalkboard and review it with the class before students read the selection.

  • Divide the class into student pairs. Assign each pair one of the key concepts and have them read the selection carefully to define this concept. Have these groups complete the four-square organizer for this concept.

  • Ask the student pairs to share their conclusions with the entire class. Use these presentations to review the entire list of key concepts


Steps in a directed reading lesson
Steps in a Directed Reading Lesson Literacy)

Regardless of subject, these steps must be implemented to ensure comprehension:

-Before Strategies

-During Strategies

-After Strategies




Additional web sites resources
Additional Web Sites/Resources Literacy)

Please refer to PSRC’s web page for additional resources by clicking on the Literacy Training Resource link for Train the Trainer.

  • http://dww.ed.gov

  • www.curriki.com

  • www.studyisland.com

  • www.discoveryeducation.com

  • www.teachtopia.com

  • http://jc-schools.net/PPTs-la.html

  • www.senteacher.org (special ed. Resources)

  • www.cumberlandcountyschools.com

  • http://classroom.jc-schools.net/waltkek/

  • www.nasa.gov

  • www.nationalgeographic.com


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