Cells
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Cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things . (Name the five kingdoms of living things.). Plant Cell. Animal Ce ll. Differences in plant and animal cells. Plant cells have : Cell walls Chloroplast 3. Large Vacuole Animal Cells have : NO cell wall

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Cells

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Cells

Cells

Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.

(Name the five kingdoms of living things.)


Plant cell

PlantCell


Animal ce ll

Animal Cell


Differences in plant and animal cells

Differences in plant and animal cells

Plant cells have :

  • Cell walls

  • Chloroplast

    3. Large Vacuole

    Animal Cells have :

  • NO cell wall

  • NO chloroplast

  • Smaller vacuole


Organelles

Organelles

Organelles are tiny

structures within the

cell that carry out

specific functions.


Cell wall

Cell Wall

The rigid layer of non-living material that surrounds the cells of plants and some organisms.


Cell membrane

Cell Membrane

Controls what substances come into and out of a cell.

All cells have a cell membrane.


Cells

Nucleus

Large oval structure found inside the cell.

Cell’s control center, directing all of the cell’s activities including

growth and reproduction.


Do you know

Do You Know???

1.What do we call cells that have a nucleus?

2.What do we call cells that do not have a nucleus?

3.What do we call organisms made of one cell?

4. What do we call organisms made of more than one cell?

eukaryotic

prokaryotic

single-celled

multi-celled


Cells

Nuclear Membrane

Surrounds the nucleus and protects it.

Materials pass in and out of the

nucleus through its small openings or

pores.


Chromatin

Chromatin

Thin strains of genetic material in the nucleus that directs the functions of the cell.


Nucleolus

Nucleolus

A structure in the nucleus where ribosomes are made.


Organelles in the cytoplasm

Organelles in the Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm is the clear, thick, gel-like fluid between the nucleus and cell membrane that is constantly moving. All cells have cytoplasm.

Organelles located here functions to

produce energy, build and transport needed materials, and store and recycle waste.


Cytoplasm

Cytoplasm


Mitochondria

Mitochondria

Rod-shaped organelles that produce

energy the cell needs to carry out

functions.

They are known as the “powerhouses”.


Endoplasmic reticulum

Endoplasmic Reticulum

A maze of passageways that carry proteins and other materials from part of the cell to another.


Ribosomes

Ribosomes

These organelles produce proteins.


Golgi bodies

Golgi Bodies

They receive proteins and materials from the E.R, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.


Vacuoles

Vacuoles

Store food, water, and other materials needed by the cell. They also store waste products.


Lysosomes

Lysosomes

These contain chemicals to break down large food particles and old cell parts to be recycled.

This is the cell’s “clean-up crew.”


Chloroplasts

Chloroplasts

The organelles capture energy

from sunlight and use it to

produce food for the cell.


Bacterial cells

  • Bacteria are single (one) – celled microscopic organisms. Bacteria do not have a

  • nucleus.(prokaryotic)

  • Inside a bacterial cell, the chromosome material is

  • floating inside the cytoplasm.

  • Some bacteria have circular DNA called plasmids.

  • Ribosomes are also found in the cytoplasm.

  • Bacteria have a cell membrane and a cell wall. Some have a flagellum.

  • Bacterial Cells


    Division of labor

    Division of Labor

    Within multi-cellular organisms there is division of labor. Division of labor means that the work (labor) of keeping the organism alive is divided (division) among the different parts of the body. Each part has a job to do and as each part does its special job, it works in harmony with all the other parts.

    The arrangement of specialized parts within a living thing is sometimes referred to as levels of organization.


    Levels of organization

    Levels of Organization

    Level One – Cells

    Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of all living things.


    Cells lots of different kinds here are two examples can you guess what kind

    Cells: LOTS of Different Kinds!Here are two examples. Can you guess what kind?

    Nerve Cells

    Skin Cells


    Second level tissues

    Second Level: Tissues

    In any multi-cellular organism, cells rarely work alone. Tissues are a group of similar cells that perform the same function.

    There are four basic/major types of tissues in the human body: Muscle tissue, nerve tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.


    Let s look again

    Let’s Look Again…

    Here are the cells we saw before, but if you look closely, you can see that they all look similar. Nerve cells working together make nerve tissue, and skin cells make up a special type of epithelial tissue.


    Taken one at a time

    Connective tissue connects and supports parts of the body. Blood, fat, ligaments, cartilage, bones, and tendons are all connective tissues.

    Taken One At A Time….

    Nerve tissue carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves are made up of nerve tissue.

    Epithelial tissue covers and lines the surfaces of your body and organs, inside and out. They primarily serve as protective barriers. Skin is one example.

    Muscle tissue can contract, or shorten. Because of this, muscle tissue makes parts of your body move.


    Cells

    Level Three: OrgansWhen a bunch of different types of tissues work together, they form an organ. There are many organs in the body. How many can you name??

    GET IT????


    Level four organ systems

    Level Four: Organ Systems

    Each organ in your body is part of an organ system, a group of organs that work together to perform a major function.

    For example, your heart is part of your circulatory system, which carries oxygen and other materials throughout your body. Besides the heart, blood vessels are organs that work in your circulatory system.


    Cells

    The nervous system detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body; controls most body functions.

    The immune system fights disease.

    The excretory system removes wastes.

    The endocrine system controls many body processes by means of chemicals, like hormones.


    Cells

    The muscular system enables the body to move; moves food through the digestive system, and keeps the heart beating.

    The skeletal system supports and protects the body, and works with the muscular system to allow movement; makes and stores blood cells and stores some other materials.


    Cells

    The digestive system takes food into the body, breaks the food down into smaller particles, and absorbs the digested materials.

    The respiratory system takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide.

    The reproductive system produces sex cells that can unite with other sex cells to create offspring; controls male and female characteristics.


    Let s review

    Let’s Review….

    • 1st Level: Cells working together form

    • 2nd Level: Tissues, which can form

    • 3rd Level: Organs, which work together to form

    • 4th Level: Organ Systems, which work together to form

    • 5th Level: Organisms!


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