Ecclesiastical history
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 50

Ecclesiastical History PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 67 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Ecclesiastical History. Mr. Christopher Smith, OP. What we’ll cover today. Ask some important questions: Why should we study the history of the Church? What can we learn by studying the history of the Church? Cover a basic timeline of the Church

Download Presentation

Ecclesiastical History

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Ecclesiastical history

Ecclesiastical History

Mr. Christopher Smith, OP


What we ll cover today

What we’ll cover today

  • Ask some important questions:

    • Why should we study the history of the Church?

    • What can we learn by studying the history of the Church?

  • Cover a basic timeline of the Church

  • Look at some of the various councils of the Church that have helped bring us to where we are today

  • Relate events in secular history to Church history and discuss some interplay between the two


Starting point

Starting point…

  • In meditating on what the Church in history has meant and what it means today, I arrived at one thought, one mystery – The Incarnation.

  • Who can tell me what the incarnation is?


The incarnation

The Incarnation

  • Simply put – it is God becoming man.

    • The Great “I AM” coming down and clothing himself in human flesh

  • Paul understood the significance of Christ’s incarnation and its historical significance.

  • “But when the fullness of time had come, God sent his Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to ransom those under the law, so that we might receive adoption. As proof that you are children, 4 God sent the spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying out, "Abba, Father!" So you are no longer a slave but a child, and if a child then also an heir, through God. (Gal 4:4-7)


The incarnation as a mark of our faith

The Incarnation as a mark of our Faith

  • Belief in the incarnation is the distinctive sign of the Christian Faith.

    • “This is how you can know the Spirit of God: every spirit that acknowledges Jesus Christ come in the flesh belongs to God” ( I John 4:2).

    • Without first merging together the historical fact (Jesus of Nazareth was in fact a real person in 1st century Palestine) with our profession of faith (Jesus was the Son of God sent to redeem the world), then everything done and said after that denial is pointless!

      • However, note that I didn’t say “meaningless”


The disciples drew that conclusion

The disciples drew that conclusion

  • The reason you and I are here today worshipping the way we do is as a result of the early believers drawing the conclusion that the man they knew (Jesus) was the Son of the God they worshipped (Yahweh)

  • Had they not done that, then Jesus simply would have gone down in “history” as another great man or teacher or at best a prophet.

  • That is why when meditating on what is basis of Church history, I arrived at the central mystery of our faith – the Incarnation

…the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us (Jn 1:8-9)


Open forum

Open Forum

  • Why should we study the history of the Church?

  • What can we learn by studying the history of the Church?


In the beginning

In the beginning…

  • Consider the historical surroundings of Jesus and the “Christians” of the first 50 years.

    • Everything in life has been conditioned by Greek culture

      • Buildings, government, popular religion (polytheism), etc.

      • Even the way people thought and reasoned were conditioned by the Greeks since they were considered to have all of the great philosophers like Socrates, Aristotle, and Plato

      • This Greek conditioning is what is know as “Hellenism”

        • Began ~350 BC with Alexander the Great

    • Romans take control of area ~25 years prior to Jesus being born (27 BC)

  • So, if you are disciple of Jesus, this is your situation…


Doesn t look so good

Doesn’t look so good

  • You’re part of a people that militarily has no power

  • You have no land to call your own and no King

  • You don’t even speak your native language anymore

  • Your religion (Judaism) is the scorn of the Kingdom

    • Even your scriptures are printed in Greek and not Hebrew

  • Most of your leaders are controlled by the secular rulers

  • All of you have to hold on to is a promise; a promise that God will be faithful and will send someone to rescue his chosen people

    • But, then you sigh and wonder sarcastically in disbelief , “how many centuries ago was that promise made?”


Ecclesiastical history

  • From the beginning, Christians were conscious of the their surroundings.

    • First century Christians had to explain to fellow Jews why they venerated a man executed by the Roman government

    • After a couple of decades when Christians stopped following Jewish Laws, they had to answer why they had abandoned their tradition

    • As Paul traveled and brought the message to the Gentiles, they brought him to Areopagus (outside Athens (Greece!)), he had to preach Christ to them (Acts 17).


Ecclesiastical history

  • Christianity initially started out as a movement within Judaism, but as it grew, others (non-Jews) began to join as it moved into Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, Greece, and Roman Africa.

  • For non-Jewish people to join, it meant for them the same thing it meant for Jews: an abandoning of a way of live practiced for years, many generations back.

  • Christians seemed to have no regard for history or tradition since they abandoned all of it to worship a man who had only recently lived and subsequently died.


Okay ready for the highlights

Okay…Ready for the Highlights??


First century

First Century

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • 0 – Jesus is born!

    • No, not really the year 0, probably more like 2 BC

  • 26 – Pontius Pilate becomes governor of Judea

  • 27 – Jesus is Baptized (Mt 3:13)

    • This could have been as late as 29

  • 28 – Herod Antipas beheads John the Baptist (Mk 6:17)

  • 30 – Jesus is crucified and Church in Jerusalem is born


First century1

First Century

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • 34 – St. Stephen is martyred (Acts 7:54)

  • 35 – Begin the Apostolic Age

    • Within the lifetime of Jesus original apostles.

  • 37 – Caligula becomes emperor (very anti-Jewish)

  • 40 – Disciples are first called Christians in Antioch

    • (Acts 11:26)

  • 41 – Herod Agrippa becomes last King of Judea

  • 43 – Rome invades Britain (expansion of Roman Empire)


First century2

First Century

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • 44 – Apostle James is beheaded by Herod Agrippa

  • 47 – Paul’s first missionary journey

  • 48 – First council of the Church in Jerusalem

    • Do non-Jewish converts to Christianity have to meet Jewish laws, specifically, circumcision

    • Acts 15

  • 49 – Jews are expelled from Rome

  • 50 – Paul’s second missionary journey

  • 51 – Paul writes I Thessalonians

  • 53 – Paul’s third missionary journey

  • 54 – Nero becomes emperor


First century3

First Century

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • 57 – Paul in Greece (Acts 17)

  • 58 – Paul arrested in Jerusalem (Acts 21:27)

  • 60 – Paul appeals to Nero and is placed on house arrest

    • Apostle Andrew, brother of Peter is killed

  • 63 – Jewish renovation of Temple complete (started 80 years prior)

  • 64 – Rome burns and Nero blames Christians

  • 66 – Apostle Peter is crucified

    • Linus becomes Bishop of Rome (2nd Pope)

    • First Jewish War begins


First century4

First Century

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • 67 – Apostle Paul is martyred (beheaded in Rome)

  • 69 – Ignatius becomes Bishop of Antioch

    • Modern day Syria

  • 70 – Begin the “Sub-apostolic” period

    • Time immediately after the death of all the apostles; now the people they mentored are in charge of the church

  • 75 – Christians begin to be expelled from Jewish synagogues

    • Synoptic Gospels are finished (MT, MK, LK)


First century5

First Century

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • ~79 Anacletus becomes Bishop of Rome (3rd Pope)

    • Eruption of Mount Vesuvius destroys Pompeii

    • Colosseum is completed in Rome

  • 85 – Roman conquest of Britain is complete (began in 43)

  • 90 – Gospel of John is complete

  • 95 – Roman Emperor Domitian declares Christianity to be an “atheistic” religion

    • Eucharist is now being celebrated almost exclusively on Sunday


First century6

First Century

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

  • 96 – The Sanctus is written (Holy, Holy, Holy)

  • 97 – Timothy, disciple of Paul is killed

  • 100 – Justin Martyr is born

    • One of the earliest and arguably best Christian apologists in the history of the Church

    • Before converting, he was extensively trained in Greek logic and philosophy, making him an expert at formulating an idea/argument; esp. in a manner that learned men of the day could understand (basically, he spoke their language)


Second century

Second Century

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

  • 105 – The term “Catholic” is applied to the Church in St. Ignatius Letter to the Smymaeans

  • 110 – Old Roman Creed (precursor to Apostle’s Creed)

  • 128 – Gloria in Excelsis Deo is now required at Mass

  • 130 – Justin Martyr converts

  • 132 – Second Jewish War

  • 135 – Begin the Patristic Period (Ante-Nicene Fathers)

    • Second fall of Jerusalem; begin Jewish Diaspora

  • 147 – Public opinion about Christianity poor because they refuse to participate in cult sacrifice

  • 155 – Justin Martyr writes his First Apology, reconciling faith and reason.


Second century1

Second Century

100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200

  • 165 – Justin Martyr dies. Shrines to Peter and Paul are erected in Rome

  • 177 – Christianity is introduced to Britain

  • 180 – Church is established in North Africa (MAP)

  • 194 – List of available New Testament Scriptures

  • 195 – Three fold hierarchy of bishop, presbyter, and deacon is wide-spread

  • 200 – Process for selection of canonical NT scriptures is almost complete


Third century

Third Century

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

  • 210 – Festival to celebrate Christ’s resurrection is an all night event (pre-cursor to Easter Vigil)

  • 215 – Practice of Infant Baptism is common

    • Grace is said before and after meals

    • Clement of Alexandria says fish is a Christian Symbol

  • 220 - Chinese Han Dynasty ends after ~400 years

  • 235 – Roman Empire under barbarian attack; people turn on old gods and convert to Christianity

  • 245 – N. Africa church has 90 bishops

  • 248 – Barbarians attack Rome

  • 249 – Roman Emperor declares all citizens must sacrifice to Roman gods; those who do not are martyred


Third century1

Third Century

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

  • 250 – Pope Fabian makes it mandatory for Christians to receive Eucharist 3x per year (Christmas, Easter, Pentecost)

    • First know hermit (Paul of Thebes)

    • Infant baptism is now normative

  • 253 – Church in Rome begins shift from Greek to Latin

  • 257 – Valerianic Persecution – Christians are no longer allowed to gather and all their property is confiscated

    • Valerian dies in 259 and there is a huge growth in Church

  • 268 – Collegial Authority – belief that when acting together the bishops form a body greater than an individual

  • 283 – Clerical celibacy – common and preferred but not mandatory


Third century2

Third Century

200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300

  • 284 – Diocletian becomes Roman Emperor

    • Diocletian reforms: to promote stability, he centers all state power on the emperor as a semi-divine being

  • 298 – Christians in Roman Army are forced to resign

  • 300 – Christians confess their sins to a bishop instead of public confession

    • Rome has more than 40 churches in city limits


Fourth century

Fourth Century

300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400

  • 303 – Diocletian Persecution also known as Great Persecution. Most extensive repression of Christianity

  • 306 – Christ’s nativity begins to be celebrated on winter solstice

  • 313 – Edict of Milan (Constantine the Great) gives equal toleration for all religions

    • 321 – Sunday becomes official “day of rest” for empire

  • 324 – Constantine reunites Roman Empire and becomes Emperor

  • 325 – Council of Nicea

    • Arianism – Denies the Father and Son are one

    • Drafts the Nicene Creed

    • Defines date for Easter


Fourth century1

Fourth Century

300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400

  • 325 – Lent becomes a 40 day fast and preparation period

  • 326 – Constantine builds the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem

    • _Period of Post-Nicene Fathers begins

  • 350 – Cyril of Jerusalem describes the lavabo (priest washing his fingers) as the symbol for purity of the soul

    • Feast of the Purification of the BVM

  • 361 – Feast of the Epiphany

    • Manifestation of Christ

  • 373 – Feast of All Saint’s Day

    • Athanasius teaches BVM remained virgin after birth of XP

  • 375 – Assumption of BVM is taught


Fourth century2

Fourth Century

300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400

  • 381 – Council of Constantinople – affirms the divinity of the Holy Spirit along with Father and Son

    • Formulated Creed we say in Mass today

  • 386 – Augustine of Hippo converts to Catholicism

    • 391 Ordained a priest

    • 395 becomes Bishop of Hippo

  • 390 – Canon of the Mass takes on the form used in the modern church

  • 392 – Observance of Good Friday

  • 393 – Synod of Hippo

    • Eucharistic fast, Maundy Thursday, list of books in NT

  • 395 – Roman Empire is divided permanently into E & W


Fifth century

Fifth Century

400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500

  • 410 – Bishops begin to fall into secular administrator roles since division/collapse of Roman Empire

  • 420 – Augustine and Jerome recommend striking of breast during confession of sin

  • 430 – Augustine of Hippo dies

  • 431 – 1st Council of Ephesus

    • Declares Mary to be Theotokos – Mother of God

    • St. Patrick begins mission to Ireland

  • 451 – Council of Chalcedon

    • First systematic work on the doctrine of the Incarnation

  • 452 – Begin period of Early Medieval Church

    • Pope Leo convinces Attila the Hun not to invade Rome


Fifth century1

Fifth Century

400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500

  • 460 – Confirmation begins to be separate rite apart from baptism

  • 476 – “Fall of Roman Empire” – imperial office is left vacant

    • Beginning of Early Middle Ages or “Dark Ages”

  • 485 – Greek language becoming less common in west

  • 492 – Title “Vicar of Christ”

    • Inherited title. The Pope has responsibility for the Church


Sixth century

Sixth Century

500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600

  • 514 – Lamb of God sung before communion

  • 525 – Dionysius Exiguus affixes Christ’s birth to Dec 25

    • Begins using BC and AD (12 Days of Christmas)

  • 540 – Benedictines begin wearing the scapular, which signifies the Yoke of Christ (cf. Mt. 11:30)

  • 550 – Bodily assumption of BVM is normative

  • 561 – Council of Braga condemns suicide and prevents person committing such an act a Christian burial

  • 570 – Muhammad, founder of Islam is born in Mecca

  • 589 – Council of Toledo. (Filoque Clause)

    • “Spirit proceeds from the Father and Son”

    • Finalizes the Creed as seen in Modern Church


Sixth century1

Sixth Century

500 510 520 530 540 550 560 570 580 590 600

  • 589 – Population of Rome cut in half due to flooding

  • 593 – Pope Gregory the Great teaches the offering of the Eucharist for souls in purgatory will be to their benefit

  • 594 – Population in Europe cut in half by plague


Seventh century

Seventh Century

600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700

  • 614 – Persians destroy the Church of the Holy Sepulcher

    • Rebuilt in 626

  • 627 – Doctrine of Immaculate Conception of BVM is taught

  • 630 – Muhammad conquers Mecca

    • Dies in 632

  • 637 – Arab Muslims conquer Jerusalem

  • 651 – Canon of Koran is formalized

    • Arab Muslims conquer Persian Empire

  • 655 – St. Martin I dies. Last martyred Pope

  • 672 – Development of Gregorian Chant

  • 675 – Intinctio Panis, dipping body into the blood is forbidden at 3rd Council of Braga


Seventh century1

Seventh Century

600 610 620 630 640 650 660 670 680 690 700

  • 691 – Dome of the Rock is completed in Jerusalem (PIC)

  • 698 – Carthage falls to Islamic armies. Christianity begins a four century long suppression


Eighth century

Eighth Century

700 710 720 730 740 750 760 770 780 790 800

  • 705 – Feast of Annunciation of the BVM is universal

  • 731 – First known church organ is installed

  • 741 – All Saint’s Day is set as November 1st

  • 781 – Christianity reaches China

  • 787 – 2nd Council of Nicea

    • Icons can be venerated but not worshipped

    • Declares no church is to be consecrated w/o a relic

  • 800 – Pope Leo III crowns Charlemagne as the first Augustus of the Holy Roman Empire

    • Latin is the language of the Church and of all scholarship

    • Exultet sung during the Easter Vigil takes its modern form


Ninth century

Ninth Century

800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900

  • 814 – Charlemagne, first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, dies

  • 830 – Christianity in Sweden

  • 843 – Treaty of Verdun: splits the Holy Roman Empire among Charlemagne’s three grandsons

  • 846 – Arab Muslims sack Rome

  • 850 – Confirmation is taught to confer a distinct grace separate from baptismal grace; specifically the grace is the Holy Spirit to help one resist evil.

    • Feast of the Transfiguration of Christ

    • Custom of sprinkling the congregation w/ holy water

    • Custom of incensing the altar, celebrant, and people


Ninth century1

Ninth Century

800 810 820 830 840 850 860 870 880 890 900

  • 870 – Patriarch of Constantinople declares independence from Rome due to a disagreement over the Filoque clause (589).

  • 879 – Pope and Patriarch excommunicated one another.

Bartholomew Archbishop of Constantinople, New Rome and Ecumenical Patriarch and Pope John Paul II, Bishop of Rome (Vatican City, Nov 2004)


Tenth century

Tenth Century

900 910 920 930 940 950 960 970 980 990 1000

  • 950 – Miters are worn by Bishops

  • 962 – Pope John XII crowns Otto, King of Germany, as the Holy Roman Emperor, thus reinaugurating the Holy Roman Empire

  • 979 – Stained glass is becoming more common as process is refined

  • 989 – Christianity being spread through Russia

  • 993 – Earliest “official” canonization. Pope John XV declares Ulric, bishop of Augsburg a “Saint”

  • 998 – All Souls Day is established in France and is set for November 2nd. A day to remember all the faithful departed.


The next 1000 years in 8 slides

The next 1000 years (in 8 slides)

  • 1009 – Islamic Soldiers destroy Church of Holy Sepulcher

  • 1014 – Nicene Creed recited by all at Mass

  • 1030 – First formulations of the Hail Mary Prayer

  • 1050 – Church claims jurisdiction over marriage

  • 1054 – East/West Schism (a.k.a. The Great Schism)

    • Final break between Orthodox (Eastern) and Latin Rite (Western) Churches; all this is still related to Filoque clause and a few other theological differences

    • In 1965 both churches lifted the anathemas and excommunications placed against one another in 1054


Ecclesiastical history

  • 1073 – Title “Pope” is reserved for Bishop of Rome

  • 1074 – Clerical celibacy is mandated

  • 1095 – First Crusade begins (Pope Urban II)

    • 1099 Crusades capture Jerusalem (MAP)

  • 1125 – Different colors for different liturgical seasons

  • 1140 – Crusaders rebuild Church of Holy Sepulchre

  • 1175 – Use of Candles and elevation of Host

  • 1189 – Richard the Lionheart, King of England


Ecclesiastical history

  • 1202 – The rosary is devised

  • 1215 – 4th Lateran Council

    • Transubstantiation is declared dogma

    • Faithful must receive Eucharist once a year (Easter)

    • Modern system of private penance (reconciliation)

    • Seal of the confessional is binding

  • 1217 – 5th crusade and the last w/ Papal Authority

  • 1224 – Francis of Assisi manifests the stigmata

  • 1226 – Adoration of the Blessed Sacrament


Ecclesiastical history

  • 1231 – Inquisition begins.

  • 1272 – St. Thomas Aquinas begins work on ST

  • 1274 – 2nd council of Lyons establishes doctrine of Purgatory (as devised by Aquinas)

  • 1291 – End of the Crusades

  • 1347 – Beginning of “Black Death” kills nearly 1/3 of Europe

  • 1431 – Joan of Arc burned at the stake

  • 1453 – Constantinople falls to the Muslims


Ecclesiastical history

  • 1517 – Luther writes his 95 theses, protests the sale of indulgences

    • Beginning of Protestant Reformation!

    • 1518 – refuses to recant

    • 1520 – Luther excommunicated

    • 1527 – Lutheran reform in Sweden

    • 1528 – Protestant reform in Scotland

    • 1545 – Council of Trent begins, Catholic response to the reformation. Council has four sessions and ends 1563

  • 1611 – KJV Bible


Finishing up

Finishing up…

  • 1789 – French Revolution

  • 1790 – John Carroll of Baltimore, first US Bishop

  • 1791 – 1st Amendment (Separation of Church/State)

  • 1815 – Napoleon defeated at Waterloo

  • 1851 – Pope Pius IX promulgates the perpetual adoration devotion

  • 1869 – First Vatican Council (Papal Infallibility)

  • 1914 – WWI begins

  • 1922 – USSR formerly recognized


Ecclesiastical history

  • 1929 – Italy and Vatican conclude Lateran Treaty which established Vatican as own City-State

  • 1939 – WWII begins

  • 1950 – Pope Pius XII declares the doctrine of the Assumption

  • 1962 – Vatican II begins

  • 1965 – Vatican II closes

  • 1967 – Charismatic Renewal begins

  • 1968 – Pope Paul VI published Humanae Vitae prohibiting artificial birth control


Ecclesiastical history

  • 1973 – US Supreme Court legalizes abortion

  • 1984 – US seminarians is 12,000 (47,500 in 1964)

  • 1994 – CCC published. First universal catechism in over four centuries

  • 1998 – President Bill Clinton, 2nd president to be impeached

  • October 16, 2003 – JP II has 4th longest pontificate in history (24 Years, 7 months, 20 days)

    • Upon his death, he was up to 3rd at 26 years, 5 months, 17 days only Pius IX (31 years 7 months) and St. Peter (37 Years) are longer

  • April 19, 2005 – Benedict XVI becomes 265th Pontiff


Ecclesiastical history

Domed Muslim shrine in Jerusalem that stands on the traditional site of the Temple of Solomon (the first Jewish temple), the rock where, in the Biblical story of Abraham, Abraham had offered the sacrifice of his son Isaac to God. For Muslims, it is the third holiest site of pilgrimage (after Mecca and Medina), since it was also here that the prophet Muhammad is believed to have ascended into heaven to receive the commandments of God.


The 12 days of christmas

The 12 Days of Christmas

  • Aside from the fact that Epiphany—which comes twelve days after Christmas—used to mark the end of the Christmas Season, the “Twelve Days of Christmas” are not really any part of Catholic liturgy. The song of that name actually derives from a time in England from 1558 to 1829 when it was illegal to be a Catholic, and so the song contains a hidden catechism of Catholic theology:

  • A Partridge in a Pear Tree: Jesus Christ

  • Two Turtle Doves: The Old and New Testaments

  • Three French Hens: The Theological Virtues (Faith, Hope, and Charity)

  • Four Calling Birds: The Four Gospels / The Four Evangelists

  • Five Golden Rings: The first Five Books of the Old Testament, the “Pentateuch”

  • Six Geese a-Laying: The Six Days of Creation

  • Seven Swans a-Swimming: The Seven Gifts of the Holy Spirit / The Seven Sacraments

  • Eight Maids a-Milking: The Eight Beatitudes

  • Nine Ladies Dancing: The Nine Fruits of the Holy Spirit

  • Ten Lords a-Leaping: The Ten Commandments

  • Eleven Pipers Piping: The Eleven Faithful Apostles

  • Twelve Drummers Drumming: The Twelve Points of Doctrine in the Apostle’s Creed


Divisions in christendom c 1347

Divisions in Christendom (c.1347)


Crusades

Crusades


  • Login