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EMIS 8340. Systems Engineering Tool—applying tools to engineering systems. Scope Statements. Mark E. Sampson. Scope Statement for your team problem This course will use a problem throughout the various classes to teach tool application—the finished product will be a 40% of your grade.

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EMIS 8340

Systems Engineering Tool—applying tools to engineering systems

Scope Statements

Mark E. Sampson


Scope Statement for your team problem

This course will use a problem throughout the various classes to teach tool application—the finished product will be a 40% of your grade.

Teams will define a simple need they want to address and develop a scope statement to establish a foundation on which to build requirements.

We will use the scope statement outline suggested by [Hooks & Farry 2001]


Define needs, goals, and objectives…

What is the need you are going to meet?

Is…

  • Derived from a problem

  • Why we are doing something

    Is not…

  • The product

  • Subject to change

    Down in writing, available to everyone

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


Brainstorming a need…

What is the need is your team going to meet?

Brainstorming with yellow sticky notes

Rules:

  • Collect as many ideas as possible

  • No criticism, nothing’s too off the wall

  • Build on each other’s ideas

  • Write all the ideas down, organize/discuss them later

  • Time limit:15-30 minutes…

    Example: Cheap way to get things into space


Establishing goals & objectives…

Goals—define things to accomplish to meet need

Objectives—define how we will know when we’ve arrived

Example:

Need: cheap way to get things into space

Goal: produce new space vehicle that cuts costs in half

Objective: 30% less weight to lift

cost of launch reduced by 50%

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


Assignment #1

  • Select a project for your team

  • Define the need, goal, and objects for your project

  • Deliver your needs, goals, and objectives to critical review in class.


Identify Stakeholders…

Who/What is involved in any way with your product?

  • Who affects or is affected by this product?

  • Anyone/Anything who can help or hurt your project.

    Example: FAA Air Traffic Control System—air traffic controllers, ground controllers, maintenance, airlines, pilots, public, Congress, weather systems,…

    What is their point-of-view?

  • Finance--reduced cost

  • Marketing--new market/increased market share

  • Manufacturing—reduced defects, no process changes,...

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


Context Diagrams…

How do I know who the stake holders are?

Maintenance

Customer

Safety

Engineering

Testing

Product

Suppliers

Manufacturing

EMI

Materials

Software

Marketing

Purchasing

Reliability

Finance

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


Training budget

Fishbone Diagram…

How do I know who the stake holders are?

  • Identify all possible contributors to your problem.

  • Identify all possible impacting Issues to those contributors

  • …keep going

Finance is a potential stake holder

http://www.maaw.info/SixSigmaSummary.htm


Table 1: Age And Gasoline Price Table

Year

My Age

Gasoline Price

1950

0

$0.06

1955

5

$0.12

1960

10

$0.27

1965

15

$0.15

1970

20

$0.52

1975

25

$0.64

1980

30

$0.76

1985

35

$0.89

1990

40

$1.10

1995

45

$1.19

2000

50

$1.40

Correlation Diagrams…

How do I know who the stake holders are?

…highly correlated events indicate interfaces and thus potential stakeholders

http://www.isixsigma.com/library/content/c030111a.asp [Sloan 2004]


Google Search…

How do I know who the stake holders are?

…using various web-based

Search engines to seekout related items.

…number of interestingvisualization techniquesthat can also help…

[SE Handbook 4.1]


Assignment #2

  • Identify Stake Holders

  • Define their point of view, what’s important to them

  • Deliver your stake holders to critical review in class.


Identify Drivers & Constraints…

External things that affect your product that you can do nothing about.

Example: Cost, regulations, higher level requirements, existing/legacy systems, schedule, standards,…

Contracts

Cost

Standards

Expectations

Test Equipment

Product

Supplier Capabilities

Manufacturing processes

Environment

Material constraints

Legacy Systems

Schedule

Lead time

Safety Issues

Legal

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


Assignment #3

  • Identify Drivers & Constraints

  • …they will need to be quantified and agreed to

  • Deliver your Drivers & Constraints to critical review in class.


Identify operational concepts, scenarios, use cases,…

A scenario or story of a day-in-the-life of your product describing why this is a problem today, how this will be different when your solution is there

Example: Phone rings while driving…

Current Scenario: Driver fumbles for his phone, drops it on the floor, bends down to get it , crashes into the car ahead of him…

Future Scenario: Radio automatically turns down, user says “answer phone”, phone answers, user starts conversation…user says hang up, radio comes back on,…

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


Identify operational concepts, scenarios, use cases,…

  • A critical means of getting the approach across

  • Speak for you when you’re not there

    Developed originally for operations, but cover the entire life cycle

  • Development, Test, Storage, Upgrade, Transport, Disposal, Maintenance,…

  • From a variety of viewpoints…customer, testers, users, manufacturing, etc.

  • Start at a high level and work your way down…

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


TCT Kill Chain

Engaged by a Joint Battle Force

J-STARS

w ATR

U-2

UAV

TADIL NET

DCGS

XXX

ARMY Tactical

Operations Center

CAOC

XX

XX

BCC

USMC

TAOC

XX

AIR DEFENSE

TOC

AEGIS

Some tools…

Pictures, IDEF OV1, Powerpoint,…

Brainstorming, Delphi Techniques, TRIZ…

Use Cases and Actors


TRIZ…Theory of Inventive Problem Solving

Statistical Design Institute…

Statistical Design Toolkit for Design for Six Sigma, includes a TRIZ tool.

What is TRIZ—approach to dealing with engineering contradictions

Presentation from Dr. George Chollar/Dr. JessePeplinski

www.stat-design.com


Assignment #4

  • Develop an operational concept/scenario that describes why this is a problem

  • Develop an operational concept that describes how your solution will solve this problem

  • Deliver your operational concept to critical review in class.

    Caution about “Pre-selection Error” Don’t let your scenario drive you towards a solution yet, we still trying to define our scope

[Hooks 2001]


Define External Interfaces

  • Capturing interfaces for future reference

    What do you have to interface with?

    Applications Study: Henry Ford’s first car and Explorer Tire Recall

    Upon completion of his first automobile in his workshop, Henry Ford was amazed to discover it didn't fit through the door (Henry Ford, p.30, A. Knopf, 1966)

    …or a more recent example from the news…

    May 20, 2001--Ford Motor Co. is recalling 50,000 brand new Explorers because an assembly line conveyor belt that was too narrow for the wider 2002 model may have cut the tire tread (http://abcnews.go.com/sections/us/DailyNews/tires_recall_wire010520.html)

[SE Handbook 4.1] [Hooks 2001]


External Interfaces…

Test Equipment

Storage

Software

Printer

EMI

Networks

Power

People

Be sure to ask the question, “What is the worst thing otherelements could do to you across this interface?” [Kuchta, 1989]

…and defend against it! [Hooks 1999]

[Lacy 1992] [Hooks 2001]


Methodology: Context Diagrams

…identifies the inputs/outputs for the system

  • Helps identify constraints

  • Identifies stakeholders

    In our dental hygiene case, shows all interests in our system

    What’s the difference between stake holders and external interfaces?

[Armstrong 1993]


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