Cells. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things . (Name the five kingdoms of living things.). Plant Cell. Animal Ce ll. Differences in plant and animal cells. Plant cells have : Cell walls Chloroplast 3. Large Vacuole Animal Cells have : NO cell wall
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things.
(Name the five kingdoms of living things.)
Plant cells have :
3. Large Vacuole
Animal Cells have :
Organelles are tiny
structures within the
cell that carry out
The rigid layer of non-living material that surrounds the cells of plants and some organisms.
Controls what substances come into and out of a cell.
All cells have a cell membrane.
Large oval structure found inside the cell.
Cell’s control center, directing all of the cell’s activities including
growth and reproduction.
1.What do we call cells that have a nucleus?
2.What do we call cells that do not have a nucleus?
3.What do we call organisms made of one cell?
4. What do we call organisms made of more than one cell?
Surrounds the nucleus and protects it.
Materials pass in and out of the
nucleus through its small openings or
Thin strains of genetic material in the nucleus that directs the functions of the cell.
A structure in the nucleus where ribosomes are made.
Cytoplasm is the clear, thick, gel-like fluid between the nucleus and cell membrane that is constantly moving. All cells have cytoplasm.
Organelles located here functions to
produce energy, build and transport needed materials, and store and recycle waste.
Rod-shaped organelles that produce
energy the cell needs to carry out
They are known as the “powerhouses”.
A maze of passageways that carry proteins and other materials from part of the cell to another.
These organelles produce proteins.
They receive proteins and materials from the E.R, package them, and distribute them to other parts of the cell.
Store food, water, and other materials needed by the cell. They also store waste products.
These contain chemicals to break down large food particles and old cell parts to be recycled.
This is the cell’s “clean-up crew.”
The organelles capture energy
from sunlight and use it to
produce food for the cell.
Within multi-cellular organisms there is division of labor. Division of labor means that the work (labor) of keeping the organism alive is divided (division) among the different parts of the body. Each part has a job to do and as each part does its special job, it works in harmony with all the other parts.
The arrangement of specialized parts within a living thing is sometimes referred to as levels of organization.
Level One – Cells
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function of all living things.
In any multi-cellular organism, cells rarely work alone. Tissues are a group of similar cells that perform the same function.
There are four basic/major types of tissues in the human body: Muscle tissue, nerve tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial tissue.
Here are the cells we saw before, but if you look closely, you can see that they all look similar. Nerve cells working together make nerve tissue, and skin cells make up a special type of epithelial tissue.
Connective tissue connects and supports parts of the body. Blood, fat, ligaments, cartilage, bones, and tendons are all connective tissues.
Nerve tissue carries messages back and forth between the brain and every other part of the body. The brain, spinal cord, and nerves are made up of nerve tissue.
Epithelial tissue covers and lines the surfaces of your body and organs, inside and out. They primarily serve as protective barriers. Skin is one example.
Muscle tissue can contract, or shorten. Because of this, muscle tissue makes parts of your body move.
Level Three: OrgansWhen a bunch of different types of tissues work together, they form an organ. There are many organs in the body. How many can you name??
Each organ in your body is part of an organ system, a group of organs that work together to perform a major function.
For example, your heart is part of your circulatory system, which carries oxygen and other materials throughout your body. Besides the heart, blood vessels are organs that work in your circulatory system.
The nervous system detects and interprets information from the environment outside the body and from within the body; controls most body functions.
The immune system fights disease.
The excretory system removes wastes.
The endocrine system controls many body processes by means of chemicals, like hormones.
The muscular system enables the body to move; moves food through the digestive system, and keeps the heart beating.
The skeletal system supports and protects the body, and works with the muscular system to allow movement; makes and stores blood cells and stores some other materials.
The digestive system takes food into the body, breaks the food down into smaller particles, and absorbs the digested materials.
The respiratory system takes oxygen into the body and eliminates carbon dioxide.
The reproductive system produces sex cells that can unite with other sex cells to create offspring; controls male and female characteristics.