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The American Revolution. Chapter 6. Choosing Sides. 1/3 American Loyalists (Tories) Often lived in urban and coastal areas. 1/3 Patriots ( actively supported ) 1/3 Did not care enough to fight Not just a war between the British and Americans; truly a civil war . Military Resources.

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choosing sides
Choosing Sides
  • 1/3 American Loyalists (Tories)
    • Often lived in urban and coastal areas.
  • 1/3 Patriots (actively supported)
  • 1/3 Did not care enough to fight
  • Not just a war between the British and Americans; truly a civil war.
military resources
Military Resources
  • British (far more resources)
    • Manpower
    • Navy
    • Professional armies
    • and mercenaries
  • Colonial
    • Short supply lines
    • Familiarity with area
    • George Washington
    • French
    • Willing to sustain war
the revolutionary war
The Revolutionary War
  • Congress struggled to provide the army with adequate supplies.
    • Inability to control colonies, raise money, draft men, etc.
  • “Regulars” versus the militia
    • Washington designed a defensive strategy to compensate for weakness.
    • The Americans lost most of the battles in the Revolutionary War.
turning points
Turning Points
  • On Christmas night, 1776, Washington slipped across the Delaware River at Trenton (New Jersey) with 2,400 men and surprised the drunken Hessians, killing or capturing over a thousand.
  • 6 American casualties.
turning points6
Turning Points
  • Victory at Saratoga (October 1777)
    • Horatio Gates and Benedict Arnold capture John Burgoyne and 9,500 British
    • Saratoga changed

everything

    • Franco-American

Alliance

turning points alliance with france
Turning Points:Alliance with France
  • In Paris, the French celebrated the Battle of Saratoga as a French victory.
    • The French had already been sending military supplies to the colonists
      • Most gunpowder in the first years of the war came from France.
  • On February 6, 1778, France and America signed two treaties:
    • A Treaty of Amity and Commerce (Recognition of U.S.)
    • A Treaty of Alliance
turning points8
Turning Points
  • The American Revolution became a global war.
  • Britain was fighting wars with America, France, Spain, and Dutch
    • Other theaters of war included India, the West Indies, and Florida.
    • British realized the rest of the empire at stake
the struggle in the south
The Struggle in the South
  • English politicians & generals believed that the war could be won in the South.
    • Loyalists were numerous in the backcountry
    • Planters could not afford to turn their guns away from their slaves
  • Capture Savannah (1778) & Charleston (1779)
the struggle in the south10
The Struggle in the South
  • Neighbors and even families fought and killed one another.
    • Both sides burned farms, tortured prisoners, etc.
    • White fears of rebellion
      • African American quests for liberty (1/3 of population)
      • Disagreement among British over freeing slaves
  • Kings Mountain (1780)
    • American victory over British
    • Turning point of war in the South
    • Followed by victory at Cowpens (January 1781)
    • British became convinced that they could not put down the rebellion in the South.
turning points12
Turning Points
  • Battle of Yorktown (Virginia)
    • October 19, 1781
    • Lord Charles Cornwallis surrounded by French fleet and surrenders to Washington
    • Over 7,000 British and Hessians became prisoners
  • Added to setbacks in other parts of the world, the British decided to end the war.
peace of paris 1783
Peace of Paris (1783)
  • An important factor in the conclusion of peace negotiations with Britain was the American decision to negotiate separately with the British.
  • Terms
    • U.S. political independence recognized
    • Mississippi River recognized as western border of the United States
    • Congress would not prevent the British merchants from collecting debts owed to them by Americans
    • Florida was given to Spain
results of the american revolution social effects
Results of the American Revolution: Social effects
  • Spirit of equality weakened old habits of deference
    • Example: voting qualifications were lowered
  • Higher education increased
    • Example: 14 colleges founded in 1780s and 90s to go with the 9 before Revolution
results of the american revolution social effects16
Results of the American Revolution: Social effects
  • Complete freedom of religion
    • Transition from the toleration of religious dissent to a complete freedom of religion in the separation of church and state
  • Legislative representation for the backcountry was increased
  • Weakened the major Indian tribes along the frontier / cleared the way for rapid settlement of the trans-Appalachian West
results of the american revolution slavery
Results of the American Revolution: Slavery
  • British army freed thousands of slaves; others escaped
    • 55,000 slaves fled to freedom during the Revolution
  • Slaves who fought for the colonies were given their freedom
  • Northern states began to outlaw slavery
    • Only Georgia and South Carolina continued to import.
results of the american revolution political
Results of the American Revolution: Political
  • Most political experimentation between 1776 and 1787 occurred at the state level with new state constitutions
    • The Articles of Confederation were ratified by the states in 1781; before then the Continental Congress operated as an extralegal body
  • Articles of Confederation (1781)
    • Weak central government with little authority
    • Congress was not intended as a legislature, nor as a sovereign entity unto itself, but as a collective substitute for the monarch – a plural executive rather than a parliamentary body
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