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The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers. City University of New York /GC CSc 79000 - Software Engineering Professor Danny Kopec Prepared by Ellen Pesochin. Happy Birthday to Albert Einstein. Born: 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany. PRoSE.

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The professional responsibilities of software engineers

The Professional Responsibilitiesof Software Engineers

City University of New York /GC

CSc 79000 - Software EngineeringProfessor Danny Kopec

Prepared by Ellen Pesochin


Happy birthday to albert einstein

Happy Birthday to Albert Einstein

Born: 14 March 1879 in Ulm, Württemberg, Germany

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Prose

PRoSE

A correctly designed system is an electronic poetry in motion

P - Professional

R - Responsibilities

o - of

S - Software

E - Engineers

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Agenda

Agenda

  • About the speaker

  • How is software designed today

  • Hall of Shame

  • The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

  • ACM on PRoSE

  • Practical Examples from Experience

  • QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


About the speaker

About the Speaker

  • Why PRoSE is a dear subject to me

  • Education

    • BS in Electrical Engineering

    • BS in Computer Science

    • MBA

    • Hopefully one day PhD in Computer Science

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


About the speaker1

About the Speaker

Experience (over 15 years in the industry)

  • Alpha technologies – programmer

  • WorldCom – Technical lead (16 reports)

  • Collier Encyclopedia / Microsoft – IS Manager (20 reports)

  • USWeb/CKS – Director of Software Development (17 reports)

  • Blackberry Technology – Managing Director of SD (32 reports)

  • Bright Sun Conlulting – CTO (46 reports)

  • American Engineering & Technology (CIO 65 reports)

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


About the speaker2

About the Speaker

Professional Certifications and Areas of Interest

  • MCSD

  • MCSE

  • Oracle Master

  • MCSDBA

  • Computer security

  • Software Development Framework

  • Biotech in computer security

  • Voice recognition

  • Error handling and recognition

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Agenda1

Agenda

  • About the speaker

  • How is software designed today

  • Hall of Shame

  • The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

  • ACM on PRoSE

  • Practical Examples from Experience

  • QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


How is software designed today

How is software designed today

  • Fools Rush In... (Ignorance is bliss)

  • Software Myths -Managers [1,2]

    • We have standards and procedures for building software, so developers have everything they need to know.

    • We have state-of-the-art software development tools; after all, we buy the latest computers.

    • If we're behind schedule, we can add more programmers to catch up.

    • A good manger can manage any project.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The professional responsibilities of software engineers

How is software designed today

  • Software Myths – Client [1,2]

    • A general statement of objectives is sufficient to begin writing programs - we can fill in the details later.

    • Requirement changes are easy to accommodate because software is flexible.

    • I know what my problem is, therefore I know how to solve it.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


How is software designed today1

How is software designed today

  • Software Myths - Practitioner

    • If I miss something now, I can fix it later.

    • Once the program is written and running, my job is done.

    • Until a program is running, there's no way of assessing its quality.

    • The only deliverable for a software project is a working program.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


How is software designed today2

How is software designed today

Steve McConnell is one of the world's foremost experts on software development and software engineering. He is Chief Software Engineer at Construx Software. Steve on how software is typically designed [3]

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


How is software designed today3

How is software designed today

Software Realities

* The cost of finding an error rises an order of magnitude for every phase before the error is discovered. [4]

* 60%-90% of the total cost is maintenance.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


How is software designed today4

How is software designed today

The Standish Group, an IT-research firm in West Yarmouth, Mass., has been keeping track of this phenomenon since 1994, and the good news is that we are doing much better at completing projects than we used to. The bad news is that in 2000 only 28% of software projects could be classed as complete successes (meaning they were executed on time and on budget) while 23% failed outright (meaning that they were abandoned). Those numbers are improvements over a 16% success rate and a 31% failure rate rate when the first study was done, in 1994

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Agenda2

Agenda

  • About the speaker

  • How is software designed today

  • Hall of Shame

  • The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

  • ACM on PRoSE

  • Practical Examples from Experience

  • QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Hall of shame

Hall of Shame

  • Nabisco – Division by 0

  • Blackberry – Computer doesn’t work

  • WorldCom – Delphi

  • DLJ – if false then

  • Johnson & Johnson – start coding we’ll hire person to write specs later

  • USWeb/CKS – cover up

  • MedAmerica – Spelling vs requirements

  • Oracle – Bummer

  • ClubMom – religious war

  • Barnes and Nobles web site

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Agenda3

Agenda

  • About the speaker

  • How is software designed today

  • Hall of Shame

  • The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

  • ACM on PRoSE

  • Practical Examples from Experience

  • QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The prose by d l parnas

The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

Abstract

Registered Engineers are expected to be aware of their responsibilities as professionals. Those who practice Software Engineering often enter that profession without either an engineering education or professional registration. The primary responsibility is to make sure that their products are “fit for use”.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Main responsibilities

Main Responsibilities

  • Personal

  • Social

  • Professional

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Main responsibilities1

Main Responsibilities

  • Personal Personal Responsibilities are general obligations towards other individuals; most are shared by all persons (e.g. honesty, concern for others).

  • Social

  • Professional

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Main responsibilities2

Main Responsibilities

  • Personal

  • SocialSocial Responsibilities are responsibilities towards society as a whole. We have a debt to repay because society has supported us when we needed it. (e.g. environmental activism, peace activism, national defence)

  • Professional

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Main responsibilities3

Main Responsibilities

  • Personal

  • Social

  • Professional

    Professional Responsibilities are additional responsibilities shared by members of a particular profession (e.g medicine, journalism, or engineering) Usually a code of responsibilities exists.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Conflict of responsibilities

Conflictof Responsibilities

  • Is there a difference?

  • Can they conflict?

    Professional responsibilities include, but are not limited to, contractual obligations to an employer. These obligations may appear at times to conflict with Personal and Social responsibility.

    The primary responsibility of an engineer is always to the safety and well-being of the public.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Conflict of responsibilities1

Conflictof Responsibilities

An Illustration - SDI (Star Wars):

Service on the “Committee on Computing in Support of

Battle Management”.

Some questions that arose:

  • Was it honest? (personal responsibility)

  • Had I made a professional commitment? Was our activity designing a system that would meet the needs of the customer as required by professional codes? What should a professional do if the answers were “yes” and “no”?

  • Was this project good for society? Should I explain my views to the public?

    Some regarded a “Yes” to (c) as unprofessional. The conflict in (b) was resolved by a detailed explanation.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Why would i work on nuclear plants but not star wars 5 6

Why would I work on Nuclear Plants but not Star Wars? [5,6]

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The social responsibility of scientists and engineers

The Social Responsibility of Scientists And Engineers

“In the land of the blind,

the one eyed man is king”.

In a world increasingly dependent on science and technology, Scientists and Engineers are the one-eyed people.

The majority of our decision-makers are blind.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The social responsibility of scientists and engineers1

The Social Responsibility of Scientists And Engineers

Consider the following public issues:

  • Can we reduce our energy expenditures without great disruption in people's lives?

  • How urgent is the need to reduce the level of greenhouse gasses?

  • Should we build more nuclear power generating stations?

  • Is it safe to allow nuclear power generating stations to be controlled by computers?

  • Can technology help us to reduce the amount of the paper that we use? Should we do that?

  • Is it safe to allow computers to control cars and trucks?

    Decisions will be taken by non-specialists, but the input will come from people like us. We must give them complete and accurate information.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The social responsibility of scientists and engineers2

The Social Responsibility of Scientists And Engineers

Science and technology are the “black magic” of our age. We use arcane rituals and

obscure terminology.

The public thinks that science can solve any problem if given enough funds. Public officials

share this attitude. They fall for scientific fads.

Buzzwords and big promises, favored over solid scientific work.

The rewards often go to the illusionists. The successful do not speak out. The others are

ignored (“sour grapes”).

Most of us “go along” to get funds.

Don’t we have a responsibility to see that society’s funds are well used?

In your career you will often have to decide whether or not to participate in a project and, if you decide not to participate, whether you should make your decision public.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The professional responsibilities of engineers

The Professional Responsibilities of Engineers

Unfortunately, Software Engineers are not always Engineers.

“Software Engineering” is a shallow course on programming, taught in a science department, not a professional program in Engineering. Many “software engineers” have no technical education.

Many could notbe Professional Engineers.

Many confuse software engineering with configuration management.

An Engineer is someone who uses advanced knowledge of science, mathematics, and technology to build objects for use by others.

Most programmers or software engineers, are Engineers, under qualified, unlicensed, and often unprofessional. They are unaware of their professional responsibilities.

Programmers need to learn about the professional responsibility of engineers.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Why do we have licensed professional engineers

Why do we have licensed Professional Engineers?

An old system introduced because:

  • Some products potentially dangerous. Incompetent designs a danger to public.

  • Purchasers and some employers are often unable to judge the competence of designers.

  • Competent, conscientious, disciplined professionals want public to distinguish between themselves and others. Bad work by a few damages the reputations and business prospects of all.

  • Financial pressures may tempt employers to “cut corners”. We are protected better when professional obligations go beyond loyalty or obedience to an employer. Professionals do say “No”.

    Don’t all of these reasons apply to software construction?

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


What is the professional engineering societies

What is the Professional Engineering Societies ?

  • Professional Engineering Societies were established by legislation to assure competence and awareness of professional responsibilities.

  • Regulations require that certain products be produced or approved by a recognized Professional Engineer.

  • There is a separate committee to accredit programs. Accreditation is a very serious process. Graduates of accredited programs have an easier path to recognition as a Professional Engineer. [5]

    An exam on responsibilities is required in any case. [6]

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Why are software engineers different

Why are “Software Engineers” different?

  • The result of a “software crisis” (optimism).

  • Originally dealt with as a scientific problem. The basis of software engineering was not well understood.

  • First meetings attended by many mathematicians and scientists, few engineers.

  • Many engineers were still blissfully unaware of the importance of computers in their profession.

  • The word is “Engineering” used to indicate practical concerns, not a profession.

  • Professional societies did not take it seriously. Software Engineering has developed outside of the Engineering Community.

  • It has been left to Computer Science departments, taught by people who are not Engineers.

  • Because badly designed computer programs are hard to manage, emphasis has been on project management, project scheduling, version control, etc.

    Today, the engineering societies are beginning to do what they were always required to do.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


What are the obligations of the engineer

What are the obligations of the engineer?

  • Accept individual responsibility.

  • Solve the real problem

  • Be honest about capabilities

  • Produce reviewable designs

  • Maintainability

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


What are the obligations of the engineer1

What are the obligations of the engineer?

  • Accept individual responsibility.

    • Following orders does not justify approving bad designs.

    • One cannot always be a “team player”.

    • Professional standards have priority over other pressures

  • Solve the real problem

    • Look beyond the customer’s opinions

    • Have a precise description of a problem.

    • Get that description reviewed before building.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


What are the obligations of the engineer2

What are the obligations of the engineer?

3. Be honest about capabilities

  • Don’t offer technical solutions where there are none.

  • Don’t do studies when you already know the answer.

    4. Produce reviewable designs

  • No individual is infallible.

  • Document to make reviewing easy.

    5. Maintainability

  • Produce a product that can be maintained without you. - It’s not your personal product.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Professional practice in software development

Professional Practice in Software Development

Some responses to a critical consultant:

  • “Of course it’s wrong, but that is what my boss told me to do.”

  • “We already know the answer, but they will pay us $1,000,000 for the study.

  • “It’s not the right way, but it’s the customer’s suggestion.”

  • “At XYZ corporation, we don’t tell our customers that they are wrong, we take their contracts.”

  • “That’s not the real problem, but they asked us to do it.”

  • “We can’t give them what they need, but we’ll do the best we can.”

  • “We’ve got a deadline; we’ll worry about maintainability when we get the maintenance contract.

  • “We don’t like people criticizing our designs!”

    My personal favorites came from the IT manager of J&J and MedAmerica:

  • “It is what it is. Take initiative, make it happened”

  • “We pay you big box because you are good, so We don’t need to allocate resources for QA”

    These remarks showed that the speakers were unaware of the professional responsibilities of engineers.

    Some had not heard of those responsibilities.

    Some had no such excuse!

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


A simple example pacemakers

A Simple Example: Pacemakers

Their importance to the user is obvious!

They are also important to those nearby.

They are controlled by software.

  • Many modes of operation

  • Computer controlled telemetry system

  • Data collection

  • “Programmable” by remove control

  • “When needed” intervention.

  • Rate responds to body activity.

  • Packaged in a small sealed unit

  • Must survive in a “hostile environment”

    Clearly the type of device that should be built by engineers.

    The program is critical and should be well documented and reviewable.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


What should be done for pacemaker software

What Should be Done for Pacemaker Software?

  • Programmer should have a precise description of the environment and requirements [7]

  • Black box description should have been produced for review.

  • Document should have been reviewable and reviewed by Cardiologists.

  • The code should have been documented in a way that permitted systematic review and revision.[8]

  • Code should have been subject to systematic inspection.

  • Doctor should have been provide with well-organized precise documentation that explained the behavior of the device to him.

    All of these things would be expected of a professional engineer.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Pacemaker software anecdote

Pacemaker Software Anecdote

Pacemaker “refused” the surgeon’s command; neither surgeon nor technician understood why.

The explanation was found in a footnote after several hours of reading. It took 30 minutes to find it the second time. Engineer responsible could explain the hardware aspects in great detail. He referred to a programmer, who could not be found, to explain the code.

Programming had been viewed as a trivial task; Responsible engineer did not

review it.

As a result of inadequate review, there are fundamental weaknesses

• Motion sensor does not measure physical activity

• Expected rate adjustment is inflexible.

The problem solved was not the real problem.

This was a typical software product.

The software was written as it would have been written 25 years ago.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


More examples

More examples

  • Med America PDA

  • Firewalls (Software vs. hardware)

  • Heart Surgeries and what doctors don’t want to tell Software engineers

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Software used by professional engineers and other concerns

Software used by Professional Engineers and other concerns

Professional Engineers take responsibility for their products, but, ...

  • To design those products they use software that comes with a disclaimer instead of a warranty,

  • Professional Engineers belong to a society that enforces codes of professional behavior, but

  • they must use tools produced by people who do not belong to such a society.

    This cannot be a stable situation!

    OS’s as bridges (Tacoma Narrows Bridge November 7, 1940 )

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The know how isn t there

The “Know How” isn’t There!

If we look at other areas of engineering, we know what software

engineers should do. If we look at current practice, those things are not

done.

It’s not just a matter of lack of will. It’s not just a matter of lack of

awareness. Most programmers do not know how to do the things that

they should do.

They do not know how to:

  • document requirements in a way that can be reviewed by subject matter experts,

  • document code precisely and completely,

  • inspect code systematically.

    SDF - Trying to give that “know how”.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


The know how isn t there1

The “Know How” isn’t There!

Is there a Solution to this

problem?

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Improving professionalism in software development

Improving Professionalism in Software Development

Three steps:

  • Work with Professional Engineering societies.

  • Develop better educational programs.

  • Develop accreditation procedures for Software Engineering programs.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Work with professional engineering societies

Work with Professional Engineering societies

  • We should stop fighting and work with the Engineering groups on the establishing standards for a new “flavor” of Engineer, either “Software Engineer” or “Computer Engineer”

  • We should take the advantage of the experience that this groups have in setting professional standards

  • We should use existing legislations to enforce those standards.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Develop accreditation procedures for software engineering programs

Develop accreditation procedures for Software Engineering programs

It is time to develop standards for the educational programs

that will be uniquely designed and target needs of Software

Engineering as a discipline not as a subprogram of Electrical

Engineering or Computer Science.

The aim [of education] must be the training of independently

acting and thinking individuals who, however, see in the

service to the community their highest life achievement.

– Albert Einstein

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Develop better educational programs

Develop better educational programs

We are not ready to work with the accreditation committees even if they are:

  • Little agreement on the essential knowledge required of those practicing Software Engineering

  • We need to remember that Engineering is not Management our current programs and literature confuse them.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Recap the prose

Recap the PRoSE

PRoSE - is a poetry in motion.

It’s time to quit “firefighting” ways of the software

development and start utilizing engineering principals.

Responsibility of Software Engineers:

  • Personal

  • Social

  • Professional

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Agenda4

Agenda

  • About the speaker

  • How is software designed today

  • Hall of Shame

  • The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

  • ACM on PRoSE

  • Practical Examples from Experience

  • QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Software engineering code of ethics and professional practice

Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice

Recommended and jointly approved by the ACM and the IEEE-CS as the standard for teaching and practicing software engineering.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Software engineering code of ethics and professional practice1

Software Engineering Code of Ethics and Professional Practice

The Code contains eight Principles related to the behavior of and decisions made by professional software engineers, including practitioners, educators, managers, supervisors and policy makers, as well as trainees and students of the profession.

These obligations are founded in the software engineer's humanity, in special care owed to people affected by the work of software engineers, and in the unique elements of the practice of software engineering.

The Code prescribes these as obligations of anyone claiming to be or aspiring to be a software engineer.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principles of software engineering code of ethics

Principles of Software Engineering Code of Ethics

  • PUBLIC

  • CLIENT AND EMPLOYER

  • PRODUCT

  • JUDGMENT

  • MANAGEMENT

  • PROFESSION

  • COLLEAGUES

  • SELF

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 1 public

Principle 1 PUBLIC

Software engineers shall act consistently with the public interest. In particular, software engineers shall, as appropriate:

1.01. Accept full responsibility for their own work.

1.02. Moderate the interests of the software engineer, the employer, the client and the users with the public good.

1.03. Approve software only if they have a well-founded belief that it is safe, meets specifications, passes appropriate tests, and does not diminish quality of life, diminish privacy or harm the environment. The ultimate effect of the work should be to the public good.

1.04. Disclose to appropriate persons or authorities any actual or potential danger to the user, the public, or the environment, that they reasonably believe to be associated with software or related documents.

1.05. Cooperate in efforts to address matters of grave public concern caused by software, its installation, maintenance, support or documentation.

1.06. Be fair and avoid deception in all statements, particularly public ones, concerning software or related documents, methods and tools.

1.07. Consider issues of physical disabilities, allocation of resources, economic disadvantage and other factors that can diminish access to the benefits of software.

1.08. Be encouraged to volunteer professional skills to good causes and contribute to public education concerning the discipline.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 2 client and employer

Principle 2 CLIENT AND EMPLOYER

Software engineers shall act in a manner that is in the best interests of their client and employer, consistent with the public interest. In particular, software engineers shall, as appropriate:

2.01. Provide service in their areas of competence, being honest and forthright about any limitations of their experience and education.

2.02. Not knowingly use software that is obtained or retained either illegally or unethically.

2.03. Use the property of a client or employer only in ways properly authorized, and with the client's or employer's knowledge and consent.

2.04. Ensure that any document upon which they rely has been approved, when required, by someone authorized to approve it.

2.05. Keep private any confidential information gained in their professional work, where such confidentiality is consistent with the public interest and consistent with the law.

2.06. Identify, document, collect evidence and report to the client or the employer promptly if, in their opinion, a project is likely to fail, to prove too expensive, to violate intellectual property law, or otherwise to be problematic.

2.07. Identify, document, and report significant issues of social concern, of which they are aware, in software or related documents, to the employer or the client.

2.08. Accept no outside work detrimental to the work they perform for their primary employer.

2.09. Promote no interest adverse to their employer or client, unless a higher ethical concern is being compromised; in that case, inform the employer or another appropriate authority of the ethical concern.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 3 product

Principle 3 PRODUCT

Software engineers shall ensure that their products and related modifications meet the highest professional standards possible. In particular, software engineers shall, as appropriate:

3.01. Strive for high quality, acceptable cost and a reasonable schedule, ensuring significant tradeoffs are clear to and accepted by the employer and the client, and are available for consideration by the user and the public.

3.02. Ensure proper and achievable goals and objectives for any project on which they work or propose.

3.03. Identify, define and address ethical, economic, cultural, legal and environmental issues related to work projects.

3.04. Ensure that they are qualified for any project on which they work or propose to work by an appropriate combination of education and training, and experience.

3.05. Ensure an appropriate method is used for any project on which they work or propose to work.

3.06. Work to follow professional standards, when available, that are most appropriate for the task at hand, departing from these only when ethically or technically justified.

3.07. Strive to fully understand the specifications for software on which they work.

3.08. Ensure that specifications for software on which they work have been well documented, satisfy the users’ requirements and have the appropriate approvals.

3.09. Ensure realistic quantitative estimates of cost, scheduling, personnel, quality and outcomes on any project on which they work or propose to work and provide an uncertainty assessment of these estimates.

3.10. Ensure adequate testing, debugging, and review of software and related documents on which they work.

3.11. Ensure adequate documentation, including significant problems discovered and solutions adopted, for any project on which they work.

3.12. Work to develop software and related documents that respect the privacy of those who will be affected by that software.

3.13. Be careful to use only accurate data derived by ethical and lawful means, and use it only in ways properly authorized.

3.14. Maintain the integrity of data, being sensitive to outdated or flawed occurrences.

3.15 Treat all forms of software maintenance with the same professionalism as new development.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 4 judgment

Principle 4 JUDGMENT

Software engineers shall maintain integrity and independence in their professional judgment. In particular, software engineers shall, as appropriate:

4.01. Temper all technical judgments by the need to support and maintain human values.

4.02 Only endorse documents either prepared under their supervision or within their areas of competence and with which they are in agreement.

4.03. Maintain professional objectivity with respect to any software or related documents they are asked to evaluate.

4.04. Not engage in deceptive financial practices such as bribery, double billing, or other improper financial practices.

4.05. Disclose to all concerned parties those conflicts of interest that cannot reasonably be avoided or escaped.

4.06. Refuse to participate, as members or advisors, in a private, governmental or professional body concerned with software related issues, in which they, their employers or their clients have undisclosed potential conflicts of interest.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 5 management

Principle 5 MANAGEMENT

Software engineering managers and leaders shall subscribe to and promote an ethical approach to the management of software development and maintenance . In particular, those managing or leading software engineers shall, as appropriate:

5.01 Ensure good management for any project on which they work, including effective procedures for promotion of quality and reduction of risk.

5.02. Ensure that software engineers are informed of standards before being held to them.

5.03. Ensure that software engineers know the employer's policies and procedures for protecting passwords, files and information that is confidential to the employer or confidential to others.

5.04. Assign work only after taking into account appropriate contributions of education and experience tempered with a desire to further that education and experience.

5.05. Ensure realistic quantitative estimates of cost, scheduling, personnel, quality and outcomes on any project on which they work or propose to work, and provide an uncertainty assessment of these estimates.

5.06. Attract potential software engineers only by full and accurate description of the conditions of employment.

5.07. Offer fair and just remuneration.

5.08. Not unjustly prevent someone from taking a position for which that person is suitably qualified.

5.09. Ensure that there is a fair agreement concerning ownership of any software, processes, research, writing, or other intellectual property to which a software engineer has contributed.

5.10. Provide for due process in hearing charges of violation of an employer's policy or of this Code.

5.11. Not ask a software engineer to do anything inconsistent with this Code.

5.12. Not punish anyone for expressing ethical concerns about a project.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 6 profession

Principle 6 PROFESSION

Software engineers shall advance the integrity and reputation of the profession consistent with the public interest. In particular, software engineers shall, as appropriate:

6.01. Help develop an organizational environment favorable to acting ethically.

6.02. Promote public knowledge of software engineering.

6.03. Extend software engineering knowledge by appropriate participation in professional organizations, meetings and publications.

6.04. Support, as members of a profession, other software engineers striving to follow this Code.

6.05. Not promote their own interest at the expense of the profession, client or employer.

6.06. Obey all laws governing their work, unless, in exceptional circumstances, such compliance is inconsistent with the public interest.

6.07. Be accurate in stating the characteristics of software on which they work, avoiding not only false claims but also claims that might reasonably be supposed to be speculative, vacuous, deceptive, misleading, or doubtful.

6.08. Take responsibility for detecting, correcting, and reporting errors in software and associated documents on which they work.

6.09. Ensure that clients, employers, and supervisors know of the software engineer's commitment to this Code of ethics, and the subsequent ramifications of such commitment.

6.10. Avoid associations with businesses and organizations which are in conflict with this code.

6.11. Recognize that violations of this Code are inconsistent with being a professional software engineer.

6.12. Express concerns to the people involved when significant violations of this Code are detected unless this is impossible, counter-productive, or dangerous.

6.13. Report significant violations of this Code to appropriate authorities when it is clear that consultation with people involved in these significant violations is impossible, counter-productive or dangerous.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 7 colleagues

Principle 7 COLLEAGUES

Software engineers shall be fair to and supportive of their colleagues. In particular, software engineers shall, as appropriate:

7.01. Encourage colleagues to adhere to this Code.

7.02. Assist colleagues in professional development.

7.03. Credit fully the work of others and refrain from taking undue credit.

7.04. Review the work of others in an objective, candid, and properly-documented way.

7.05. Give a fair hearing to the opinions, concerns, or complaints of a colleague.

7.06. Assist colleagues in being fully aware of current standard work practices including policies and procedures for protecting passwords, files and other confidential information, and security measures in general.

7.07. Not unfairly intervene in the career of any colleague; however, concern for the employer, the client or public interest may compel software engineers, in good faith, to question the competence of a colleague.

7.08. In situations outside of their own areas of competence, call upon the opinions of other professionals who have competence in that area.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principle 8 self

Principle 8 SELF

Software engineers shall participate in lifelong learning regarding the practice of their profession and shall promote an ethical approach to the practice of the profession. In particular, software engineers shall continually endeavor to:7.01. Encourage colleagues to adhere to this Code.

8.01. Further their knowledge of developments in the analysis, specification, design, development, maintenance and testing of software and related documents, together with the management of the development process.

8.02. Improve their ability to create safe, reliable, and useful quality software at reasonable cost and within a reasonable time.

8.03. Improve their ability to produce accurate, informative, and well-written documentation.

8.04. Improve their understanding of the software and related documents on which they work and of the environment in which they will be used.

8.05. Improve their knowledge of relevant standards and the law governing the software and related documents on which they work.

8.06 Improve their knowledge of this Code, its interpretation, and its application to their work.

8.07 Not give unfair treatment to anyone because of any irrelevant prejudices.

8.08. Not influence others to undertake any action that involves a breach of this Code.

8.09. Recognize that personal violations of this Code are inconsistent with being a professional software engineer.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Principles of software engineering code of ethics1

Principles of Software Engineering Code of Ethics

  • PUBLIC

  • CLIENT AND EMPLOYER

  • PRODUCT

  • JUDGMENT

  • MANAGEMENT

  • PROFESSION

  • COLLEAGUES

  • SELF

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Agenda5

Agenda

  • About the speaker

  • How is software designed today

  • Hall of Shame

  • The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

  • ACM on PRoSE

  • Practical Examples – Success

  • QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Prose works

PRoSE works

  • Nasdaq

  • CAS

  • Microwarehouse

  • SDF

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


References

References

  • Leveson, N. G. (1995). Safeware: System safety and computers. New York: Addison Wesley.

  • F.P. Brooks “Mythical Man Month”

  • Software Development 2000 West in San Jose. Full transcript is available on (http://www.construx.com/docs/open/sd2000.pdf or http://technetcast.ddj.com/tnc_program.html?program_id=80)

  • Boehm, B. et al: Software Cost Estimation with COCOMO II, Prentice Hall PTR (2000)

  • Parnas, D.L. Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems

  • Parnas, D.L. “SDI: A violation of Professional Responsibility”

  • Parnas, D.L. , Medley, J. “Functional Documentation for Computer Systems engineering (Version2)”

  • Parnas, D.L. , Medley, J., Iglewski, M. “Formal documentation of Well-Structured Programs”.

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Agenda6

Agenda

  • About the speaker

  • How is software designed today

  • Hall of Shame

  • The PRoSE by D. L. Parnas

  • ACM on PRoSE

  • Practical Examples – Success

  • QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


Qa or q a

QA or Q&A

The Professional Responsibilities of Software Engineers


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