Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way
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Chapter 6 Thinking About Fruits and Vegetables in a Very Different Way. In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous Aristotle. As impressive as the benefits of whole grains are, the benefits of eating fruits and vegetables are even greater.

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Chapter 6 Thinking About Fruits and Vegetables in a Very Different Way

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Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Chapter 6Thinking About Fruits and Vegetables in a Very Different Way


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

In all things of nature there is something of the marvelous

Aristotle


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • As impressive as the benefits of whole grains are, the benefits of eating fruits and vegetables are even greater.


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • Fruits and vegetables are the real phytochemical power houses.

  • One serving of vegetables or fruits can have 100’s of different phytochemicals

  • Different fruits and vegetables have different phytochemicals. Eating a variety is the best way to get all of them.


Common phytochemicals

Carotenoids

Beta-carotene

Lycopene

Lutein

Zeaxanthin

Organosulfurs

Flavinoids

Phytosterols

Alkaloids

Tannins

Saponins

And many, many others

Common Phytochemicals


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • Here are some pictures of some phytochemicals


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Copy right by Michael Davidson

http://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/index.html

Optical microscopy techniques

para-coumaric acid


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

para-coumaric acid


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Saponin


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Zeaxanthin


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

ajoene


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Calcium Pectate


Lung cancer and vegetable intake

Lung cancer and vegetable intake

Relative risk

Vegetable intake grams/day

Am Inst for Cancer Research, 1997


Stomach cancer and vegetable intake

Stomach cancer and vegetable intake

Relative risk

Vegetable intake grams/day

Am Inst for Cancer Research, 1997


Stomach cancer and fruit intake

Stomach cancer and fruit intake

Relative risk

Fruit intake grams/day

Am Inst for Cancer Research, 1997


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • So why are fruits and vegetables so important?


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Free Radicals are oxygen atoms

that are missing an electron


Where do free radicals come from

Where do free radicals come from?

  • Most are produced by our own bodies

  • UV light

  • burned food

  • toxic chemicals

  • Industrial

  • automobile pollution

  • unknown sources


Cigarette smoke

Cigarette Smoke

One puff of smoke contains:

100,000,000,000,000,000

free radical species

Tobacco is responsible for 31% of all cancers


If you are a smoker your life will be shortened by 13 years on average

If you are a smoker your life will be shortened by 13 years on average

-14.5 yrs

-13.2 yrs

MMWR 1997;46:444-51


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • If one free radical steals an electron from a strand of DNA, a mutation or cancer has started.

  • Most of these abnormal cells are destroyed by our own bodies.

  • It only takes one to slip through our defenses for a cancer to take over


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • Each cell gets 10,000 free radical attacks every day


How do we protect our selves

How do we protect our selves?

Eat more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains.

Some phytochemicals are also anti-free radicals (anti–oxidants). They have the ability to donate an electron to a free radical with out harming itself. It’s kind of like having a spare electron.


The typical american western diet what most americans eat

The Typical American (Western) Diet: What most Americans Eat

  • Red meat

  • Processed meat

  • Butter

  • Potatoes

  • Refined grains

  • High fat dairy foods

    There are few phytochemicals here


What we should be eating if we want the health benefits

What we should be eating if we want the health benefits


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • In 2001, 553,768 Americans died of cancer. Of these deaths, 387,637 (70%) could have been prevented with good nutrition, physical activity, and avoiding tobacco


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • Over 230 different studies have evaluated the impact of fruits and vegetables on cancer. Fruits and vegetables help prevent cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity, pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • When the people who consumed the most fruits and vegetables were compared to those who ate the least, they had half the cancer risk.


The cancer process

The Cancer Process


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Spontaneous or

inherited mutation

Abnormal

cell

Normal

cell

Repair

Carcinogen

Tumor

Metastasis

Cell proliferation


Where fruits vegetables and whole grains can stop the cancer process

Where fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can stop the cancer process


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

Spontaneous or

inherited mutation

Abnormal

cell

Normal

cell

Repair

Activated

carcinogen

Tumor

Metastasis

Cell proliferation


An apple a day with the skin

An Apple a day (with the skin)

peel

+flesh

flesh

Cancer cell spreading

peel

concentration

Sun, J Agric Food Chem 2002:50:7449


Why not just make a pill that contains phytochemicals

Why not just make a pill that contains phytochemicals?

  • The pill will never contain all the same phytochemicals because we still don’t even know what they are

  • Phytochemicals don’t work all by themselves. They need the other chemicals with them.

  • The phytochemicals only appear to work when they are in their natural food, not a pill

  • The dosages may be too high


Some of the pills are very dangerous

Some of the pills are very dangerous

  • Randomized clinical trial with 18,000 smokers and former smokers

  • 30 mg of beta-carotene plus vitamin A

  • Followed for 4 years

  • Studied terminated 2 years early

Omenn, N Engl J Med,1996, 334:(18)


Risk of death

Risk of Death


Lung cancer death

Lung Cancer Death


Cardiovascular disease death

Cardiovascular Disease Death


Chapter 6 thinking about fruits and vegetables in a very different way

  • In this and in many other studies the supplements actually increased risk

  • Risk of many supplements are unknown

  • Supplement claims are unregulated. They can say what ever they want.

  • Consumers tend to believe the marketing hype of supplement makers.

  • No pill can compare with the benefits of eating whole foods.


In other studies

In other studies:

  • Long term supplementation with beta-carotene had no effect on preventing cancers or cardiovascular disease


What about vitamin c

What about Vitamin C?

  • 500 mg of Vitamin C every day for 3 weeks caused more DNA damage than the placebo group

  • Vitamin C has no effect on cancer, cardiovascular disease


Vitamin e

Vitamin E

  • Long-term supplementation with Vitamin E revealed no prevention of CVD, stroke, or cancers

Blot, 1993; Stephens, 1996


What about a one a day vitamin

What about a one-a-day vitamin?

  • Some experts say there is no harm in this, but neither is there any evidence that it improves health

  • If you are not going to eat a good diet, a one-a-day vitamin probably wouldn’t do any harm


Points to remember

Points to Remember

  • Americans get suckered in to supplement makers claims. Don’t get suckered in.

  • Our understanding of the functions of phytochemicals and free radicals is very limited.

  • Everyday the DNA in our cells gets attached 10,000 times by free radicals. Phytochemicals can neutralize free radicals and help prevent cancer.


Continued

Continued….

  • Eating at least five or more servings of fruits and/or vegetables everyday provides significant protection against many cancers and other diseases; even more servings per day is better.

  • Whole foods are incredibly complex. Scientists are just beginning to figure out how our bodies use everything that is in the food we eat.

  • Consuming individual phytochemicals in supplements is not recommended; eat whole foods.


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