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Problem-Based Learning. Presented by STEVE COXON Most slides in this presentation were originally created by Janice Robbins , Ph.D. and Kimberly Chandler, Ph.D. Curriculum Framework. Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM). Process-Product Dimension. Advanced Content Dimension.

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Problem based learning l.jpg

Problem-Based Learning

Presented by

STEVE COXON

Most slides in this presentation were originally created by

Janice Robbins, Ph.D.

and Kimberly Chandler, Ph.D.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May



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Integrated Curriculum Model (ICM)

Process-Product Dimension

Advanced

Content

Dimension

Issues/Themes Dimension

(VanTassel-Baska, 1986)

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009



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Science Curriculum Framework of William and May

The Problem

Concept

Process

Understanding

“Systems” or “Change”

Using and Conducting Scientific Research

Content

Learning Science

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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THE LEARNER of William and May

Precocity

Intensity

Complexity

THE CURRICULUM

Advanced Content

Process/product depth considerations

Issues/concepts/themes/

ideas across domains of learning

Learner Characteristics and Corresponding Emphases in the Curriculum

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Learner Characteristics and Corresponding Emphases in the Curriculum

THE LEARNER

Precocity

(Advanced development in some

curricular area)

Intensity

(Capacity to focus and

concentrate for long periods of time)

Complexity

(Can engage in high level

and abstract thinking)

THE CURRICULUM

Advanced content (Provides opportunities for new

learning)

Process/product depth considerations (Enhances

engagement and creative production; allows

utilization of information in a generative way )

Issues/concepts/themes/ideas across domains of

learning (Allows students to make connections

across areas of study and to work at a level of

deep understanding)


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Science curriculum and Problem-based Learning Curriculum

What teachers need to understand

What students need to do

PROBLEM-BASED LEARNINGPresent resolution

Reach consensus on problem resolution

CONCEPT OF SYSTEMS Seek new information as necessary

Redefine problem as necessary

UNIT CONTENT Design and conduct experiments

Find and analyze information

EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Apply systems concept to problem

Collaborate

Understand the concept of systems

Assume stake holder viewpoint

Define the problem

Active

Interplay

The

Problem

Adapted from Novak, J.D., & Gowin, G. B. (1984). Learning how to learn. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Opening example Curriculum


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Acid, Acid Problem CurriculumStatement

You are the supervisor of the day shift of the Virginia State Highway Patrol in Williamsburg, Virginia. It is 6:00 a.m. on a steamy June morning. You are awakened by the ringing phone. When you answer you are told, “Come to the Queen’s Creek overpass on eastbound Interstate 64. There has been a major accident and you are needed.”

Quickly you dress and hurry to the overpass. As you approach the bridge, you see an overturned truck that is completely blocking both eastbound lanes of the freeway. You see “CORROSIVE” on small signs on the side and rear of the truck. The truck has lost at least one wheel and is resting on the freeway guard rail. There is a large gash in the side of the truck; from this gash, a clear liquid is running down the side of the truck, onto the road, and down the hill into Queen’s Creek. Steam is rising from the creek. All traffic has been halted and everyone has been told to remain in their cars. Many of the motorists in the traffic jam appear to be angry and frustrated. Police officers, firemen, and rescue squad workers are at the scene. They are all wearing coveralls and masks. The rescue squad is putting the unconscious truck driver onto a stretcher. Everyone seems hurried and anxious.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Need to Know Board Curriculum

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Overview Curriculum


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What is PBL? Curriculum

Problem-based learning is an instructional strategy (a curricular framework) that, through student and community interests and motivation, provides an appropriate way to “teach” sophisticated content and high-level process… all while building self-efficacy, confidence, and autonomous learner behaviors.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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PBL is Curriculum

an instructional method that challenges students to "learn to learn," working cooperatively in groups to seek solutions to real world problems.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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History of PBL Curriculum

  • Medical school model (Barrows)

  • Used in both elementary and secondary classrooms with gifted students

  • Adapted for use with all learners

  • Used to educate school administrators

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Curriculum

  • engages students' curiosity and initiates learning the subject matter.

  • provides excellent opportunities for students to think critically and analytically, and to find and use appropriate learning resources

  • promotes autonomous learning

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Research on PBL Curriculum

  • Students show significant learning gains in experimental design through a PBL approach (VanTassel-Baska, et al. 2000)

  • Students show enhanced ‘real world’ skills with no loss in content knowledge as a result of using PBL (Gallagher & Stepein, 1996; Gallagher & Gallagher, 2003)

  • Students & teachers are motivated to learn using the PBL approach (VanTassel-Baska, 2000)

  • Students show enhanced higher order skill development using PBL over other approaches to teaching science (Dods,1997)

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Students should be given problems – at levels appropriate to their maturity – that require them to decide what evidence is relevant and to offer their own interpretations of what the evidence means. This puts a premium, just as science does, on careful observations and thoughtful analysis. Students need guidance, encouragement, and practice in collecting, sorting, and analyzing evidence, and in building arguments based on it. However, if such activities are not to be destructively boring, they must lead to some intellectually satisfying payoff that students care about.

-- from Science for All Americans, Project 2061

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Features of PBL to their maturity – that require them to decide what evidence is relevant and to offer their own interpretations of what the evidence means. This puts a premium, just as science does, on careful observations and thoughtful analysis. Students need guidance, encouragement, and practice in collecting, sorting, and analyzing evidence, and in building arguments based on it. However, if such activities are not to be destructively boring, they must lead to some intellectually satisfying payoff that students care about.

  • Learner-centered

  • Real world problem

  • Teacher as tutor or coach

  • Emphasis on collaborative teams

  • Employs metacognition

  • Uses alternative assessment

  • Embodies scientific process

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Roles to their maturity – that require them to decide what evidence is relevant and to offer their own interpretations of what the evidence means. This puts a premium, just as science does, on careful observations and thoughtful analysis. Students need guidance, encouragement, and practice in collecting, sorting, and analyzing evidence, and in building arguments based on it. However, if such activities are not to be destructively boring, they must lead to some intellectually satisfying payoff that students care about.

Teacher:

Present an ill-structured problem

Act as a metacognitive coach

Student:

Create a precise problem statement

Find information to solve the problem

Evaluate possible solutions

Create a final product

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Adaptations for gifted to their maturity – that require them to decide what evidence is relevant and to offer their own interpretations of what the evidence means. This puts a premium, just as science does, on careful observations and thoughtful analysis. Students need guidance, encouragement, and practice in collecting, sorting, and analyzing evidence, and in building arguments based on it. However, if such activities are not to be destructively boring, they must lead to some intellectually satisfying payoff that students care about.

Advanced content

Complex concepts

Interdisciplinary connections

Reasoning, habits of mind, and self-directed learning

Ethical discussions

(Gallagher, 2001)

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May




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Scientific Habits of Mind of William and May

Cognitive skills, affective skills, and attitudes:

Curiosity

Creativity

Objectivity

Openness to new ideas

Skepticism

Tolerance for ambiguity

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Self-Directed Learning… of William and MayGrasping Metacognition

Self-monitoring performance with an intent to self-assess

Recognizing gap in knowledge and set up learning agenda

Identifying learning resources:

print

human

technology-based

Identifying skills needed to use resources wisely and well

Sorting through information to determine needed information

Questioning appropriateness of personal biases

Applying information appropriately

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Problem Based Learning of William and May

State the problem

Decide what information you need

Conduct information quest

Complete scientific investigations

Review data & summarize findings

Communicate problem resolution

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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What’s an “Ill-Structured” Problem? of William and May

More information than initially is presented will be necessary to…

understand what’s going on.

know what caused it to be a problem.

know how to fix it.

There’s always more than one right way to figure it out.

Fixed formulas won’t work.

Each problem has unique components.

Each problem solver has unique characteristics, background, experience.

The definition of the problem shifts or changes as new information is gathered.

Ambiguity is a part of the environment throughout the process.

Data are often incomplete

…or in conflict

…or unavailable

but choices must be made, anyway.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Ill-Structured Problems of William and May

Ambiguous

No single “right” answer

Data is often incomplete

Definition of problem changes

Information needs change or grow

Stakeholders

Deadline for resolution

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Problem Diagnosis and of William and MaySolution Building

Ill-structured problem is presented

What is going on?

What do we know?

How can we find out?

Where does the information lead us?

Do we have enough information?

Is the information reliable?

What’s the problem?

Problem is represented

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Video of William and May

Problem-Based Learning: 3 Classrooms in Action (31 minutes)

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Macro-concept: Systems of William and May


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Macro-Concepts of William and May

  • Are broad

  • Reveal fundamental patterns within a content area

  • Allow for valid connections within a content area

  • Apply to several content areas

  • Disclose fundamental similarities and differences within and across disciplines

  • Draw the learner deeper into the subject matter, inspiring curiosity and interest

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Systems of William and May

A system is a collection of items or processes

that interact with each other to constitute a

meaningful whole.

All systems have

1) Elements

2) Boundaries

3) Interactions among elements to generate system behavior.

4) Many systems receive input and produce output.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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System Concept Outcomes of William and May

Students will be able to:

  • Describe the important elements of a system

  • Delineate the boundaries of a system

  • Describe input into the system

  • Describe output from the system

  • Identify elements, boundaries, input, output (and interactions) as parts of systems

  • Use the terms describing systems to identify the components of the system under study

  • Transfer knowledge about the system studied to other systems

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Elements of a System of William and May

Boundary: determines what is inside the system and what is outside the system

Elements: the parts that make up a system

Input: anything that goes into the system from outside the system

Output: anything that the system releases to the outside world

Interactions: the effects that parts of the system have on each other

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Analyzing a System of William and May

Boundaries

Elements

Inputs

Outputs

Interactions

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Interdisciplinary Applications of William and May

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009



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Science Units problem statements

What a Find!(gr. 2- 4)

Where’s the Beach (gr. 2- 4)

Acid, Acid Everywhere(gr. 4-6)

Electricity City(gr. 4-6)

Nuclear Energy Friend or Foe (gr. 6-8)

No Quick Fix(gr. 6-8)

Something Fishy (gr. 6-8)

Animal Populations(gr. 6-8)

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Anatomy of a PBL Unit problem statements

Curriculum framework: goals and outcomes

Set of 25 lesson plans: purpose, materials, activities, and questions

Assessment: problem logs, experimental design worksheets, lab report forms, final assessment

References

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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PBL Units problem statements

What a Find!

“What a Find!” is an exploration of the field of archaeology. Students are put in the role of a newly hired archaeologist who is contacted by a construction company crew that has just unearthed some artifacts. The construction company needs your input to determine what the next steps should be. Through the concept of systems, a simulation and scientific investigations of the archaeological processes, students will uncover a solution to the problem.

1999 Winner of a National Association for Gifted Children Curriculum Division Award for Outstanding Curriculum

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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What a Find! problem problem statements

You are a newly hired assistant at a small museum that has just opened in your hometown. It is your second day on the job when you learn that the museum’s archaeologist has resigned. Later that day, the museum receives a call from a local construction site. While digging to lay a foundation for a new school, a backhoe operator uncovered numerous artifacts. The construction company has stopped work while workers wait to hear what should be done next.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Units problem statements

Where’s the Beach?

Plans for building a children’s camp at the beach are on hold because the town council is worried about beach erosion.  Since the camp received a large donation to develop nature-themed experiences, designed to teach children how to protect the environment, the camp manager wants to cooperate with the council.  The problem is that she must begin construction quickly to be ready for the summer season.  Acting as members of the town council, the students must develop scientifically-based regulations that will satisfy the long-term needs of the town and the plans for the new camp.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Where’s the Beach? problem problem statements

Plans for building a children’s camp at the beach town of Dunesville are on hold because the town council is worried about beach erosion. Many towns in coastal areas have been experiencing problems with erosion over the past few years. The camp received a large donation to develop nature-themed experiences, designed to teach children how to protect the environment. The camp manager wants to cooperate with the council so that the environment is protected. The problem is that she must begin construction quickly to be ready for the summer season. You are members of the town council. You must come up with scientifically based regulations that will satisfy the long-term needs of the town and the plans for the new camp.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Units problem statements

Acid, Acid Everywhere

This unit presents the structure of systems through chemistry, ecological habitats, and transportation. The unit poses an ill-structured problem that leads students into an interdisciplinary inquiry about the structure and interaction of several systems, centering around the study of an acid spill on a local highway.

1997 Winner of a National Association for Gifted Children Curriculum Division Award for Outstanding Curriculum

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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PBL Units problem statements

Electricity City

This unit provides an interdisciplinary approach to introducing students to electricity. In this simulated activity, a large recreational complex is being built in the middle of a city, and the students' role is to plan the site's electrical needs, as well as create additional backup plans. This "real world" problem requires students to analyze the situation, determine what type of research is needed, conduct experiments, and evaluate solutions.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Electricity City problem problem statements

You are a newly hired employee for the local power company. Your first assignment after completing the company’s orientation program is to work as part of a team that has been asked to design a recreational complex in the center of town. This project is backed by both federal and state funding. Your role is to ensure that the power (electricity) requirements are planned appropriately and are adequate for the new complex. The complex will serve the needs of all community groups including senior citizens and special needs individuals. You must also design a comprehensive backup plan for the complex. Your training in college stressed city management and planning, not electricity.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Units problem statements

Nuclear Energy: Friend or Foe?

This unit explores the effects of nuclear power waste. The topic is introduced through the eyes of a mayor of a town where a nuclear power plant is located. She must decide if the facility can expand its waste disposal techniques. What are the biological implications of radiation? What are the trade-offs with which society must live as we accept nuclear technologies into our lives? These questions are explored by students as they prepare to make recommendations about the use of the nuclear power plant in their fictitious town.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Nuclear Energy problem problem statements

Your name is Christine Barrett, and you are the mayor of the town of Riverton. You have a nice home on the Back River with your husband Richard, a middle-school teacher for the Riverton School District, and six-year-old son Ellis, now entering the first grade. Your job as mayor has been rough at times, but you still enjoy it. The aspect of the town that has been giving you the most grief recently has been the Maple Island Nuclear Power Plant, the largest industry in Riverton. It produces power for not only Riverton but nearly half of the state also. Yesterday, you received a letter from your long-time friend, Jerry Brown, Vice President of Waste Management for the Maple Island Nuclear Power Plant. He was writing regarding a suggested plan for expanding the waste disposal pools at the plant to accommodate the growing number of used power assemblies. Today you receive a letter from CAFSE (Citizens Action for a Safe Environment) adamantly opposing not only the expansion of the power plant but also the fact that the plant is operating at all. An open discussion on the proposed expansion has already been slated for next month’s town council meeting. You have only five weeks to garner support for whatever position you take.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Units problem statements

No Quick Fix

This unit uses systems as the fundamental concept to help students understand cell and tuberculosis biology. In a series of widening concentric circles, students learn that the cells are elements in larger systems, such as the immune system of the human body. Students also interact with human social systems, including health care and public education. Students take on the role of physician and begin to search for the cause and resolution of the problem. While unraveling the interactions among various systems, students can appreciate the complexities of staying healthy in the modern world.


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No Quick Fix problem problem statements

You are Dr. Susan Ostrovsky. You have been trained as a physician, and also have a master’s degree in public health. You did your residency in infectious diseases and are now on staff at the Eastbridge Public Health Department. This morning, you received the following e-mail message from your boss, who is away at an important training program in Washington, D.C.

Susan: Dr. Johnston called yesterday afternoon to inform us that one of his patients, a 15-year-old boy, has been confirmed as having active tuberculosis. The boy had a positive tuberculin test two weeks ago. A sputum smear was positive for acid-fast bacilli. Dr. Johnston has referred the patient to Dr. Goldstein at University Hospital for treatment. Please follow up on this as soon as possible. The patient is a student at Eastbridge High School. As you know, the school is terribly overcrowded and the potential for a serious outcome is great. I need an action plan from you by tomorrow morning. Please fax it to me at my hotel in Washington D.C. The training lasts another three weeks, so I’ll need daily updates from you until I get back.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Units problem statements

Animal Populations

This curriculum unit integrates population biology and mathematics. The ill-structured problem puts students in the stakeholder role of assistant to the mayor of a small town in which residents are demanding that something be done about the deer that are eating their landscaped plants. Throughout the unit, students deal with physical models, conceptual models, and mathematical models as they tackle the deer problem and the complication of Lyme Disease.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Animal Populations problem problem statements

Chris, I’m not going to be able to make it home tonight after all—sorry! The evening conference session will be much more interesting than I had thought and so I’m going to be staying at Sue’s house tonight rather than coming all the way home. Could you please pick up some Chinese food on you way home and get the kids from daycare? Oh, and the babysitter left a message this morning that Josh has a funny rash on his tummy. I hope it isn’t serious—Dr. Martin’s office will be closed until after Memorial Dat. Could you take a look at it and see what you think? Love, Marie

P.S. Here’s what the babysitter said: Josh has a large, red swelling right next to his navel. He says that he had what looked like a bug bite there last week; since it didn’t itch or hurt, he didn’t worry about it. Yesterday night he thought it looked bigger; now it’s almost an inch in diameter. It’s really weird looking: It looks like a red ring with a white center. It looks as though there was a bug bite in the very center of the swelling. It still doesn’t itch or hurt, but he’s pretty upset about it.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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PBL Units problem statements

Something Fishy

This unit poses an ill-structured problem that will lead students into an interdisciplinary study about several individual systems and their interactions.  The content of the unit focuses on the various systems involved in the pollution of a local body of water:  the aquatic ecosystem, chemical reaction systems, government systems, and economic systems.  Students are challenged to grapple with real world concerns and develop recommendations through simulation activities based on the scientific process.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009



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Wheel of Problem Based Learning problem statements

  • Learn about the problem

  • Assume roles

  • Define stakeholders

  • Identify what you know

  • Prepare final product

  • Identify what you need to know

  • Decide on the best way to communicate findings and recommendations

State the Problem

  • Develop a plan to find information and current research

Develop

Need-to-Know

Board

Communicate Problem Resolution

Problem

Based

Learning

  • Organize and analyze data

Review and Summarize Findings

Conduct Information Quest

  • Use varied approaches

  • Make inferences

Conduct specific Investigations

  • Use multiple data sources

  • Draw conclusions

  • Redefine the problem

  • Identify a solution/resolution

  • Select specific inquiry questions.

  • Use methodology of discipline.

  • Collect data.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May

Robbins, 2008


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Blackout article problem statements

  • From Electricity City

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Need to Know Board problem statements

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Elements of Reasoning problem statements

Purpose/

Goal

Point of

View

Assumptions

Evidence/

Data

Issue/

Problem

Inferences

Concepts/

Ideas

Implications/

Consequences

-- Paul, 1992

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Reasoning Explanation problem statements

Purpose/Goal: What is the purpose of the specific issue, event or problem?

Problem/Issue: What is the specific problem to be addressed or solved?

Points of View: What is the perspective of the different groups? How does that impact the issue or problem?

Experiences, Data, Evidence: How is the point of view supported?

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Reasoning Explanation problem statements

Concepts and Ideas: What are the key ideas or concepts that are presented and how can our thoughts be organized around those concepts or ideas?

Assumptions: What is taken for granted in the situation, issue, data, or problem?

Inferences: What small leaps or connections can be made based on our assumptions and varied points of view?

Implications and Consequences: What are the if…then… statements or consequences of a specific action or event?

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Why a Stakeholder? problem statements

Real world problem solvers are not objective or all-seeing.

Helps students think about the effects of bias in problem-solving

Increases ownership in the process

Increases sense of professionalism

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Reasoning about a Situation or Event problem statements

What is the situation?

Who are the

stakeholders?

What is the point

of view for each

stakeholder?

What are the

assumptions of

each group?

What are the

implications of

these views?

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Experimentation problem statements


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Problem Log Questions problem statements

1. If you had a sample of the acid from the spill, how could you neutralize it?

2. If you had a sample of the acid from the spill and knew how much acid there was in the whole spill, how could you figure out how much base you would need to neutralize the whole spill?

3. What did you notice about the temperature of the solution of acid as you added more base to it? Would adding base to the spill in order to neutralize it have any side effects?

4. Draw a picture of your experimental setup. Label its boundaries and its elements. List input you put into your experimental system and output that came out of it. What interactions inside the system allowed it to produce output? Were they interactions between the original system elements or interactions with input you added?

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Student Brainstorming Worksheet problem statements

1. What do we need to find out? (What is the scientific problem?)

2. What material do we have available?

3. How can we use these materials to help us find out?

4. What do we think will happen? (What is our hypothesis?)

5. What will we need to observe or measure in order to find out the answer to our scientific question?

Adapted from: Cothron, J. G., Giese, R. N., & Rezba, R.J. (1989). Students and research. IA: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co.

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Experimental design in problem statementsAcid, Acid Everywhere

  • As in scientific research, starts with a real-world question, such as “how can we neutralize an acid spill on the highway?”

  • Guided by metacognitive tools supplied by the teacher

  • Students experience the full scientific process

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Experimental Design Components problem statements

  • Independent variable: manipulated (x-axis) variable that is purposefully changed by the experimenter.

  • Dependent variable(s): responding (y-axis) variable that may be affected by the independent variable.

  • Hypothesis: A prediction about the relationship between variables that can be tested.

  • Constants: all factors that remain the same and have a fixed value.

  • Control: the standard for comparing experimental effects.

  • Repeated trials: the number of experimental repetitions, objects, or organisms tested at each level of the independent variable.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Demonstration vs. Experimentation problem statements

Useful in illustrating a concept/idea

Serves as a springboard for further experimentation

Integral part of experiencing science

Forum for student inquiry

Addresses higher order thinking skills

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Student Experiment Guide problem statements

Practical Questions

Is the proposed experiment feasible?

What materials will we need?

How can we use these materials to help us find out?

Can we do the proposed experiment given what we have?

Which experimental approach is best, given the time and materials?

Planning Questions

How can we be sure that our experiment is giving us the right answer?

What do we need to change to get our answer and why?

What has to stay the same during our experiment and why?

What data need to be collected and why?

How can we make sure we don’t accidentally foul up the experiment?

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Experimental Protocol problem statements

Provides structure for the process of detailing the planned materials, methods, and data to be collected:

Title of Experiment

Hypothesis (Educated guess about what will happen):

Independent Variable (The variable that responds to changes in the independent variable):

Observations/Measurements to Make:

Constants (All the things or factors that remain the same):

Control (The standard for comparing experimental effects):

List the materials you will need.

Write a step-by-step description of what you will do (like a recipe!). List every action you will take during the experiment.

What data will you be collecting?

Design a data table to collect and analyze your information.

Write conclusions.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Student Experiment problem statementsReport

Title of Experiment:

Hypothesis (Educated guess about what will happen):

Independent Variable (The variable that responds to changes in the independent variable):

Observations/Measurements to Make:

Constants (All the things or factors that remain the same):

Control (The standard for comparing experimental effects):

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Your Turn problem statements

  • Do the activities in each station to become familiar with the materials.

  • Develop a testable question about the materials you are given.

  • Design and conduct an experiment in order to answer the question.

  • Experimental design handout


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Evaluation problem statements


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Create your own PBL problem statements


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Writing Real World Problems problem statements

  • Ill-structured (incomplete information)

  • Ambiguous (information given may be interpreted in many ways)

  • Identify or infer stakeholders (students as professionals)

  • Require multiple resources to tackle.

  • Deadline or sense of urgency present.

  • Multi-disciplinary emphasis (science-math-society- connection)

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Writing a New Problem Episode problem statements

  • Decide on content orientation for problem

  • Choose concept for problem

  • Look for problem idea (newspapers, situations in literature, magazines, textbooks, TV,

    curriculum guides, public radio, personal experiences)

  • Draft a problem statement

  • Match to curriculum and instructional goals

  • Map the problem’s terrain

  • Investigate stakeholders (needs power and responsibility)

  • Consider availability of resources

  • Refine problem statement

  • Write outcomes/objectives and match to activities and assessments

  • Make flow chart of the lesson plans

Deer

Objectives

Activities

Assessment


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Tailoring A PBL problem statementsto Your Locale

  • Choosing a site

  • Identifying stakeholders

  • Collecting information

    • Government agencies

    • Education & research organization (colleges, museums, zoos)

    • Libraries

    • Advocacy groups

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Tailoring a Problem for Your Local Area problem statements

You are the supervisor of the day shift of the ___________________________. It is 6:00 a.m. on a steamy June morning. You are awakened by the ringing phone. When you answer you are told, “Come to the___________________________________. There has been a major accident and you are needed.”

Quickly you dress and hurry to the overpass. As you approach the bridge, you see an overturned truck that is completely blocking both eastbound lanes of the freeway. You see “CORROSIVE” on small signs on the side and rear of the truck. The truck has lost at least one wheel and is resting on the freeway guard rail. There is a large gash in the side of the truck; from this gash, a clear liquid is running down the side of the truck, onto the road, and down the hill into____________. Steam is rising from the ____________. All traffic has been halted and everyone has been told to remain in their cars. Many of the motorists in the traffic jam appear to be angry and frustrated. Police officers, firemen, and rescue squad workers are at the scene. They are all wearing coveralls and masks. The rescue squad is putting the unconscious truck driver onto a stretcher. Everyone seems hurried and anxious.

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary, 2009


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Assessment overview problem statements


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ASSESSMENT problem statements

PortfolioPerformance-based

Pre & Post Science

Process Test

Problem Logs

Lab Reports

Embedded Activities

Experimental

Design Worksheets

Final Assessment

Final Content Concept/Scientific

Research Assessment

Unit-Specific Forms

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Options for Assessment problem statements

Final assessments should be authentic, related to an audience, and directly responding to the problem. These may include:

  • Final Oral Presentation

  • Written Reports

  • Portfolios

  • Dramatic Presentation

  • News Programs

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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Create a PBL rubric problem statements

The teacher may want to incorporate a rubric throughout the PBL process or related to a final product, including performance criteria and rating scales for each criteria. Criteria may be related to:

  • Organization

  • Presentation of problem

  • Clarity of solutions/resolutions

  • Quality of research

  • Evidence of reasoning

  • Communication to audience

Center for Gifted Education College of William and May


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STEVE COXON problem statementsContact Information

[email protected]

[email protected]

http://stevecoxon.com

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Center for Gifted Education problem statementsContact Information

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary

P.O. Box 8795

Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795

757-221-2362 (ph)

757-221-2184 (fax)

email: [email protected]

www.cfge.wm.edu

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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Kendall/Hunt Publishing problem statementsContact Information

Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company

4050 Westmark Drive

Dubuque, IA 52004-1840

Contact: Lisa Zenner

1-800-247-3458, ext. 4

email: [email protected]

www.kendallhunt.com

Center for Gifted Education

The College of William and Mary


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