The impact of nutriton on carcass quality
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THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY. GENE PESTI 1 & JOHN DRIVER 2 1 UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 2 JACKSON LABORATORY USA. THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY. PROTEIN & ENERGY ON CARCASS LEAN & FAT INEXPENSIVE DIETS -> FAT CARCASSES DIETARY CU LEVELS CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN MEAT

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THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY

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The impact of nutriton on carcass quality

THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY

GENE PESTI1 & JOHN DRIVER2

1UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA

2JACKSON LABORATORY

USA


The impact of nutriton on carcass quality1

THE IMPACT OF NUTRITON ON CARCASS QUALITY

  • PROTEIN & ENERGY ON CARCASS LEAN & FAT

    • INEXPENSIVE DIETS -> FAT CARCASSES

  • DIETARY CU LEVELS

    • CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN MEAT

  • CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS

    • MARGINAL LEVELS -> BROKEN BONES & BRUISES


From donaldson et al 1956

From Donaldson et al., 1956


From donaldson et al 19561

From Donaldson et al., 1956


From donaldson et al 19562

From Donaldson et al., 1956

  • Growth Not Related to C/P Ratio

  • No “Optimums” Evident


From donaldson et al 19563

From Donaldson et al., 1956

  • Carcass Composition fits C/P Ratio Well

  • No “Optimums” Evident


From donaldson et al 19564

From Donaldson et al., 1956

  • Carcass Composition Related to C/P Ratio

  • Carcass Composition Related to C & P Levels


Pesti g m t s whiting l s jensen poultry science 62 490 1983

Pesti, G.M., T.S. Whiting & L.S. Jensen, Poultry Science 62:490 (1983)

  • Altering the form of the diet alters the carcass composition response to dietary energy


Data of m l grisoni inra 1991

Data of M.-L. Grisoni (INRA, 1991)


Data of m l grisoni inra 19911

Data of M.-L. Grisoni (INRA, 1991)


Data of m l grisoni inra 19912

Data of M.-L. Grisoni (INRA, 1991)


Data of m l grisoni inra 19913

Data of M.-L. Grisoni (INRA, 1991)


The impact of nutriton on carcass quality

24% Protein

16% Protein


The impact of nutriton on carcass quality

24% Protein

16% Protein


The impact of nutriton on carcass quality

HMG-CoA reductase

  • REGULATES CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS

  • REGULATES FATTY ACID SYNTHESIS

  • IS COPPER SENSITIVE


Copper status

COPPER STATUS

CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS


Copper status1

COPPER STATUS

CHOLESTEROL SYNTHESIS

?


Johnson m a 1986 j nutrition 116 802

Johnson, M.A., 1986. J. Nutrition 116:802


Other known effects of dietary copper

OTHER KNOWN EFFECTS OF DIETARY COPPER

  • COPPER ACCUMULATES IN BONES

  • SOFT PORK IN SWINE


The impact of nutriton on carcass quality

  • DIETARY CALCIUM & PHOSPHORUS AND CARCASS QUALITY

  • P IS EXPENSIVE

  • POTENTIAL POLLUTANT

  • NUTRITIONISTS MINIMIZE USE

  • Ca IS INEXPENSIVE

  • DECREASES FAT ABSORPTION

  • NUTRITIONISTS MINIMIZE USE


Introduction

Introduction

  • A suitable combination of 1αOH-D3 (1A) and phytase in the diet could reduce requirements for both inorganic Ca and P sources

  • Implications:

    • Reduced P in excreta

    • Improved feed efficiency

    • Lower requirements of nutrients which interact with Ca and P


Objectives

Objectives

To determine:

  • The feasibility of replacing a portion of dietary Ca and P with a combination of phytase and 1A under commercial grow-out conditions

  • Which phase of production is more responsive to the combination of supplements (Starter or Grower/Finisher)


Objectives1

Objectives

To determine:

  • The feasibility of replacing a portion of dietary Ca and P with a combination of phytase and 1A under commercial grow-out conditions

  • Which phase of production is more responsive to the combination of supplements (Starter or Grower/Finisher)

  • The implications of Ca and P replacement in terms of carcass processing


Materials and methods

Materials and Methods

  • Ca & P deficient (mash) diets were mixed:

    • Starter phase

    • Grower/Finisher phase

  • Diets were mixed with and without:

    • 1000 FTU/kg Natuphos Phytase (P)

    • 5mg/kg 1a-OH-cholecalciferol (1A)

      P+ 1A

  • 5 Feeding Regimens were used


Feeding regimens

Feeding Regimens


Feeding regimens1

Feeding Regimens

PENS = 4

PENS = 4

PENS = 4

PENS = 4

PENS = 8


Parameters measured

Parameters Measured

  • BWG, FI & FCR from 0 to 18 and 19 to 35 days

  • 10 birds were selected on days 18 and 35 and:

  • Left tibias were collected for % Tibia Ash determination

  • Right tibias were sliced and scored for incidence and severity of P & Ca rickets & TD


Parameters measured1

Parameters Measured

  • Tibias snapped during evisceration

  • Broken clavicles

  • Bloody breast muscles

  • Broken femurs


Results body weight gain 0 to 35 d

ResultsBody Weight Gain (0 to 35 d)

A

A

A

a

a

b

B

B

bc

c

a

a

a

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results fcr feed to gain ratio

ResultsFCR (feed to gain ratio)

a

b

b

b

c

A

AB

AB

AB

B

a

b

b

a

b

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results tibia ash at 18 35 d

Results% Tibia Ash at 18 & 35 d

a

a

a

a

b

c

cd

d

b

b

a

a

a

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results phosphorus rickets at 18 35 d

Results% Phosphorus Rickets at 18 & 35 d

a

b

c

c

c

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results broken tibias after evisceration

Results% Broken Tibias After Evisceration

a

ab

ab

b

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results broken clavicles after de boning

Results% Broken Clavicles After De-boning

a

a

a

ab

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results bloody pectoralis minor after de boning

Results% Bloody Pectoralis Minor After De-boning

a

a

ab

ab

b

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Results broken femurs after de boning

Results% Broken Femurs After De-boning

0 to 18 d →

19 to 35 d →


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • The P+1A combination was required only during the Starter Phase to optimize BWG and FCR and eliminate bone disease

  • Feeding P+1A at the very low levels of dietary Ca and P used was not sufficient to obtain maximum bone ash or prevent allbones from breaking during processing


Implications

Implications

  • The combination of 1A and Phytase is a very promising alternative to inorganic Ca and P sources.

  • The value of both supplements depends upon their price and availability as well as dietary levels of Ca and P and Phytin P

  • Future testing should be conducted to determine how much dietary Ca and P can be replaced by the combination of these two supplements


Summary

SUMMARY

  • CARCASS LEAN MEAT YIELD IS RELATD TO

    • CARCASS LIPID LEVELS

    • PROTEIN LEVEL

    • ENERGY LEVEL

    • FEED FORM

  • IF ENERGY BECOMES SCARCE & PROTEIN ABUNDANT, THE PROBLEM OF FAT CARCASSES MAY TAKE CARE OF ITSELF


Summary1

SUMMARY

  • CARCASS LIPID PROFILES CAN BE EASILY INFLUENCED:

    • DIETARY FATTY ACIDS

    • FEEDING PHARMACOLOGICAL LEVELS OF CU

  • DIETARY MINERALS ARE BECOMING VERY EXPENSIVE

    • REMEMBER TO EVALUATE CARCASSES WHENEVER EVALUATING MINERAL LEVELS


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