Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges
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Soldier Systems Technology Roadmap Human and Systems Integration Workshop. Introduction to Workshop Themes & Physical Ergonomics & Integration Challenges. Linda Bossi, CD, MSc Human Systems Integration Section DRDC Toronto September 21-22, 2010 Château Cartier Gatineau, Que. OUTLINE.

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Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Soldier Systems Technology RoadmapHuman and Systems Integration Workshop

Introduction to Workshop Themes & Physical Ergonomics & Integration Challenges

Linda Bossi, CD, MSc

Human Systems Integration Section

DRDC Toronto

September 21-22, 2010

Château Cartier

Gatineau, Que.


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

OUTLINE

  • What is Human Systems Integration?

  • A Model for Considering the Soldier as a System

  • Introduction to Workshop Themes

  • Physical Ergonomics & Integration Challenges


What is hsi

What is HSI?

  • Technical process of integrating 5 HSI domains with a materiel system to ensure safe, effective operability and supportability of the system


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Human Factors: Multidisciplinary field incorporating contributions from psychology, engineering, human biology, industrial design, statistics, operations research and anthropometry.

A term that covers:

The science of understanding the properties of human capability (Human Factors Science)

The application of that understanding to the design, development and deployment of systems, processes and work environments (Human Factors Engineering, Ergonomics)

The ‘science/art’ of ensuring successful application of HFE to a program (Human Factors Integration, Human Systems Integration)


A simple model for considering the complex soldier system

A Simple Model for Considering the Complex Soldier System

USER

TOOLS

TASK

ENVIRONMENT


Key challenge user complexity and variability

Key Challenge – User Complexity and Variability

Age

Gender

Military Occupation

Role (rifleman, leader)

Physical Attributes:

Size & Shape

Strength

Fitness Level

Handedness

Education

Training

Experience

Skills

USER

Psychological/Cognitive Capabilities:

Intellect, Cognitive Style, Information Processing, Decision-making capability, Resilience, etc.

Perceptual Capabilities:

Visual Acuity

Colour Vision

Eye Dominance

Hearing

State:

Fatigue

Hydration

Motivation

Emotional

Arousal


Key challenge task complexity and variability

Key Challenge – Task Complexity and Variability

USER

Type of Mission

Phase of Mission

Concurrent Tasks

Time Pressure

Threat Environment

TASK

Individual &

Team Tasks

Perceptual Tasks (observe)

Cognitive Tasks

(orient, understand, decide)

Physical Tasks (act)


Key challenge equipment complexity and variability

Key Challenge – Equipment Complexity and Variability

Compatibility vs

Integration,

Modularity,

Scalability,

Individual

Clothing & Personal

Equipment

Collective /

Team Equipment

USER

Legacy

vs

Future

TOOLS

TASK

Weapon,

Transport,

Communication & Battle Management Systems

Utility

Usability

Modality

Salience


Key challenge environment complexity and variability

Key Challenge – Environment Complexity and Variability

Noise:

Sound Discrimination

& Localization

Speech Intelligibility

Hearing Protection

Future Security

Environment

Threat

USER

Lighting:

Day/Night

Obscurants

Cultural

Weather:

Temperature

Humidity

Precipitation

TOOLS

TASK

Training

Organizational

ENVIRONMENT

Terrain:

Slope, Surface, Cover


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

EFFECTIVE SOLDIER SYSTEM INTEGRATION

Can this soldier,

with this training,

perform this task,

to this standard,

with this equipment,

and under these conditions?

USER

TOOLS

TASK

ENVIRONMENT


Workshop themes

Soldier HSI complex and multidisciplinary

Workshop participant expertise also highly varied, crossing many domains and communities of interest

Decision to group first break-out discussion along a few key themes/hard problem categories to which a range of DND/industry/ academic participants could contribute

Recognize that there is significant overlap between these categories since we are considering HSI

Workshop Themes


Workshop themes1

Physical ergonomics and physical integration on the soldier (internal physical integration)

Cognitive ‘ergonomics’ and integration with the soldier perceptual/cognitive capabilities (internal psychological integration)

System Architecture and Integration/Operability with other Systems and Processes (external integration)

Workshop Themes


1 physical ergonomics physical integration on the soldier internal physical integration

Soldier System Physical Characterization (physical environment, behavioural task analyses, user characterisation – size, shape, age, strength, handedness, etc)

Soldier Burden (due to environment/exercise/work/load, physiology, load carriage, biomechanics, thermal, noise, impact of PPE, volume/bulk, etc)

Fit, form, anthropometry, human machine interface

Physical usability of soldier equipment/components

Physical compatibility of interfaces, with and between components of the soldier system

Clothing, Personal Equipment, PPE, personal weapon interface, load carriage, Display and Control hardware design

Tools and Processes (that help to understand and/or apply the foregoing knowledge areas to the design/acquisition of the physical soldier system, or that help select/train soldiers to improve their op readiness)

1. Physical Ergonomics & Physical Integration on the Soldier (Internal Physical Integration)


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Soldier System Characterization(user perceptual capabilities – vision, hearing; cognitive style, characteristics, intelligence, etc)

Effect of stressors on perception/cognition

Socio/Psychological Readiness

Information overload, situation awareness, common operational picture, decision aids

Devices to enhance or augment soldier perception, understanding and decision-making (e.g., sensors, NVGs, digital maps, blue force tracking, decision aids, Combat ID, augmented cognition, intelligent adaptive interfaces, etc)

Display GUI and content(imagery, information)

Cognitive Psychology, Engineering Psychology, Human Computer Interaction, usability engineering

Tools & Processes(that help us understand and apply knowledge of soldier perceptual/cognitive capabilities in soldier system integration or that help to train/select soldiers to improve their operational readiness)

2. Cognitive ‘Ergonomics’ & integration with the soldier psychological capabilities (Internal Psychological Integration)


3 system architecture and integration interoperability with other systems external integration

Integration/ Interoperability with other Platforms and Systems

Weapon systems (Personal & Crew-Served)

Vehicles & transport platforms

C4I Systems

Autonomous Sensors/Vehicles (UXVs)

System Architecture

Modularity/Configurability

Adaptability

Scalability

Hardware integration/optimization

Integration with Processes

HSI within Systems Engineering process, within DND acquisition, etc

Tools that facilitate more effective HSI

Comprehensive Approach, System of systems

3. System Architecture and Integration/ Interoperability with other Systems (External Integration)


Physical ergonomics and physical integration challenges

Soldier variability (physical characteristics)

Soldier load

Trade-offs between protection & mobility

Compatibility between soldier system components

Physical Ergonomics and Physical Integration Challenges


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

1996 Clothed Anthropometry survey

1997 Survey of the Land Forces

Additional surveys relevant to specific development efforts

Development & application of 2D & 3D anthropometry to better characterize shape variability

3D anthro modelling tools

Ongoing collection of data using whole body scanning system (BoSS)

Current efforts underway to update soldier anthro data (nude and clothed)

Anthropometric

Characterization

BoSS


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Shape Variability

(both soldiers have same head breadth)

5th and 95th percentile male

For head breadth

Anthropometric Variability

For Head Breadth

One size does not fit all!


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Percentiles vs Population accommodation

For a given male head breadth (153mm)

Head length ranges more than 30 mm (183 to 215 mm)


Key challenge soldier load

Based on several key studies, NATO recommends that the maximum load that soldiers should carry for extended periods is 32% of body weight (26.2 kg for 82 kg soldier)

Key Challenge – Soldier Load

  • Yet our soldiers in current operations are carrying (often by choice) significantly heavier loads

    • Extra ammunition

    • Extra water

    • Spare batteries

    • Added protection to counter new threats


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Perception & acceptance of load by soldiers is complex

Critical to acceptance of load is:

Absolute weight

Weight distribution/ balance

Design of interface

Presence of other environmental stressors

Perception of risk

Value of the payload to the user

Makes specification of soldier equipment weight problematic (very context dependent)

Points to the need to be user-centered

involve representative users, doing representative tasks under realistic conditions as part of system definition, design & selection process


How to address soldier load

How to Address Soldier Load

  • Understand what soldiers are carrying and why

  • Understand and model the physiological, biomechanical, task performance implications of loads and load carriage designs

  • Understand and model mobility/vulnerability implications of the range of loads carried

  • Share this knowledge/models with all stakeholders (DND & industry)


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Example studies to model/determine weight limits/balance optimization for specific equipment (e.g., head-supported mass, assault rifle mass properties)

CM of Rifle(X=0)

+7cm

-7cm

Z-Axis Torque

T12

L4

+ 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 kg mass

at 3 CoM locations

+ 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 kg mass at user’s

preferred centre of mass


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Swedish Study (Daniellson 2006)


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

Require that new equipment incrementally contribute to reduced soldier load

Use of novel materials (e.g., caseless ammunition)

Or design approaches (e.g., integration, modularity)

Consider comprehensive approach vice just equipment or technical solutions

Deal with soldier perception of risk (provide SA tools to give soldier ensure reliable resupply)

Address reliability of resupply/sustainment system

Select bigger stronger soldiers?

Physical training of soldiers?

Eg. Scalable head protection


Physical compatibility

Studies of Compatibility between PPE & weapon

Viability of alternative options for effective integration of increase face/neck/nape protection with weapon butt stocks & sights

Physical Compatibility


Introduction to workshop themes physical ergonomics integration challenges

QUESTIONS ?


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