Chapter 10.4

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Chapter 10.4

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1. Chapter 10.4 Adams Takes a Firm Stand

2. ·      Like Washington, John Adams faced many problems when he took office. However, Adams did not enjoy the same high level of fame and respect.

3. XYZ Affair ·      Foreign affairs occupied much of President Adams’ attention. ·      When the United States ratified Jay’s Treaty with Britain in 1795, France had responded with anger. ·      French warships seized American ships in the West Indies. The French refused to discuss the problem.

4. Talleyrand ·      In 1787, Adams sent three new ambassadors to Paris. ·      This time, the French foreign minister, Maurice de Talleyrand, said that there would be delays before talks could begin. Talleyrand was a shrewd man but not very honest.

5. Americans Are Outraged ·      He sent three agents to offer the Americans a deal. ·      The agents wanted money. ·      Talleyrand wanted $250,000 for himself and a loan to France of $10 million. ·      The Americans refuses and reported the incident to President Adams, referring to the agents as X, Y, and Z. ·      When Adams made the XYZ Affair public in 1798, most Americans were outraged.

6. ·      Americans were not willing to pay bribes to another nation. ·      The XYZ Affair ignited war fever in the United States. ·      But President Adams resisted the pressure to declare war on France. ·      Like Washington, he wanted to stay out of foreign affairs. Still, he could not ignore French attacks on American ships.

7. ·      So he moved to strengthen the Americans navy, and the Department of Navy was formed. ·      They built nearly a dozen frigates. ·      Frigates were large, fast sailing ships that carried as many as 44 guns. ·      U.S.S. Constitution was the best-known Frigate and it will be later called “Old Ironsides”, because it seemed like it was made of iron because it was as strong. Talleyrand was so impressed by the new American navy that he stopped attacking American ships.

8. Split in the Federalist Party ·      Many Federalists, led by Alexander Hamilton, wanted to ignore Talleyrand’s offer to negotiate. ·      They thought the U.S. would benefit from a war with France. War would force the U.S. to build a strong army and navy.

9. High Federalists ·      Also, they felt war with France would weaken support for Jefferson and the Republicans, who were sympathetic to the French. ·      President Adams was a Federalist, but he disagreed with Hamilton. ·      This led to a split within the party. Hamilton and his supporters were called High Federalists.

10. Convention of 1800 ·      Adams delayed building up an American army. ·      Adams sent over ambassadors to France to negotiate their problems. ·      They met Napoleon Bonaparte and Napoleon did not want to be bothered with problems in the United States so he signed an agreement known as the Convention of 1800. ·      In it, France agreed to stop seizing American ships. ·      Adams kept the nation out of war. ·      But peace cost him the support of many Federalists and split the party.

11. Alien and Sedition Acts ·      In 1798, High Federalists in Congress passed several strict laws. ·      The laws were known as the Alien and Sedition acts.

12. ·      They were meant to protect the United States in case of war. ·      The Alien Act allowed the President to expel any alien, or foreigner, who was thought to be dangerous to the country. ·      Another law made it harder for immigrants to become citizens. ·      Under the new law it went from 5 to 14 years a white male had to live in the U.S. before he could become a citizen. ·      The High Federalist passed this act because many recent immigrants supported Jefferson and the Republicans. ·      The act would keep immigrants from voting for years. Republicans hated these laws.

13. Sedition Act ·      They were even more outraged by the Sedition Act-means the stirring up of rebellion against a government. ·      Citizens could be fined and jailed if they criticized public officials. ·      Republicans said this violated the Constitution. First Amendment!

14. Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions ·      Vice President Jefferson believed that the Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional, that is, not permitted by the Constitution. ·      Jefferson called on states to act. ·      He argued that a state had the right to nullify, or cancel, a law passed by the federal government. ·      Kentucky and Virginia passed a series of resolutions in 1798 and 1799 known as the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions. ·      They stated that each state has the right to judge for itself if a law is constitutional. The Alien and Sedition Acts were dropped in the end.

15. Election of 1800 ·      Federalist power died down in the 1800s. ·      Jefferson ran on the Republican representative in the election of 1800. Aaron Burr ran for vice president and Adams ran for the Federalist candidate for presidency.

16. The Tie ·      Republicans won a large victory in Congress and when the Electoral College voted, Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes. ·      Who would then be president???? ·      According to the Constitution, in case of a tie vote, the House of Representatives decides the election. ·      The House voted 35 times. ·      Each time the vote remained a tie. ·      At last, the House voted Jefferson, as president Burr became V.P. ·      With the election of Republican President, the Federalist era came to an end. ·     

17. The Dual In 1804, the Federalist leader, Alexander Hamilton, was killed in a duel with Aaron Burr. ·      The Federalist Party lost power largely because it distrusted the ordinary citizen. But it did help build our great nation in the beginning years.  

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