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Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010 2 nd Edition. Chapter 2 First You Need to Plan the Party (Problem-Solving Process). Objectives. After studying Chapter 2, you should be able to: Identify the output and input in a problem specification

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clearly visual basic programming with visual basic 2010 2 nd edition

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010 2nd Edition

Chapter 2 First You Need to Plan the Party (Problem-Solving Process)

objectives
Objectives

After studying Chapter 2, you should be able to:

  • Identify the output and input in a problem specification
  • Plan an algorithm using pseudocode and flowcharts
  • Desk-check an algorithm

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

how do programmers solve problems
How Do Programmers Solve Problems?
  • You cannot solve a problem unless you understand it
  • You cannot understand a problem unless you analyze it
  • Most important components of any problem
    • Problem’s output and its input

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

how do programmers solve problems cont d
How Do Programmers Solve Problems? (cont’d.)

Figure 2-1 Steps for solving a problem using a computer

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 1 analyze the problem
Step 1 – Analyze the Problem
  • Identify output
    • What does the user want to see printed on paper, displayed on the screen, or stored in a file?
  • Identify input
    • What information will the computer need to know to print, display, or store the output items?
  • Analysis step is most difficult problem-solving step

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 1 analyze the problem cont d
Step 1 – Analyze the Problem (cont’d.)

Figure 2-2 Problem specification for Addison Smith

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 1 analyze the problem cont d1
Step 1 – Analyze the Problem (cont’d.)

Figure 2-3 Output and input items for the Addison Smith problem

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 1 analyze the problem cont d2
Step 1 – Analyze the Problem (cont’d.)

Figure 2-4 Problem specification for Aiden Turner

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 1 analyze the problem cont d3
Step 1 – Analyze the Problem (cont’d.)

Figure 2-5 Output and input items for the Aiden Turner problem

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 2 plan the algorithm
Step 2 – Plan the Algorithm
  • Pseudocode
    • False code, not standardized
    • Cannot be understood by a computer
    • Used by programmers when planning an algorithm
  • Flowchart
    • Uses standardized symbols to visually depict an algorithm

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 2 plan the algorithm cont d
Step 2 – Plan the Algorithm (cont’d.)

Figure 2-6 Output, input, and algorithm items for the Addison Smith problem

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 2 plan the algorithm cont d1
Step 2 – Plan the Algorithm (cont’d.)
  • Flowchart symbols
    • Oval: start/stop symbol
    • Parallelogram: input/output symbol
    • Rectangle: process symbol
  • Flowlines
    • Connect symbols
  • Processing item
    • Intermediate value that algorithm uses when processing input into output

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

slide13

Figure 2-7 Flowchart for the Addison Smith problem’s algorithm

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

slide14

Figure 2-8 Output, input, and algorithm for the Aiden Turner problem

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

slide15

Figure 2-9 A different solution to the Aiden Turner problem

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

slide16

Figure 2-10 Flowchart for the algorithm shown in Figure 2-9

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

step 3 desk check the algorithm
Step 3 – Desk-Check the Algorithm
  • Desk-checking
    • Also called hand-tracing
    • Follow each of the algorithm’s instructions by hand
    • Choose sample data for input values
    • Manually compute expected output values
  • Valid data
    • Data that algorithm is expecting user to enter
  • Invalid data
    • Data that algorithm is not expecting user to enter

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

slide18

Figure 2-11 Addison Smith solution and desk-check table

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

slide19

Figure 2-16 Aiden Turner solution and desk-check table

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

summary
Summary
  • First three steps in the problem-solving process
    • Analyze the problem
    • Plan the algorithm
    • Desk-check the algorithm
  • Programmers use tools to organize their thoughts
    • Pseudocode
    • Flowcharts

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

summary cont d
Summary (cont’d.)
  • Algorithm
    • Enter data
    • Process data
    • Display, print, or store data
  • Calculation instructions in an algorithm
    • Specify what is to be calculated and how to perform calculation
  • After completing analysis and planning steps:
    • Programmer desk-checks algorithm

Clearly Visual Basic: Programming with Visual Basic 2010, 2nd Edition

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