Ecse 602 instructional programming for infants and young children with disabilities
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ECSE 602 Instructional Programming for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities. This session will address: Preschool Blocks Activity-based Intervention Naturalistic approaches Curriculum Modifications. Developmentally Appropriate Routines. Predictable Flexible time blocks

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Ecse 602 instructional programming for infants and young children with disabilities

ECSE 602Instructional Programming for Infants and Young Children with Disabilities

This session will address:

Preschool Blocks

Activity-based Intervention

Naturalistic approaches

Curriculum Modifications

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Developmentally appropriate routines
Developmentally Appropriate Routines

  • Predictable

  • Flexible time blocks

  • Reasonable rate/rhythm

  • Respond to developmental differences

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Developmentally appropriate routines1
Developmentally Appropriate Routines

Balance:

  • Teacher directed/child directed

  • Teacher initiated/child initiated

  • Quiet/Noisy activities

  • Passive/Active activities

  • Indoor/Outdoor activities

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Especially for toddlers
Especially for Toddlers

  • Build in periods of quieter activities

  • Use lots of consistent non-verbal cues

  • Eliminate “wait” time

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Transitions
Transitions

  • Advance notice

  • Familiar Cues

  • What’s next?

  • Using adult support

  • Minimize chaos

  • Develop responsibilities and relationships

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Virginia s foundation blocks for early learning
Virginia’s Foundation Blocks for Early Learning

  • Developed to “provide early childhood educators a set of minimum standards in literacy, mathematics, science, and history and social science with indicators of success for students entering Kindergarten based on scientifically based research.”

    Aligned to Virginia’s Kindergarten Standards of Learning (SOL), Virginia’s Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening (PALS), and Teaching Our Youngest, A Guide for Preschool Teachers and Child-care and Family Providers

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Getting stronger
Getting Stronger…

  • 2004 –Changes to the Appropriation Act for VPI “Required…the Department to establish academic standards that are in accordance with appropriate preparation for students to be ready to successfully enter kindergarten.”

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


The brick house
The Brick House

  • Specific indicators for Prekindergarten children in the content areas of

    • Literacy—reading, oral expression, vocabulary, phonological awareness, letter knowledge, early word recognition, print and book awareness, and written expression

    • Math--number and number sense, computation, measurement, geometry, data collection and statistics, and patterns and relationships

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Standards of learning
Standards of Learning

  • A way for the VDOE to outline the goals and objectives of the curriculum taught at each grade level in each subject.

  • A way to measure how these goals and objectives are met.

  • Considered high-stakes testingfor the schools themselves at the elementary and middle school level, and the results are part of the School Performance Report Cards

  • The pass rate is the determining factor of whether or not a school attains or retains its accreditation status. (Ele. And Middle Schools)

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Standards of learning1
Standards of Learning

  • For children and families

    • Tests can also measure competencies and highlight individual learning strengths and weaknesses

    • Give important information about expected skills for children at that level

    • “Test taking experience"

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Activity based intervention abi
Activity-based Intervention (ABI)

Definition:

ABI was defined as a “child-directed, transactional approach that embeds intervention on children’s individual goals and objectives in routine, planned, or child-initiated activities, and uses logically occurring antecedents and consequences to develop functional and generative skills”(Bricker & Cripe, 1992, p. 40).

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Activity based intervention abi1
Activity-based Intervention (ABI)

Foundational theory for ABI

  • Sociohistorical theory

    • Vygotsky: interactional perspective

  • Cognitive theory

    • Piaget: the nature of environmental feedback and children’s active exploration

  • Learning theory

    • Dewey: meaningful and functional experiences

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Activity based intervention abi2
Activity-based Intervention (ABI)

  • Developmental theory

    • Cichetti & Cohen: interaction within and between biological and behavioral systems

  • Behavioral learning principles

    • ARC: the three-part sequence

      Antecedent Response Consequence

      • Antecedent: a condition, setting, or level of support that serves to elicit a particular behavior

      • Response: the particular behavior

      • Consequence: the actions that occur after responses

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Activity based intervention abi3
Activity-based Intervention (ABI)

Major tenets underlying ABI

  • The immediate environment and the larger sociocultural context have a significant influence on the developing child.

  • Child initiation and active involvement enhance learning.

  • Children should be engaged in functional and meaningful activities.

  • Development progresses through the integration of multiple processes.

    (Bricker et al., p. 232)

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Elements of activity based intervention
Elements of Activity-based Intervention

Four major elements of ABI:

  • 1. Child-initiated transactions

    • children’s initiation

    • children’s lead in directing activities

    • the reciprocal interaction between the child’s behavior and the social/physical environment

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Elements of activity based intervention1
Elements of Activity-based Intervention

  • 2. Embedding children’s goals and objectives

    • including goals and objectives in an activity/event in a meaningful way

    • Combining three types of activities:

      • Routine activities

      • Planned activities

      • Child-initiated activities

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Elements of activity based intervention2
Elements of Activity-based Intervention

  • 3. Logically occurring antecedents and consequences

    • the number and type of antecedents offered

    • the type and frequency of children’s responses

    • the nature of the consequences

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Elements of activity based intervention3
Elements of Activity-based Intervention

  • 4. Functional and generative skills

    • independent functioning

    • skills across developmental areas and settings (e.g., place, people, event)

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


A linked systems approach
A Linked Systems Approach

  • The four components of a linked

    systems approach:

    • assessment

    • goal development

    • intervention

    • evaluation

      Assessment Goal Development Intervention Evaluation

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


A linked systems approach1
A Linked Systems Approach

  • Assessment: an ongoing collaborative process of systematic observations and analysis

  • goal development: the major supports or guides for intervention

  • Intervention: strategies, teaching methods, activities, events

  • Evaluation: an ongoing process in which children’s previous performance is compared with a later performance

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


The goal for ei ecse
The Goal for EI/ECSE

  • to improve children’s acquisition and use of important motor, social, affective, communication, and intellectual behaviors that, in turn, are integrated into response repertoires that are generative, functional, and adaptable (Bricker et al., pp. 224-225)

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


The concepts of generative functional adaptable
The Concepts of generative, functional, adaptable

  • Generative: a child’s ability to formulate a response that is appropriate for changing conditions

  • Functional: the usefulness of responses for a child

  • Adaptable: children’s abilities to modify their response repertoires to accommodate social or physical constraints

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Naturalistic model
Naturalistic Model

  • Goal of the naturalistic curriculum model

    • “to enhance the young child’s environmental control, participation, and interaction in natural experiences consistent with the cultural values and expectations of the family” (p. 82, Noonan & McCormick, 2006)

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Naturalistic model1
Naturalistic Model

  • Content of instruction

    • Age-appropriate skills

    • Individualized

    • Skills for participating in present and future environments

  • Context for instruction

    • Natural experiences

    • Family involvement

    • Community-based

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Naturalistic model2
Naturalistic Model

  • Instructional methods

    • Minimally intrusive

    • Functional

    • Sensitive

    • Interactive

  • Cultural relevance

    • Psychocultural

    • Sociocultural

    • Heterogeneous

  • Evaluation methods

    • Generalization

    • Naturalistic conditions

    • Ecological assessment

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu



Naturalistic model3
Naturalistic Model

  • Implementing a naturalistic curriculum

    • Conduct child-centered planning

    • Conduct ecological assessment

    • Develop instructional objectives

    • Develop instructional plans

    • Prepare an instructional schedule

    • Implement instruction

    • Monitor progress

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Curriculum modification
Curriculum Modification

  • Curriculum modification

    • A change of the ongoing classroom activity or materials

  • Purpose

    • To facilitate or maximize a child’s participation in planned activities and routines

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Curriculum modification1
Curriculum Modification

  • Types of curriculum modifications

    • Environmental support

    • Materials adaptation

    • Activity simplification

    • Child preferences

    • Special equipment

    • Adult support

    • Peer support

    • Invisible support

      (Sandall & Schwartz, 2008, p. 54)

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Curriculum modification2
Curriculum Modification

  • Structural supports

    • Techniques that are developmentally appropriate used to help children learn appropriate classroom and social behaviors

  • Ways to structure the environment for success

    • Provide a balance between child-directed and adult-directed activities;

    • Design a variety of areas in the classroom that are easily viewed and have boundaries;

    • Make sure materials are organized and in good working order;

    • Offer activities that provide many ways for children to respond.

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Curriculum modification3
Curriculum Modification

  • Ways to structure activities for success

    • Support participation;

    • Have high expectations;

    • Be consistent;

    • Give good, clear directions;

    • When children are participating, provide feedback on their performance and efforts.

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


Curriculum modification4
Curriculum Modification

  • Ways to structure transitions for success

    • Teach children your expectations for their behavior during transitions;

    • Use pictures or other salient cues;

    • Begin the activity when a few children are ready;

    • When in doubt, teach the routine.

ECSE 602 Dr. Y. Xu


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