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Chapter 6 Thinking About Fruits and Vegetables in a Very Different Way. In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous Aristotle. As impressive as the benefits of whole grains are, the benefits of eating fruits and vegetables are even greater.

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Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Chapter 6Thinking About Fruits and Vegetables in a Very Different Way





Common phytochemicals

Carotenoids houses.

Beta-carotene

Lycopene

Lutein

Zeaxanthin

Organosulfurs

Flavinoids

Phytosterols

Alkaloids

Tannins

Saponins

And many, many others

Common Phytochemicals



Copy right by Michael Davidson houses.

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/index.html

Optical microscopy techniques

para-coumaric acid



Saponin houses.


Zeaxanthin houses.


ajoene houses.



Lung cancer and vegetable intake
Lung cancer and vegetable intake houses.

Relative risk

Vegetable intake grams/day

Am Inst for Cancer Research, 1997


Stomach cancer and vegetable intake
Stomach cancer and vegetable intake houses.

Relative risk

Vegetable intake grams/day

Am Inst for Cancer Research, 1997


Stomach cancer and fruit intake
Stomach cancer and fruit intake houses.

Relative risk

Fruit intake grams/day

Am Inst for Cancer Research, 1997



Free Radicals are oxygen atoms houses.

that are missing an electron


Where do free radicals come from
Where do free radicals come from? houses.

  • Most are produced by our own bodies

  • UV light

  • burned food

  • toxic chemicals

  • Industrial

  • automobile pollution

  • unknown sources


Cigarette smoke
Cigarette Smoke houses.

One puff of smoke contains:

100,000,000,000,000,000

free radical species

Tobacco is responsible for 31% of all cancers


If you are a smoker your life will be shortened by 13 years on average
If you are a smoker your life will be shortened by 13 years on average

-14.5 yrs

-13.2 yrs

MMWR 1997;46:444-51




How do we protect our selves
How do we protect our selves? a mutation or cancer has started.

Eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

Some phytochemicals are also anti-free radicals (anti–oxidants). They have the ability to donate an electron to a free radical with out harming itself. It’s kind of like having a spare electron.


The typical american western diet what most americans eat
The Typical American (Western) Diet: What most Americans Eat a mutation or cancer has started.

  • Red meat

  • Processed meat

  • Butter

  • Potatoes

  • Refined grains

  • High fat dairy foods

    There are few phytochemicals here






The cancer process
The Cancer Process were compared to those who ate the least, they had half the cancer risk.


Spontaneous or were compared to those who ate the least, they had half the cancer risk.

inherited mutation

Abnormal

cell

Normal

cell

Repair

Carcinogen

Tumor

Metastasis

Cell proliferation



Spontaneous or cancer process

inherited mutation

Abnormal

cell

Normal

cell

Repair

Activated

carcinogen

Tumor

Metastasis

Cell proliferation


An apple a day with the skin
An Apple a day (with the skin) cancer process

peel

+flesh

flesh

Cancer cell spreading

peel

concentration

Sun, J Agric Food Chem 2002:50:7449


Why not just make a pill that contains phytochemicals
Why not just make a pill that contains phytochemicals? cancer process

  • The pill will never contain all the same phytochemicals because we still don’t even know what they are

  • Phytochemicals don’t work all by themselves. They need the other chemicals with them.

  • The phytochemicals only appear to work when they are in their natural food, not a pill

  • The dosages may be too high


Some of the pills are very dangerous
Some of the pills are very dangerous cancer process

  • Randomized clinical trial with 18,000 smokers and former smokers

  • 30 mg of beta-carotene plus vitamin A

  • Followed for 4 years

  • Studied terminated 2 years early

Omenn, N Engl J Med,1996, 334:(18)


Risk of death
Risk of Death cancer process


Lung cancer death
Lung Cancer Death cancer process



  • In this and in many other studies the supplements actually increased risk

  • Risk of many supplements are unknown

  • Supplement claims are unregulated. They can say what ever they want.

  • Consumers tend to believe the marketing hype of supplement makers.

  • No pill can compare with the benefits of eating whole foods.


In other studies
In other studies: increased risk

  • Long term supplementation with beta-carotene had no effect on preventing cancers or cardiovascular disease


What about vitamin c
What about Vitamin C? increased risk

  • 500 mg of Vitamin C every day for 3 weeks caused more DNA damage than the placebo group

  • Vitamin C has no effect on cancer, cardiovascular disease


Vitamin e
Vitamin E increased risk

  • Long-term supplementation with Vitamin E revealed no prevention of CVD, stroke, or cancers

Blot, 1993; Stephens, 1996


What about a one a day vitamin
What about a one-a-day vitamin? increased risk

  • Some experts say there is no harm in this, but neither is there any evidence that it improves health

  • If you are not going to eat a good diet, a one-a-day vitamin probably wouldn’t do any harm


Points to remember
Points to Remember increased risk

  • Americans get suckered in to supplement makers claims. Don’t get suckered in.

  • Our understanding of the functions of phytochemicals and free radicals is very limited.

  • Everyday the DNA in our cells gets attached 10,000 times by free radicals. Phytochemicals can neutralize free radicals and help prevent cancer.


Continued
Continued…. increased risk

  • Eating at least five or more servings of fruits and/or vegetables everyday provides significant protection against many cancers and other diseases; even more servings per day is better.

  • Whole foods are incredibly complex. Scientists are just beginning to figure out how our bodies use everything that is in the food we eat.

  • Consuming individual phytochemicals in supplements is not recommended; eat whole foods.


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