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Experimental Reports. Next week is the final week of practicals Make sure you are up to date with your reports by next week – all reports Final reports must be handed up no later than one week after completion of final practical – otherwise marks will be forfeited. Experiment 17.

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experimental reports
Experimental Reports
  • Next week is the final week of practicals
  • Make sure you are up to date with your reports by next week – all reports
  • Final reports must be handed up no later than one week after completion of final practical – otherwise marks will be forfeited
slide2

Experiment 17

Reactions of Alcohols and Carboxylic Acids

introduction
Introduction
  • Given samples of various alcohols and carboxylic acids
  • Establish some of their physical and chemical properties & perform various reactions
introduction4
Introduction
  • You will perform solubility and acidity tests on all the compounds provided
  • Ester formation from an alcohol and carboxylic acid
  • Oxidation of an alcohol to a carboxylic acid using permanganate solution
solubility tests
Solubility Tests
  • To 1ml of water in three test tubes, add each of the alcohols dropwise until they cease to dissolve or until 10 drops have been added
  • Record your observations
  • Repeat with the two carboxylic acids
  • Comment on your conclusions regarding the solubilities in water
acidity tests
Acidity Tests
  • Use the aqueous solutions of ethanol and ethanoic acid from the solubility tests
  • Test both with blue litmus paper
  • Add 1ml of 10% NaHCO3 to each
  • Record your observations in each case
acidity tests7
Acidity Tests
  • Dissolve 0.5g of sodium acetate in 5ml water – note if there is any odour
  • Add 1ml dilute H2SO4 and again note if there is any odour
  • Record your observations in each test and explain any reactions observed
ester formation
Ester Formation
  • Already encountered in Experiment 14
  • Heat 2ml of ethanol, 1ml ethanoic acid and a few drops of conc H2SO4 for 5 mins
  • Note any changes you observe – odour?
ester formation mechanism
Ester Formation - Mechanism

Include mechanism for ester formation in your report

oxidation of phenylmethanol
Oxidation of Phenylmethanol
  • Phenylmethanol (benzyl alcohol) can be oxidized to give benzoic acid
  • To 1ml of phenylmethanol in a conical flask add 25ml of KMnO4 solution and 0.5g of sodium carbonate
  • Heat on the water bath for 20 mins
  • Cool & acidify with conc HCl
oxidation of phenylmethanol11
Oxidation of Phenylmethanol
  • Add sodium sulphite solution until the brown maganese dioxide dissolves
  • Cool to room temperature – white precipitate of benzoic acid settles out
oxidation of phenylmethanol12
Oxidation of Phenylmethanol
  • Isolate crystals on the Hirsch funnel, wash with water & dry
  • Get melting point when dry
  • Calculate % yield from number of moles of phenylmethanol you began with
calculations
Calculations
  • Density of phenylmethanol = 1.05 gml-1
  • Use the density & volume to calculate the mass of phenylmethanol used
calculations14
Calculations
  • Use the mass of phenylmethanol to calculate the number of moles
  • When dry, weigh the benzoic acid product and thus calculate the number of moles of product
  • % yield = moles benzoic acid/moles phenylmethanol
report
Report
  • Introduction
  • All observations from the solubility and acidity tests & reactions
  • Mechanism for ester formation
  • Weight and melting point
  • % yield of benzoic acid
  • Discussion & conclusions
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