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Dr. Jean Watson,
PhD, RN, AHN- BC, FAAN Watson Caring Science Institute
Distinguished Professor of Nursing
University of Colorado, Denver
Caring Science and Human Caring Theory
Presented by Emily Becker, Laura Dryjanski, and Kristen Neigebauer
“I emphasize that it is possible to read, study, learn about, even teach and research the caring theory; however, to truly "get it," one has to personally experience it; thus the model is both an invitation and an opportunity to interact with the ideas, experiment with and grow within the philosophy, and living it out in one’s personal/professional life.”
According to Watson (2001), there are three main conceptual elements comprising her theory:
2. The development & utilization of the transpersonal caring relationship
“It is when we include caring and love in our work and our life that we discover and affirm that nursing, like teaching, is more than just a job; it is also a life-giving and life-receiving career for a lifetime of growth and learning” (Parker, 2001). -Jean Watson
(Philosophical and Scientific)
(Watson 1985, pg 74)
“In a transpersonal caring relationship, a spiritual union occurs between two persons, where both are capable of transcending self, time, space, and the life history of each other.
In other words, the nurse enters into the experience (phenomenal field) of another and the other person enters into the nurse’s experience. This shared experience creates its own phenomenal field and becomes part of a larger, deeper, complex pattern of life.”
(Watson, 1985, p. 66-67)
Watson refers to these as “caring processes” or carative factors
10 Carative Factors
The formation of a humanistic-altruistic system of values
The instillation of faith-hope
The cultivation of sensitivity to one’s self and to others
The development of a helping-trust relationship
The promotion and acceptance of the expression of positive and negative feelings
The systematic use of the scientific problem-solving method for decision making
The promotion of interpersonal teaching-learning
The provision for a supportive, protective, and (or) corrective mental, physical, sociocultural, and spiritual environment
Assistance with the gratification of human needs
The allowance for existential-phenomenological forces
(Watson, 1985, p. 74)
0:11 What motivated you to introduce
0:13 a humanistic perspective into your theory?
0:42 Why do you think that
0:43 psychology is important in nursing?
1:03 Do you think that showing empathy
1:06 to patients is positive?
1:39 Is it possible to apply your theory
1:41 in hospitals?
2:23 What advice would you give our classmates and ourselves,
2:27 first year students,
2:28 in order for us to become good nurses?
another interview link: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qX1fxKfZifo
Discussion of scientific, philosophic and praxiologic (how to) knowledge necessary to practice nursing according to Jean Watson’s Theory of Caring
Can still be empowered to be at peace within self to create loving environments for patients for the opportunity of having a spiritual connection
The culture of today has a lack of meaningful communication, lack of humanity and caring that puts the nursing discipline at risk for surviving. The concepts of care and love are universal and yet are not incorporated into the daily routines of nurses. There needs to be a conscious decision to shift our thinking and change our patients’ care from autopilot to a more ethical, caring, loving, and sensitive process. In order to integrate Jean Watson’s Theory of Human Caring, knowledge of Eastern philosophy would be helpful, however it is not required (Cohen, 1991).
To practice nursing like Watson wanted, it does not take much time; it simply takes a caring heart, soft hands, and an open mind to enhance the healing process of patients and their families!
Bevis, E. O., & Watson, J. (1989). Toward a caring curriculum: a new pedagogy for nursing. New York, New York: National League for Nursing Press.
Cohen, J. A.Two portraits of caring: a comparison of the artists, Leininger and Watson. Journal of Advanced Nursing, February. 1991. pp. 899-909.
Fawcett, J. (2002) The nurse theorists: 21st century updates- Jean Watson. Nursing Science Quarterly, 15(3), 214-219)
Parker, M. E. (2001). Nursing theories and nursing practice. Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.
Quinn, J., Smith, M., Swanson, K., Ritenbaugh, C., Swanson, K., & Watson, J. (2003) Research guidelines for assessing the impact of the healing relationship in clinical nursing. Alternative Therapies, 9(3). A65-A79.
Ryan, L. (2005). The journey to integrate Watson’s Caring Theory with clinical practice. International Journal of Human Caring, 9(3), 26-30.
Smith, M. J., Liehr, P. R. (2008). Middle Range Theory for Nursing. (2nd Ed.). New York,NY: Springer, LLC.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1985). Nursing: Human Science and Human Care. Connecticut, USA: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
Watson, J. (1997). The theory of human caring: Retrospective and prospective. Nursing Science Quarterly, 10(1), 49-52.
Watson, J. (1999). Postmodern nursing and beyond. Toronto, Canada: Churchill Livingstone.
Watson, J. (2000). Via negativa: Considering caring by way of non-caring. The Australian Journal of Holistic Nursing, 7(1), 4-8.
Watson, J. (2001). Jean Watson: Theory of human caring. In M.E. Parker (Ed.), Nursing theories and nursing practice (pp. 343-354). Philadelphia: Davis.
Watson, J. (2002). Guest editorial: Nursing: Seeking its source and survival. ICU NURS WEBJ Issue 9, pp1-7 Spring.
Watson, J. (2002). Assessing and Measuring Caring in Nursing and Health Science. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.
Watson, J. & Foster, R. (2003). The Attending Nurse Caring Model: Integrating theory, evidence and advanced caring-healing therapeutics for transforming professional practice. Journal of Clinical Nursing; 12: 360-365.
Watson, J. (2005). Love and Caring. Reprinted. Alternative Journal of Nursing, Vol 9. www.altjn.com
Watson, J. (2009). JHHSA Spring. Caring Science and Human Caring Theory: Transforming Personal and Professional Practices of Nursing and Health Care. pp. 466-482.
Watson, Jean. (n. d.). Watson Caring Science Institute. Retrieved October 1st, 2011, from http://www.watsoncaringscience.org/index.cfm.