GLOSS - The Global Sea Level Observing System
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GLOSS - The Global Sea Level Observing System. Global Level of the Sea Surface 1. Monitoring and Measuring Sea Level – Why and How? 2. The GLOSS Programme – Network and Activities 3. Sea Level Data. Thorkild Aarup, GLOSS Technical Secretary [email protected]

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Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

GLOSS - The Global Sea Level Observing System

Global Level of the Sea Surface

1. Monitoring and Measuring Sea Level – Why and How?

2. The GLOSS Programme – Network and Activities

3. Sea Level Data

Thorkild Aarup, GLOSS Technical Secretary

[email protected]

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

GLOSS - The Global Sea Level Observing System

  • Establishment of high quality global and regional sea level networks

  • for application to climate, oceanographic and coastal sea level

  • research

  • Sea level stations around the world for long term climate change

  • and oceanographic sea level monitoring

  • Coordinated by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission

  • (IOC)

  • Major contributor to IOC’s Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS)

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

Why Measure the Sea Level?

  • Scientific research – e.g. to measure long term changes in

  • global sea level and ocean circulation

  • Practical applications – e.g. to predict flood risks in coastal

  • regions

How to Monitor the Sea Level?

  • Satellite radar altimetry

  • Tide gauges

  • In the deep ocean: bottom pressures obtained from sea bed

  • devices

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

Measuring Sea Level Changes

Altimeter System

Bottom Pressure Gauge

Tide Gauge (float)

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

Why Tide Gauges

in the “Age of Altimetry”?

  • Principle of continuity, relative low cost of

  • gauges

  • Long records for secular trend/acceleration

  • studies (e.g. for input to IPCC)

  • Higher frequency sampling important in straits

  • and other areas

  • High latitude regions of ice coverage

  • Altimeter calibrations (‘absolute’ and ‘relative’)

  • Coastal applications (GOOS Coastal Module)

Acoustic Gauge in Australia

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

Sea-Level Changes

  • Different Time-Scales

  • Momentary changes due to tsunamis

  • Daily changes due to tides and surges

  • Seasonal changes

  • Interannual changes e.g. due to ENSO

  • Long term changes due to climate change

  • Causes of Sea Level Change

  • Local processes in river/coastal regimes

  • Ocean circulation changes

  • Regional and global climate changes

  • Geological processes

Maldives Int. Airport

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

Long Term Changes in Sea Level

  • Past 100 years

  • Most records show evidence for

  • rising sea levels during the past

  • century

  • IPCC concluded that there has

  • been a global rise of

  • approximately 10-20 cm

  • during the past 100 years

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

Long Term Changes in Sea Level

  • Next 100 years

  • a rise between 9 and 88 cm

  • a central value of 48 cm

  • a rate of approx. 2.2 - 4.4

  • times that of the past

  • 100 years

Projected sea level rise, IPCC 2001

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

The GLOSS Programme/Networks

  • GLOSS Core Network (GCN)

  • Regional Densifications

  • of the GCN

  • Long Term Trends (LLT)

  • Altimeter calibration

  • (GLOSS-ALT set)

  • Ocean Circulation

  • (GLOSS-OC set)

GLOSS Core Network (GCN) with approx. 280 stations

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

GLOSS Activities

  • Regional Developments

  • Regional networks of gauges with greater spatial density, to serve

  • the particularoceanographic interests of those regions - examples:

  • IOCARIBE (Caribbean), MedGLOSS (Mediterranean & Black Seas)

  • National Activities

  • Contribution to the activities ofnational agencies by improving the

  • standards forsea level recording around the world

  • Training

  • Annual training courses on the techniques of tide gaugeoperations,

  • and workshops on special interests e.g. measurements in

  • environmentally hostile areas

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

Responsibilities of GLOSS Data Providers

  • There are 3 responsibilities of GLOSS data providers:

  • Monthly and annual MSL data to PSMSL by 6 months after the data-year

  • Delayed-mode higher-frequency data (typically hourly values), quality controlled to one of the GLOSS centres (in practice PSMSL again or UHSLC) 4 months after recording

  • ‘Fast’ H-F data (not quality controlled) to GLOSS Fast Centre at UHSLC

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

GLOSS Data Availability

  • Data from GLOSS tide gauges

  • Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level

  • http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/

  • University of Hawaii Sea Level Center

  • http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/UHSLC/

  • National Tidal Facility (Australia) Southern Ocean Centre

  • http://www.ntf.flinders.edu.au

  • GLOSS sea level data and information on each gauge inthe GCN are also available from PSMSL on CD-ROM.

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


Pol ac uk psmsl programmes gloss html

GLOSS - The Global Sea Level Observing System

  • Documentation

  • July 1997: Second Implementation Plan for the GLOSS Program

  • IOC Manuals on Sea Level Measurement and Interpretation

  • (Manuals and Guides No. 14, 3 volumes)

  • Further Information

  • GLOSS Technical SecretaryPermanent Service for Mean Sea LevelIntergovernmental Oceanographic Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory

  • Commission (IOC), UNESCOemail: [email protected] email: [email protected]

http://www.pol.ac.uk/psmsl/programmes/gloss.info.html


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