Contraception
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CONTRACEPTION. Senior Health. 4 Forms of Contraception Behavioral Barrier Hormonal Surgical. Forms of Contraception. Abstinence Withdrawal Fertility Awareness. Behavioral Methods. Male Condom Female Condom Spermicidal Foam/Jelly Sponge Diaphragm & Cervical Cap. Barrier Methods.

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CONTRACEPTION

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Contraception

CONTRACEPTION

Senior Health


Forms of contraception

  • 4 Forms of Contraception

    • Behavioral

    • Barrier

    • Hormonal

    • Surgical

Forms of Contraception


Behavioral methods

  • Abstinence

  • Withdrawal

  • Fertility Awareness

Behavioral Methods


Barrier methods

  • Male Condom

  • Female Condom

  • Spermicidal Foam/Jelly

  • Sponge

  • Diaphragm & Cervical Cap

Barrier Methods


Hormonal methods

  • Birth Control Pill

  • The Patch

  • Vaginal Ring

  • The Shot

  • Emergency Contraception

  • IUD

  • Implant

Hormonal Methods


Surgical methods

  • Tubal Sterilization

  • Vasectomy

Surgical Methods


Abstinence

  • Form of Contraception:

    • Behavioral

  • Effectiveness:

    • 100%

  • What is it?

    • Choosing not to engage in sexual intercourse or sex “play”

  • Advantages:

    • Only 100% preventative measure against PREGNANCY and STDs

    • Cost- free

ABSTINENCE


Withdrawal

  • Form of Contraception:

    • Behavioral

  • Effectiveness:

    • 81%

  • What is it?

    • Withdrawing the penis before ejaculation occurs

  • Disadvantages:

    • Pre-ejaculate material contains sperm

    • No protection against STDs

    • Cost- free

WITHDRAWAL


Fertility awareness calendar method

  • Form:

    • Behavioral

  • Effectiveness:

    • 75%

  • What is it?

    • Selecting specific days to have sexual intercourse based on the woman’s menstrual cycle/day of ovulation.

  • Disadvantages:

    • Menstrual cycles may vary

    • Not a spontaneous form of contraception

    • Cost per calendar kit- $12

Fertility Awareness – “Calendar Method”


Male condom

  • Form:

    • Barrier, OTC (Over The Counter)

  • Effectiveness:

    • 85-98%

  • What is it?

    • Rubber/latex sheath placed over the penis to collect pre-ejaculate material and semen upon ejaculation.

  • Advantages:

    • Provides protection against STDs

  • Disadvantages:

    • Incorrect use

    • Latex allergies

    • Cost- 1.25

MALE CONDOM


How do you put one of these things on

How do you put one of these things on?


Female condom

  • Form:

    • Barrier

  • Effectiveness:

    • 79%

  • What is it?

    • Fits deep into the vagina, ring holds it in place, blocks sperm from entering the vagina.

  • Advantages:

    • Provide protection against STDs

  • Disadvantages:

    • Difficult to use

    • Hard to keep in place

    • Known to be noisy

    • Cost- $4 each

FEMALE CONDOM


How do you put one of these things in

How do you put one of these things in?


Spermicide foam j elly

  • Form:

    • Barrier

  • Effectiveness:

    • 74%

  • What is it?

    • Injected into the vagina before sexual intercourse to immobilize sperm and block them from entering the uterus.

  • Disadvantages:

    • No protection against STDs

    • Messy

    • Have to use each intercourse act

    • Should be used with other forms of contraception (condom, diaphragm)

    • Cost- per tube $8

Spermicide (Foam/Jelly)


How do you use this stuff

How do you use this stuff?


Sponge

  • Form:

    • Barrier

  • Effectiveness

    • 80%

  • What is it?

    • Placed deep into the vagina to block the cervical opening; also contains spermicide.

  • Disadvantage:

    • hard to insert

    • No protection against STD’s….

    • Cost- $15 per 3 pack

SPONGE


Diaphragm

Diaphragm


Cervical cap

Cervical Cap


Diaphragm cervical cap

  • Form:

    • Barrier (Prescription)

  • Effective

    • 80%

  • What is it?

    • Dome-shaped cup with flexible rim; placed deep into vagina to cover cervix

    • Fitted by a doctor

  • Advantages:

    • Can be implanted for up to 24 hours/48 hours

  • Disadvantages

    • Difficult to insert

    • Moves around during sexual intercourse

    • No protection against STD’s….

    • Cost-$ 15-75

DIAPHRAGM & CERVICAL CAP


Fem cap

FEM CAP


Birth control pill

  • Form:

    • Hormonal

  • Effectiveness:

    • 95-99%

  • What is it?

    • Prevents ovulation

    • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus

    • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.

  • Advantages:

    • Period regularity

    • Decreased cramps

  • Disadvantages:

    • No protection against STDs

    • Must take at the same time every day.

    • Possible weight gain.

    • Cost- $15-50 per month

BIRTH CONTROL PILL


The patch

  • Form:

    • Hormonal

  • Effectiveness:

    • 92-99%

  • What is it?

    • Each patch in place for one week; one week without patch – menstruation.

  • Release hormones through the skin.

    • Prevents ovulation

    • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus

    • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.

  • Advantages:

    • Visual reminder that you are using birth control

    • No need for daily maintenance, good for a week

  • Disadvantages:

    • No protection from STDs

    • Similar to THE PILL

  • THE PATCH


    Vaginal ring nuva ring

    • Form:

      • Hormonal

    • Effectiveness:

      • 92%-99%

    • What is it?

      • Small, flexible ring that releases hormones

      • In vagina for 3 weeks; removed for 1 week – menstruation

        • Prevents ovulation

        • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus

        • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.

    • Advantages:

      • Menstrual Regularity

    • Disadvantages:

      • No protection against STDs

      • Irregular bleeding

    VAGINAL RING/NUVA-RING


    The shot depo provera

    • Form:

      • Hormonal

    • Effective:

      • 99%

    • What is it?

      • Shot will last for 3 months

        • Prevents ovulation

        • Thicken cervical mucous to prevent sperm from passing through to uterus

        • Thins uterine wall to not allow implantation to occur.

    • Advantages:

      • No maintenance

      • Decreased cramping

    • Disadvantages:

      • Does not protect against STDs

      • Takes 12-18 weeks for the shot to “wear off”

      • Cost- $35-75 per injection

    THE SHOT/DEPO-PROVERA


    Emergency contraception the morning after pill plan b

    • Form:

      • Hormonal

    • Effectiveness:

      • 80-86%

    • What is it?

      • Must be taken within 72 hours of unprotected sexual intercourse

      • Large dose of progestin and estrogen

      • Over the counter for 17 years old +

      • Prevent ovulation if it has not already occurred

      • Thicken mucous in cervix and thins the wall of the uterus to prevent implantation if an egg has already been fertilized.

    • Disadvantages:

      • Does not protect against STDs

    EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION – “THE MORNING AFTER PILL”/PLAN B


    Intra unterine device iud

    • Form:

      • Barrier/Device/Hormonal

    • Effectiveness:

      • 98%-99%

    • What is it?

      • Affects the mobility of the sperm

      • Thickens cervical mucous; thins the lining of the uterus.

      • Can be in place for 3-7 years.

    • Disadvantages:

      • cramping, bleeding between menstrual cycles, No protection against STD’s.

      • Cost- $500-$1000

    INTRA-UNTERINE DEVICE (IUD)


    Birth control implant

    • Form:

      • Hormonal

    • Effectiveness:

      • 99%

    • What is it?

      • Hormonal regulation stick implanted into the upper arm that helps to prevent pregnancy

    • Disadvantages:

      • No protection against STDs

        - spotting

    • Advantages:

      • Lasts for 3 years/5 years

      • After removal pregnancy can be quick

    BIRTH CONTROL IMPLANT


    Female sterilization tubal ligation

    • Form:

      • Surgical Procedure

    • Effectiveness:

      • 99.5%

    • What is it?

      • Tying off of the fallopian tubes so the sperm can not reach the egg

    • Disadvantages:

      • Does not prevent STDs

      • PERMANENT!!*

    • Advantages:

      • PERMANENT!

      • Does not decrease sexual desire

    • Cost- 1500-6000

    FEMALE STERILIZATION – Tubal Ligation


    Vasectomy

    • Form:

      • Surgical Procedure (“lunch time” surgery)

    • Effectiveness:

      • 99%

    • What is it?

      • Blocks the vas deferens to keep the sperm out of the semen

    • Disadvantage:

      • PERMANENT*

    • Advantages:

      • Permanent

      • Does not decrease sexual desire

      • Cost- $350-1000

    VASECTOMY


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