The book of isaiah
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THE BOOK OF ISAIAH. The Times of Isaiah. B.C. 740. 715. 690. 790. 765. Uzziah (790-739). Ahaz (732-715). Hezekiah (715-686). Jotham (750-735). Kings of Judah. THE BOOK OF ISAIAH. THE KINGS OF ISAIAH’S DAY.

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THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

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The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH


The book of isaiah

The Times of Isaiah

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Jotham (750-735)

Kings of Judah


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

THE KINGS OF ISAIAH’S DAY


The book of isaiah

Isaiah 1:1, “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.”

“Shebnayahu, official to Uzziah”

THE KINGS OF ISAIAH’S DAY


The book of isaiah

bulla


The book of isaiah

Isaiah 1:1, “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.”

“Belonging to Ahaz, (son of) Jotham, king of Judah”

THE KINGS OF ISAIAH’S DAY


The book of isaiah

The Kings of Isaiah’s Day

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Kings of Judah

Jotham (750-735)

Tiglath- pileser III

745-727 B.C.

Kings of Assyria


The book of isaiah

Tiglath-pileser III (r. 745-727)


The book of isaiah

THE KINGS OF ISAIAH’S DAY

“I received the tribute of Kushtashpi of Commagene, Urik of Qu’e….Jehoahaz of Judah...” (The Ancient Near East, vol. 1, James Pritchard, p. 193)


The book of isaiah

Isaiah 1:1, “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.”

“Belonging to Hizqiyahu, (son of) Ahaz, king of Judah.”

THE KINGS OF ISAIAH’S DAY


The book of isaiah

The Kings of Isaiah’s Day

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Kings of Judah

Jotham (750-735)

Sennacherib

705-681 B.C.

Tiglath- pileser III

Kings of Assyria


The book of isaiah

Isaiah 1:1, “The vision of Isaiah the son of Amoz, which he saw concerning Judah and Jerusalem, in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.”

“The officials, the patricians and the (common) people of Ekron -- who had thrown Padi, their king, in fetters (because he was) loyal to (his) solemn oath (sworn) by the god Ashur, and had handed him over to Hezekiah, the Jew -- (and) he held him in prison…” (ANE, Pritchard, p. 199)


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

  • The threat from Israel and Syria during Ahaz’s reign, 7:1-17; 8:3-4


The book of isaiah

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Kings of Judah

Jotham (750-735)

Pekah (742-732)

Hoshea

Tiglath- pileser III

745-727 B.C.

Kings of Assyria


The book of isaiah

2 Kgs, 16:7, “So Ahaz sent messengers to Tiglathpileserking of Assyria, saying, I am thy servant and thy son: come up, and save me out of the hand of the king of Syria, and out of the hand of the king of Israel, which rise up against me.”


The book of isaiah

Tigl.-pileser

2 Kgs. 16:8, “And Ahaz took the silver and gold that was found in the house of Jehovah, and in the treasures of the king's house, and sent it for a present to the king of Assyria. 9 And the king of Assyria hear- kened unto him; and the king of Assyria went up against Damascus, and took it, and carried the people of it captive to Kir, and slew Rezin.”


The book of isaiah

2 Kgs. 15:29, “In the days of Pekah king of Israel came Tiglath-pileser king of Assyria, and took Ijon, and Abel-beth-maacah, and Janoah, and Kedesh, and Hazor, and Gilead, and Galilee, all the land of Naphtali; and he carried them captive to Assyria.”

“Israel…all its inhabitants (and) their possessions I led to Assyria.” (ANE, Pritchard, 194)

“…And the spoil of Samaria shall be carried away before the king of Assyria” (Isa. 8:4)


The book of isaiah

2Kgs. 15:30, “And Hoshea the son of Elah made a conspiracy against Pekah the son of Remaliah, and smote him, and slew him, and reigned in his stead, in the twentieth year of Jotham the son of Uzziah.”

“….They overthrew their king Pekah and I placed Hoshea king over them.” (ANE, Pritchard, 194)

Isaiah 7:1-8:4


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

  • The threat from Israel and Syria during Ahaz’s reign, 7:1-17; 8:3-4

  • Sargon’s capture of Ashdod, 20:1


The book of isaiah

SARGON II’S

PALACE


The book of isaiah

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Kings of Judah

Jotham (750-735)

Sargon II,

722-705

Tiglath- pileser III

Sennacherib

Kings of Assyria


The book of isaiah

“Azuri, king of Ashdod, had schemed not to deliver tribute any more and sent messages (full) of hostilities against Assyia, to the kings (living) in his neighborhood….

“I besieged (and) captured the cities of Ashdod, Gath, Asdudimmu…” (ANE, Pritchard, 197)

Isaiah 20:1


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

  • The threat from Israel and Syria during Ahaz’s reign, 7:1-17; 8:3-4

  • Sargon’s capture of Ashdod, 20:1

  • Sennacherib’s first invasion, 36:1


The book of isaiah

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Kings of Judah

Jotham (750-735)

Sennacherib

705-681 B.C.

Tiglath- pileser III

Kings of Assyria

Shal- maneser

Sargon


The book of isaiah

“As to Hezekiah, the Jew, he did not submit to my yoke, I laid siege to 46 of his strong cities, walled forts and to the countless small villages in their vicinity, and conquered (them) by means of

well-stamped (earth-)ramps, and battering-rams brought (thus) near (to the walls) ….

“I drove out 200,150 people, young and old, male and female…” (ANE, Pritchard, p. 199)

Isaiah 36:1


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

  • The threat from Israel and Syria during Ahaz’s reign, 7:1-17; 8:3-4

  • Sargon’s capture of Ashdod, 20:1

  • Sennacherib’s first invasion, 36:1

  • The siege of Lachish, 36:2


The book of isaiah

(Siege of Lachish)

"Sennacherib, king of the world, king of Assyria, sat on his nimedu-throne, and passed in review the booty taken from Lachish.” (ANE, Pritchard, 201)


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

  • The threat from Israel and Syria during Ahaz’s reign, 7:1-17; 8:3-4

  • Sargon’s capture of Ashdod, 20:1

  • Sennacherib’s first invasion, 36:1

  • The siege of Lachish, 36:2

  • The fall of Samaria, 36:19


The book of isaiah

ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

Fall of Samaria, 709

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Kings of Judah

Jotham (750-735)

Shal- manezer

Sargon II

Tiglath- pileser III

Sennach.

Kings of Assyria


The book of isaiah

Isa. 36:19, “Where are the gods of Hamath and Arpad? where are the gods of Sepharvaim? and have they delivered Samaria out of my hand?”

“Property of Sargon… king of Assyria… conqueror of Samaria and of the entire (country of) Israel…” (ANE, Pritchard, 195)


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

ISAIAH’S PREDICTIVE PROPHECIES, 13:1, 19; 45:1, 13


The book of isaiah

Prophecies concerning nations


The book of isaiah

Prophecies concerning nations


The book of isaiah

“...Jehovah stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, so that he made a proclamation throughout all his kingdom...All the kingdoms of the earth hath Jehovah, the God of heaven, given me; and he hath charged me to build him a house in Jerusa- lem...” (Ezra 1:1-2)

“Thus saith Jehovah to his anointed, to Cyrus….he shall build my city, and he shall let my exiles go free…” (Isa. 45: 1,13)

Prophecies concerning nations


The book of isaiah

The Dead Sea Scrolls


The book of isaiah

Dating the Isaiah Scroll

Zurich carbon dating at 1-σ level: 201-93 BC

Tucson carbon datingat 1-σ level: 341-325 or 202-114 BC

Zurich carbon dating at 2-σ level: 351-296 or 230-48 BC

Tucson carbon datingat 2-σ level: 351-295 or 230-53 BC

(The Meaning of the Dead Sea Scrolls: Their Significance for Understanding the Bible, Judaism, Jesus, and Christianity, by James C. VanderKam and Peter Flint, p. 32)


The book of isaiah

Carbon Dating

600

500

400

300

200

100

(Years B.C.)


The book of isaiah

Paleography:

English Script of the 17th Century


The book of isaiah

Dating the Isaiah Scroll

Paleography:

“Among Semitic paleographers in Great Britain, Dr. S.A. Birnbaum, of the London School of Oriental and African Studies, occupies a position second to none....His verdict on the date of...the complete Isaiah scroll (Isaiah A) between 175 and 150 B.C.” (F.F. Bruce,Second Thoughts on the Dead Sea Scrolls,pp. 42-43)


The book of isaiah

Paleography

600

500

400

300

200

100

(Years B.C.)


The book of isaiah

Probable Date of the Isaiah Scroll

LXX

600

500

400

300

200

100

(Years B.C.)


The book of isaiah

Probable Date of the Book of Isaiah

800

700

600

500

400

300

(Years B.C.)


The book of isaiah

Fall of Babylon; rise of Cyrus

800

700

600

500

400

300

(Years B.C.)


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

ISAIAH’S PREDICTIVE PROPHECIES, 9:6, 7; 53:1ff


The book of isaiah

Why the Suffering Servant of

Isaiah 53 is not the Nation of Israel:

  • He is portrayed in detailed features as a human personality. Could Israel have been personified in poetic language lacking any hint of allegory? (cf. Gal. 4:21-24).

  • He is an innocent sufferer (vs. 9, 12). Was Israel an innocent sufferer? (v. 8)

  • “For the transgression of my people was he stricken” (v. 8). If the servant is the nation, how could he be stricken for Israel?


The book of isaiah

Why the Suffering Servant of

Isaiah 53 is not the Nation of Israel:

"Judaism does not even claim to be the response to these hopes. It has no Messiah to offer, no Suffering Servant that can gather to Himself the things predicated of the Servant in the fifty-third chapter of Isaiah...” (H.H. Rowley, The Unity of the Bible, p. 118)

  • He is a voluntary sufferer (vs. 9, 12). Was Israel a voluntary sufferer?

  • His suffering is redemptive and spiritual in nature ( vs. 5, 11). Can this be said of Israel?

  • His suffering is vicarious, that is, substitutionary (vs. 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, 12). Has Israel suffered to redeem other nations (52:15)?

  • His suffering ends in death (vs. 8, 10, 12). Have the sufferings of Israel ended in death?


The book of isaiah

The Suffering of the “Suffering Servant”

and the Suffering of Jesus

Isaiah 53

Jesus

With his stripes we are healed(v. 5)

By whose stripes ye were healed(1 Pet. 2:24)

He is the propitiation for our sins; and not for ours only, but also for the whole world (1 Jn. 2:2)

He shall see the travail of his soul, and shall be satisfied(v. 11)


The book of isaiah

The Suffering of the “Suffering Servant”

and the Suffering of Jesus

Isaiah 53

Jesus

...the Lamb of God, that taketh away the sin of the world (Jn. 1:29) Philip...beginning from this Scripture, preached unto him Jesus (Acts 8:35)

As a lamb that is led to the slaughter (v. 7)

This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many unto remission of sins(Matt. 26:28)

He shall bear their iniquities….He poured out his soul unto death (vs. 11-12)


The book of isaiah

The Suffering of the “Suffering Servant”

and the Suffering of Jesus

Isaiah 53

Jesus

The Son of man came…to give his life a ransom for many (Matt. 20:28)

Thou shalt make his soul an offering for sin(v. 10)

He bare the sin of many (v. 12); He shall bear their iniquities (v. 11)

Who his own self bare our sins in his body upon the tree (1 Pet. 2:24)


The book of isaiah

THE BOOK OF ISAIAH

  • THE KINGS OF ISAIAH’S DAY

  • ISAIAH’S RECORD OF PALESTINE IN THE EIGHTH CENTURY B.C.

  • ISAIAH’S PREDICTIVE PROPHECIES


The book of isaiah

The Times of Isaiah

Sennacherib invades Judah, 701

Fall of Samaria, 722

B.C.

740

715

690

790

765

Uzziah (790-739)

Ahaz (732-715)

Hezekiah (715-686)

Kings of Judah

Jotham (750-735)

Jeroboam II (793-753)

Menahem (752-742)

Pekah (742-732)

Hoshea

Kings of Israel

Tiglath- pileser III

Shal- manezer

Sargon II

Sennacherib

Kings of Assyria


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