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CLEAN & ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIES: Political Will, Capacity Building and Peoples' Participation. Global People’s Forum Josep Puig i Boix Alternativa Verda Green Map Johannesburg August - September, 2002. Humans and Cities. World Population

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Clean energy efficient cities political will capacity building and peoples participation l.jpg

CLEAN & ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIES: Political Will, Capacity Building and Peoples' Participation

Global People’s Forum

Josep Puig i Boix

Alternativa Verda

Green Map

Johannesburg

August - September, 2002


Humans and cities l.jpg

Humans and Cities

World Population

1975: 4 billion, 38% living in cities (1.52 billion)

1999: 6 billion, 47% living in cities (2.82 billion)

2006: 6.5 billion, 50% living in cities (3.27 billion)

half of human population will live in cities

(according to UN)

2


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Unsustainable Path

  • Global Carbon Emissions: since 1991 > 6*109 tons

  • Global Gross Product: 20.5*1012 $ (18.5x1012 $ fossil fuels)

  • Global Carbon Efficiency: 3,083 $/tnC

  • Japan: 10,839 $/tnC (the highest in the world)

  • Japan: 2.35 tnC/capita

  • World: 6 billion inhabitants (2.35 tnC/capita)

  • Global Carbon Emissions: > 14*109 tons

  • IPCC recommends 60% reduction: 2.54*109 tons

3


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Energy System: chain of technology

Primary Secondary Energy

Energy Energy Services

coal power plants electricity houses warm meals

oil refineries petrol buses clean clothes

solar mines stoves

hydro lamps

wind

Supply

Technologies

End-Use

Technologies

4


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesMDES

Energy Services (electricity) & End-Use Technologies:

  • Lighting: 1000 lumen average (6 inc.lamps, each 60 W, 6 hours/day)

  • Refrigeration: 200 liter refrigerator(+5oC) + 100 liter freezer (-18oC)

  • Washing: automatic electric washing machine (non electric heating)

    200 laundry washings per year, each 4 kg

  • Electronics: TV-watching, radio listening, computer use, other

  • Ventilation: supply of fresh air in high rise buildings

    Energy Services (non electric) & End-Use Technologies:

  • cooking: 3 meals per day

  • hot water: clothes washing & personal cleaning

5


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Minimum Domestic Energy Services MDES - Electricicity (1)

Energy Services (electricity) & End-Use Technologies:

conventionalefficient

kWh/y W W/cap kWh/y Watt W/cap

Lighting788 90.00 22.50 280 32 8

Refrigeration 850 97.03 24.26 140 16 4

Washing 400 45.66 11.42 70 8 2

Electronics 2483 283.46 70.87 350 40 10

Ventilation 500 57.08 14.27 105 12 3

Other uses 1987 226.77 56.69 280 32 8

total 7008 800.00 200.00 1226 140 35

Source: Norgard, J.S. (1992), Low Electricity Europe: Sustainable Options, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby

6


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Minimum Domestic Energy (electricity) ServicesWorld’s Urban Population (1)

World cities population (2006): 3.27 billion

W/cap TWh/year

End-Use conventional 200 5,729

Technologies efficient 35 1,003

(only domestic sector, not including service sector nor industry)

7


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorld’s Urban Population (2)

Supply Technology - conventional

Coal TPP (Steam T 36%)

SO2 NOx CO2

Mtn Mtn Mtn

End-Useconventional98.54 7.39 5,064

Technology efficient17.24 1.29 886

(1022 or 179 Coal TPP units, each 800 MW with a CF=0.8)

8


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorld’s Urban Population (3)

Supply Technology - conventional

CCGT (gas+steam, 53%)

SO2 NOx CO2

Mtn Mtn Mtn

End-Useconventional 0 0.57 1,977

Technology efficient 0 0.10 346

(4088 or 715 CCGT, each 200 MW with a CF=0.8)

9


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorld’s Urban Population (4)

Supply Technology - conventional

Nuclear Power Plant (PWR, 36%)

Spent Plutoniumemissions Fuelair+water tn.tn.Bq*1012

E-Uconv. 20,438 163.554,426

Tech.effic. 3,577 28.6 9,525

(818 or 143 Nuclear Plants, 1000 MW each, with a CF=0.8)

10


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorld’s Urban Population (5)

Supply Technology - conventional

Nuclear Power Plant (PWR, 36%)

yelow cakeUranium wastes U3O8 Oreliquids solids

tn. tn*106tn*106 tn*106

E-Uconv. 155,325 213 368 245

Tech.effic. 27,182 37 64 43

(85 % radioactivity)

(818 or 143 Nuclear Plants, 1000 MW each, with a CF=0.8)

11


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorld’s Urban Population (6)

Supply Technology - RES

clean & renewable energies

SO2 NOx CO2

Mtn Mtn Mtn

End-Useconventional 0 0 0

Technology efficient 0 0 0

12


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesWorld’s Urban Population (7)

Supply Technology - RES

clean & renewable energies

energy capacity surface capacity surface

TWh GWSEGS km2 GWWECS km2

E-Uconv. 5,729 1,869 36,063 2,180 87,200

Tech.effic. 1,003 327 6,311 382 15,260

SEGS (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF: 0.3; LU: 4 Ha/MW)

13


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Barcelona energy flow

14


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Barcelona renewable energy flow

15


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesBarcelona (1)

Barcelona population (1997): 1,505,581

W/cap GWh/year

End-Use conventional 200 2,638

Technologies efficient 35 462

real (1998) 102 1,348

(only domestic sector, not including service sector nor industry)

16


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesBarcelona (2)

Supply Technology - conventional

TPP/CCGT - NukPP

End-Useconventional 377 MW

Technology efficient 66 MW real (1998) 192 MW

(CF= 0.8)

17


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Minimum Domestic Energy ServicesBarcelona (3)

Supply Technology - RES

clean & renewable energies

energy capacity surface capacity surface

GWh MWSEGS km2 MWWECS km2

E-Uconv. 2,638 860 16.61 1,004 10.04

Tech.effic. 462 151 2.91 176 1.75

real(1998) 1,348 440 8.49 513 5.13

SEGS (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF: 0.25; LU: 1 Ha/MW

18


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Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun and Wind (1)

Electricity SEGS(th) WECS

consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf.

GWh MW km2 MW km2

  • Total5,385 1,756 33.9 2,459 24.6

  • Domestic1,348 440 8.5 616 6.2

  • Com/ind.3,917 1,278 24.6 1,789 17.9

  • Transport 120 39 0.8 55 0.6

    SEGS (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF: 0.25; LU: 1 Ha/MW)

19


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Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun (1)

Electricity SEGS(th) SEGS(PV)

consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf.

GWh MW km2 MW km2

  • Total5,385 1,756 33.9 2,442 24.4

  • Domèstic1,348 440 8.5 611 6.1

  • Com/ind3,917 1,278 24.6 1,777 17.7

  • Transport 120 39 0.8 54 0.5

    SEGSth (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - SEGSPV (EF: 0.15; LU: 1 Ha/MW)

20


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Barcelona: producing all the electricity consumed with Sun (2)

Electricity SEGSPV

consumed Capac. Surf.

GWh MW km2 m2/inh m2/aprt.

  • Total5,384.7 2,442 24.4 16.2 36.5

  • Domèstic1,348.1 611 6.1 4.1 9.1

  • Com/ind.3,917.1 1,777 17.7 11.7 26.5

  • Transport 119.6 54 0.5 0.4 0.8

    SEGSPV (EF: 0.15; LU: 1 Ha/MW)

21


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Barcelona: Heating Water with the Sun

  • Energy Consumption for Domestic Hot Water:

    Natural Gas: 558 GWh/year

    Electricity: 337 GWh/year

    Total895 GWh/year

  • Total area needed: 1.5 km2 (city: 100 km2)

  • Total area per person: 1.0 m2

  • Total area per apartment:2.3 m2

  • Total area per building: 19.0 m2

22


Realising the energy efficiency and the renewable energy potential l.jpg

Realising the Energy Efficiency and the Renewable Energy Potential

Three conditions:

  • political will: political commitment

  • technical ability: committed & skilled technicians

  • people’s involvement: public participation

    PARTNERSHIP

23


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (1)

Barcelona, June 1995 - May 1999:

  • A committed group of people worked hard to open the door to the Energy Sustainability into the city

  • An interesting set of circunstances came together to make it happen:

    • municipality

    • RE Companies

    • RE NGOs

24


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (2)

  • Municipality

    As a result of the 1995 municipal elections the city government adopted sustainability as a issue.

    April 22nd., 1998: the Plenary Session of the City Council adopted a political decision on Energy Sustainability, including:

    • promotion of energy efficiency,

    • use of renewable energies,

    • information to the citizens,

    • cooperation with other local energy actors.

25


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (3)

  • To implement policies the municipality made use of two key instruments:

    • the Civic Table on Energy (‘Taula Cívica de l’Energia’)

    • the Local Energy Agency (‘BarnaGEL - Barcelona Grup de Energia Local’).

26


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (4)

  • The Civic Table on Energy (municipal body)

    created in 1994 as a result of a public hearing on environment and energy

    involveslocal officials/stafffrom different departments of the city council with a localrepresentative of a NGO energy platform Barcelona Saves Energy (‘Barcelona Estalvia Energia - BEE’)

    main objective: to build complicitieson energy from all people in different departments of the city council.

27


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (5)

  • The local Energy Agency BarnaGEL(independent)

    EU-PERU (now SAVE) project, 1994

    Main proposers:Leicester City Council and Metropolitan Area of Barcelona

    Other local Partners:Ecoserveis (local NGO on energy & environment), ICAEN (Regional Energy Agency of Catalonia) and UAB (Autonomous University of Barcelona)

    Main objective: to build complicities between local actors in order to develop energy projects

28


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (6)

  • The results of the work (1995 -1999)

    • doubling the solar th collector area

      • solar thermal: from 700 to 1,350 m2

    • 29 times more solar PV collector area

      • solar PV: from 80 to 2,400 m2

    • an EE&RE demo caravan

    • the Sustainable City Resources Centre

    • the Solar Law (Solar Ordinance)

29


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (7)

  • The solar/wind/efficient caravan:

    Equipment being used in Barcelona city and around Barcelona province’s villages and cities to show in real operation how a house could run with renewables and energy efficient appliances

35


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (8)

  • The Sustainable City Resources Centre:

    A municipal fixed facility equipped with a permanent exhibition with energy efficient devices and appliances and renewable energy devices. It’s open to the public, free of charge, since May 1999.

35


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (9)

  • The Solar Law or the Barcelona Ordinanceon Application of Solar Thermal Energy Systems into the Buildings

    The Law enforces all the new buildings to be built in Barcelona (and all the integrally retrofitted buildings) to have Solar Thermal Water Systems to cover 60 % of sanitary water heating needs.

    Adopted by the Plenary Session of the Council (July 1999)

    Mandatory since 1st August 2000.

32


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (10)

  • Solar Thermal Water Systems in all the existing municipal sports facilities.

    Two first installations completed:

    • Poliesportiu Torrent de Melis (74 m2 of solar collectors)

    • Piscina Bon Pastor (80 m2 of solar collectors).

33


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (11)

  • A PV Solar Roof at the two main buildings of the City Hall

    EC Thermie Project

    1,000 m2, 100 kWp

34


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (12)

  • Efficient lighting systems at the City Hall Buildings:

    - replacement of all Incandescent Lamps in the City Hall buildings (October 1995)

    - replacement of all old fluorescent lighting systems in a main City Hall building -8 flats- (April 1998): savings of more than 250,000 kWh/year.

35


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (13)

  • Biogas valorisation from organic fraction of wastes

    • Garraf Landfill

    • 3 Methanisation Plants (75,000 tn each)

36


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Realising the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (14)

  • All that have not been possible without a lot of complicities, ranging from companies to NGOs.


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Realising the EE and the RE Potential: the case of Barcelona (15)

  • The future

    I hope that the work done until now will expand and in the next future we will see Barcelona city and its metropolitan area as a region where the Sun plays an important role as a energy source providing the required energy services (with end-use efficient technologies) for living lightly on the Earth.


Clean energy efficient cities global people s forum l.jpg

CLEAN & ENERGY EFFICIENT CITIESGlobal People’s Forum

Josep Puig i Boix

e-mail: [email protected]

web: www.energiasostenible.org

END


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