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MultiThreads of Qt. Teleca Chengdu 26 July 2010 Author: Tom Chen. Agenda. Overview All of Threads classes Example Recommended Reading.

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multithreads of qt
MultiThreads of Qt
  • Teleca Chengdu
  • 26 July 2010
  • Author: Tom Chen
agenda
Agenda
  • Overview
  • All of Threads classes
  • Example
  • Recommended Reading
slide3

Qt provides thread support in the form of platform-independent threading classes, a thread-safe way of posting events, and signal-slot connections across threads. This makes it easy to develop portable multithreaded Qt applications and take advantage of multiprocessor machines. Multithreaded programming is also a useful paradigm for performing time-consuming operations without freezing the user interface of an application.

  • Earlier versions of Qt offered an option to build the library without thread support. Since Qt 4.0, threads are always enabled

Overview

slide4

QThread provides the means to start a new thread.

  • QThreadStorage provides per-thread data storage.
  • QMutex provides a mutual exclusion lock, or mutex.
  • QMutexLocker is a convenience class that automatically locks and unlocks a QMutex.
  • QReadWriteLock provides a lock that allows simultaneous read access.
  • QReadLocker and QWriteLocker are convenience classes that automatically lock and unlock a QReadWriteLock.
  • QSemaphore provides an integer semaphore (a generalization of a mutex).
  • QWaitCondition provides a way for threads to go to sleep until woken up by another thread.

All of Threading classes

slide5

The QThread class provides platform-independent threads.

A QThread represents a separate thread of control within the program; it shares data with all the other threads within the process but executes independently in the way that a separate program does on a multitasking operating system. Instead of starting in main(), QThreads begin executing in run(). To create your own threads, subclass QThread and reimplement run().

QThread

class MyThread : public QThread

{

public:

void run();

};

void MyThread::run()

{

QTcpSocket socket;

// connect QTcpSocket\'s signals somewhere meaningful

...

socket.connectToHost(hostName, portNumber);

exec();

}

slide6

The QThreadStorage class provides per-thread data storage.

QThreadStorage is a template class that provides per-thread data storage.

Note that due to compiler limitations, QThreadStorage can only store pointers.

QThreadStorage

QThreadStorage<QCache<QString, SomeClass> *> caches;

void cacheObject(const QString &key, SomeClass *object)

{

if (!caches.hasLocalData())

caches.setLocalData(new QCache<QString, SomeClass>);

caches.localData()->insert(key, object);

}

void removeFromCache(const QString &key)

{

if (!caches.hasLocalData())

return;

caches.localData()->remove(key);

}

slide7

The QMutex class provides access serialization between threads.

The purpose of a QMutex is to protect an object, data structure or section of code so that only one thread can access it at a time (this is similar to the Java synchronized keyword). It is usually best to use a mutex with a QMutexLocker since this makes it easy to ensure that locking and unlocking are performed consistently

QMutex

slide8

The QMutexLocker class is a convenience class that simplifies locking and unlocking mutexes.

The purpose of QMutexLocker is to simplify QMutex locking and unlocking. Locking and unlocking a QMutex in complex functions and statements or in exception handling code is error-prone and difficult to debug.

QMutexLocker can be used in such situations to ensure that the state of the mutex is always well-defined.

QMutexLocker should be created within a function where a QMutex needs to be locked. The mutex is locked when QMutexLocker is created, and unlocked when QMutexLocker is destroyed.

QMutexLocker

slide9

The QReadWriteLock class provides read-write locking.

A read-write lock is a synchronization tool for protecting resources that can be accessed for reading and writing. This type of lock is useful if you want to allow multiple threads to have simultaneous read-only access, but as soon as one thread wants to write to the resource, all other threads must be blocked until the writing is complete.

In many cases, QReadWriteLock is a direct competitor to QMutex. QReadWriteLock is a good choice if there are many concurrent reads and writing occurs infrequently

QReadWriteLock lock;

void ReaderThread::run()

{

...

lock.lockForRead();

read_file();

lock.unlock();

...

}

void WriterThread::run()

{

...

lock.lockForWrite();

write_file();

lock.unlock();

...

}

QReadWriteLock

slide10

The QSemaphore class provides a general counting semaphore.

A semaphore is a generalization of a mutex. While a mutex can only be locked once, it\'s possible to acquire a semaphore multiple times. Semaphores are typically used to protect a certain number of identical resources.

Semaphores support two fundamental operations, acquire() and release():

acquire(n) tries to acquire n resources. If there aren\'t that many resources available, the call will block until this is the case.

release(n) releases n resources.

There\'s also a tryAcquire() function that returns immediately if it cannot acquire the resources, and an available() function that returns the number of available resources at any time.

QSemaphore

slide11
Example
  • Mandelbrot Example
  • Semaphores Example
  • Wait Conditions Example
slide12
Recommended Reading
  • Threads Primer: A Guide to Multithreaded Programming
  • Thread Time: The Multithreaded Programming Guide
  • Pthreads Programming: A POSIX Standard for Better Multiprocessing
  • Win32 Multithreaded Programming
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