The Post-Nicene Era
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The Post-Nicene Era 325-590 AD. Roman Empire Embraces Christianity. Arianism and Orthodoxy Constantine New Capital Mediator Evangelist Sacral State Constantine’s Sons Julian “The Apostate” (360-363) Theodosius I, The Great (378-395). Theodosius I, The Great (378-395).

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Roman empire embraces christianity
Roman Empire Embraces Christianity

  • Arianism and Orthodoxy

  • Constantine

    • New Capital

    • Mediator

    • Evangelist

    • Sacral State

  • Constantine’s Sons

  • Julian “The Apostate” (360-363)

  • Theodosius I, The Great (378-395)


Theodosius i the great 378 395
Theodosius I, The Great (378-395)

  • First genuinely orthodox emperor, established Christianity as state religion

  • Presses Roman Senate to affirm Christ

  • Outlaws: attendance at pagan temples, pagan sacrifices, idol worship, etc

  • Encourages destruction of pagan temples – gives property to churches

  • Large numbers of pagans convert to Christianity



Overview of developments in post nicean era
Overview of Developmentsin Post-Nicean Era

  • Make Up of Church Radically Altered

    • By end of Theodosius’ reign, Christianity and the Roman state are inseparable

      • Constantine’s reign – 10-20% of population Christian

      • One century later – as much as 90% identify as Christian

  • Church inundated with rapid flood of mass “converts”

    • Churches unable, unprepared, unwilling to exercise discipline

    • Three Responses to Spiritual Degeneration

      • Separation

      • Universalism

      • Secularization


Overview of developments cont
Overview of Developments (cont)

  • Canonization Solidifies

  • Formal Christian Education Develops

    • Catechetical classes

    • Cathedral Schools (or Episcopal Schools)

  • Ritualism Increases – festivals, holy days and places, fetishism, relics, vestments

  • Holy Living Declines

  • Christian Architecture and Art Develop – artisans supported by state, icons developed in Eastern church, church buildings

  • Clerical Celibacy in West

  • Creeds and Councils Formalize Belief


Church evangelizes barbarians
Church Evangelizes Barbarians

  • Gregory the Illuminator – Armenia

  • Frumentius (ca. 300-380) – Ethiopia (Coptic Christianity)

  • British Isles

  • Ulfilas (ca. 335- ca. 400) – Goths and Visigoths

  • Martin of Tours (ca. 335 – ca. 400) to south Gaul

  • Gregory of Tours – Franks of Gaul

  • Patrick (ca. 389-461) – Ireland


When Giants Walked the Land

Martin of Tours

Gregory of Nazianzus

● Milan

Basil of Caesarea

Ambrose

Rome ●

Gregory of Nyssa

John Chrysostom

Jerome

●Hippo

Augustine

● Alexandria

Athanasius


Post nicene greek fathers
Post-Nicene Greek Fathers

  • Eusebius (ca. 260-ca. 339)

  • Athanasius (296-373)

  • Cappadocian Fathers

    • Successors of Athanasius

    • Basil of Caesarea (Basil the Great; 330-379)

    • Gregory of Nyssa (ca. 335-395)

    • Gregory of Nazianzus (ca. 329-390)

  • John of Antioch (Chrysostom) (347-407)


Athanasius
Athanasius

  • “Martin Luther of the 4th C”

  • Influence

    • Champion of the deity and humanity of Christ and deity of Holy Spirit against Arianism

    • Apologetics

    • Life of St Anthony

  • Pastoral Ministry

    • Service over Politics

    • Theological Orientation

    • Self-Discipline and Austerity

    • Perseverance and Courage



Chrysostom

347-407 AD


John of antioch chrysostom
John of Antioch (Chrysostom)

Upbringing and Education

Antioch

Constantinople

Quintessential Preacher

Defender of Nicene Orthodoxy

Prophet of Morality in Word and Deed

Martyrdom


When Giants Walked the Land

Martin of Tours

Gregory of Nazianzus

● Milan

Basil of Caesarea

Ambrose

John Chrysostom

Rome ●

Gregory of Nyssa

Jerome

●Hippo

Augustine

● Alexandria

Athanasius


Post nicene latin fathers
Post-Nicene Latin Fathers

Ambrose (ca. 339-397)

Jerome (347-420)

Augustine (354-430)


Ambrose
Ambrose

Highly educated and gifted

Entrance into Ministry

Strong Defender of Nicene Orthodoxy

Gifted Leader and Administrator of Church Affairs

Church over State

Hymnody

Ministry to Augustine



Jerome
Jerome

  • Education in Italy

  • Hermit in Syria

  • Establishes Monastery in Bethlehem

  • Prolific Linguist and Author

    • Masters Greek and Hebrew

    • Biographer

    • Exegetical Commentator

    • Influences every theological battle of his day including Arianism

  • Translates Latin Vulgate

  • Theological Weaknesses



Augustine1
Augustine

Highly Influential in Church and Western History

Upbringing

Devotee to Manichaeism

Sojourn in Milan and Conversion to Christianity

Bishop of Hippo Regius (North Africa)

Labored Against Manichees, Donatists, Pagans, Pelagius

Prolific Author on Christian Doctrine

Theological Legacy


Key developments in later post nicene era
Key Developments in Later Post-Nicene Era

  • Council of Ephesus (431)

  • Council of Chalcedon (451)

    • Against Arius, Jesus was fully divine: “truly God … perfect in Godhead … begotten of the Father before the ages”

    • Against Apollinarius, Jesus was fully human: “truly man … perfect in manhood” and born of the Virgin Mary

    • Against Nestorius, Jesus was one person, not two. The deity and humanity are: “not parted or divided into two persons” but Christ is “one person and one being”

    • Against Eutyches, Jesus’ humanity was not blurred with his deity, but both natures of Christ remained distinct


Council of chalcedon
Council of Chalcedon

Concerning Jesus deity and humanity: “The difference of the natures is in no wise taken away by reason of the union, but rather the properties of each are preserved … [Christ is] made known in two natures without confusion, without change, without division, without separation.”


Key developments in later post nicene era1
Key Developments in Later Post-Nicene Era

  • Council of Ephesus (431)

  • Council of Chalcedon (451)

  • Fall of Roman Empire (476)

    • Irremediable Societal Decay

    • Convulsive Internal Political Upheaval

    • Military Meltdown


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