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THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY. GENE PESTI 1 & JOHN DRIVER 2 1 UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 2 JACKSON LABORATORY USA. THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY. PROTEIN & ENERGY ON CARCASS LEAN & FAT INEXPENSIVE DIETS -> FAT CARCASSES DIETARY CU LEVELS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN MEAT

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The impact of nutriton on carcass quality

THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY

GENE PESTI1 & JOHN DRIVER2

1UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

2JACKSON LABORATORY

USA


The impact of nutriton on carcass quality1
THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY

  • PROTEIN & ENERGY ON CARCASS LEAN & FAT

    • INEXPENSIVE DIETS -> FAT CARCASSES

  • DIETARY CU LEVELS

    • CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN MEAT

  • CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS

    • MARGINAL LEVELS -> BROKEN BONES & BRUISES




From donaldson et al 19562
From Donaldson et al., 1956

  • Growth Not Related to C/P Ratio

  • No “Optimums” Evident


From donaldson et al 19563
From Donaldson et al., 1956

  • Carcass Composition fits C/P Ratio Well

  • No “Optimums” Evident


From donaldson et al 19564
From Donaldson et al., 1956

  • Carcass Composition Related to C/P Ratio

  • Carcass Composition Related to C & P Levels


Pesti g m t s whiting l s jensen poultry science 62 490 1983
Pesti, G.M., T.S. Whiting & L.S. Jensen, Poultry Science 62:490 (1983)

  • Altering the form of the diet alters the carcass composition response to dietary energy






24% Protein

16% Protein


24% Protein

16% Protein


HMG-CoA reductase

  • REGULATES CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS

  • REGULATES FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS

  • IS COPPER SENSITIVE


Copper status
COPPER STATUS

CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS


Copper status1
COPPER STATUS

CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS

?



Other known effects of dietary copper
OTHER KNOWN EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER

  • COPPER ACCUMULATES IN BONES

  • SOFT PORK IN SWINE



Introduction
Introduction

  • A suitable combination of 1αOH-D3 (1A) and phytase in the diet could reduce requirements for both inorganic Ca and P sources

  • Implications:

    • Reduced P in excreta

    • Improved feed efficiency

    • Lower requirements of nutrients which interact with Ca and P


Objectives
Objectives

To determine:

  • The feasibility of replacing a portion of dietary Ca and P with a combination of phytase and 1A under commercial grow-out conditions

  • Which phase of production is more responsive to the combination of supplements (Starter or Grower/Finisher)


Objectives1
Objectives

To determine:

  • The feasibility of replacing a portion of dietary Ca and P with a combination of phytase and 1A under commercial grow-out conditions

  • Which phase of production is more responsive to the combination of supplements (Starter or Grower/Finisher)

  • The implications of Ca and P replacement in terms of carcass processing


Materials and methods
Materials and Methods

  • Ca & P deficient (mash) diets were mixed:

    • Starter phase

    • Grower/Finisher phase

  • Diets were mixed with and without:

    • 1000 FTU/kg Natuphos Phytase (P)

    • 5mg/kg 1a-OH-cholecalciferol (1A)

      P+ 1A

  • 5 Feeding Regimens were used



Feeding regimens1
Feeding Regimens

PENS = 4

PENS = 4

PENS = 4

PENS = 4

PENS = 8


Parameters measured
Parameters Measured

  • BWG, FI & FCR from 0 to 18 and 19 to 35 days

  • 10 birds were selected on days 18 and 35 and:

  • Left tibias were collected for % Tibia Ash determination

  • Right tibias were sliced and scored for incidence and severity of P & Ca rickets & TD


Parameters measured1
Parameters Measured

  • Tibias snapped during evisceration

  • Broken clavicles

  • Bloody breast muscles

  • Broken femurs


Results body weight gain 0 to 35 d
ResultsBody Weight Gain (0 to 35 d)

A

A

A

a

a

b

B

B

bc

c

a

a

a

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results fcr feed to gain ratio
ResultsFCR (feed to gain ratio)

a

b

b

b

c

A

AB

AB

AB

B

a

b

b

a

b

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results tibia ash at 18 35 d
Results% Tibia Ash at 18 & 35 d

a

a

a

a

b

c

cd

d

b

b

a

a

a

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results phosphorus rickets at 18 35 d
Results% Phosphorus Rickets at 18 & 35 d

a

b

c

c

c

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results broken tibias after evisceration
Results% Broken Tibias After Evisceration

a

ab

ab

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results broken clavicles after de boning
Results% Broken Clavicles After De-boning

a

a

a

ab

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results bloody pectoralis minor after de boning
Results% Bloody Pectoralis Minor After De-boning

a

a

ab

ab

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results broken femurs after de boning
Results% Broken Femurs After De-boning

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • The P+1A combination was required only during the Starter Phase to optimize BWG and FCR and eliminate bone disease

  • Feeding P+1A at the very low levels of dietary Ca and P used was not sufficient to obtain maximum bone ash or prevent allbones from breaking during processing


Implications
Implications

  • The combination of 1A and Phytase is a very promising alternative to inorganic Ca and P sources.

  • The value of both supplements depends upon their price and availability as well as dietary levels of Ca and P and Phytin P

  • Future testing should be conducted to determine how much dietary Ca and P can be replaced by the combination of these two supplements


Summary
SUMMARY

  • CARCASS LEAN MEAT YIELD IS RELATD TO

    • CARCASS LIPID LEVELS

    • PROTEIN LEVEL

    • ENERGY LEVEL

    • FEED FORM

  • IF ENERGY BECOMES SCARCE & PROTEIN ABUNDANT, THE PROBLEM OF FAT CARCASSES MAY TAKE CARE OF ITSELF


Summary1
SUMMARY

  • CARCASS LIPID PROFILES CAN BE EASILY INFLUENCED:

    • DIETARY FATTY ACIDS

    • FEEDING PHARMACOLOGICAL LEVELS OF CU

  • DIETARY MINERALS ARE BECOMING VERY EXPENSIVE

    • REMEMBER TO EVALUATE CARCASSES WHENEVER EVALUATING MINERAL LEVELS


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