The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability
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The Australian Experience in Developing a CMD&V Capability. Australian Airborne Countermeasures Team (AACT). Mark Pitt Head Electro-optic Countermeasures Electronic Warfare & Radar Division, DSTO. UNCLASSIFIED. Australian Airborne Countermeasures Team. JEWOSU. DSTO. JEWOSU. DSTO. JEWOSU.

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The Australian Experience in Developing a CMD&V Capability

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The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

The Australian Experience in Developinga CMD&V Capability

Australian Airborne Countermeasures Team (AACT)

Mark Pitt

Head Electro-optic Countermeasures

Electronic Warfare & Radar Division, DSTO

UNCLASSIFIED


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Australian Airborne Countermeasures Team

JEWOSU

DSTO

JEWOSU

DSTO

JEWOSU

DSTO

EO TEAM

EO TEAM

EO TEAM

RF TEAM

RF TEAM

RF TEAM

TW TEAM

TW TEAM

TW TEAM

SUPPORT and CONTRACTED STAFF

The AACT

Oversight / Management / Leadership

CMD&V SG / CMD&V MP / CMD&V MB


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

CMD&V

  • Aircraft are fitted with electronic warfare self-protection (EWSP) equipment:

    • Missile Warning Systems (MWS)

    • Countermeasures (flares, chaff and jammers)

  • Countermeasure development & validation:

    • EWSP equipment doesn’t provide protection in-itself

    • CMD&V is about optimising and validating the tactics and associated algorithms and protection sequences


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

The situation in 2003

  • Cons:

    • Few platforms had effective EWSP

    • Limited validation

    • Everyone was convinced that THEIR platform (and no other) was the HIGHEST priority

    • The burden of EWSP “tail” was not fully appreciated

    • Little exposure of EWSP (familiarity)

  • Pros:

    • Technical intelligence capability and database

    • R&D capability in CMs and tactics (DSTO & JEWOSU)

    • Phase 1/1A of Project ECHIDNA provided for an EWSP ground environment:

      • A project definition study (PDS)

      • An Operational Concept Document (OCD)

      • A budget for equipment and infrastructure

      • An operating budget

    • Collocation of JEWOSU & DSTO

    • PA10 – much of the CMD&V infrastructure developed as prototype


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

The vision

  • Client focus (GPCAPT Teager, then CO JEWOSU):

    • Drafting & staffing a DI(G)

    • Formation of a Countermeasures Branch

    • Introduction of Tactical EW Analysis Notes to provide single-point EW advice

  • Limited to ADF aircraft EWSP

  • Australian Airborne Countermeasures Team (AACT) (JEWOSU & DSTO):

    • Development of AACT Trial Reporting instead of separate approaches

    • Dedicated effort by CMB and DSTO Task Staff

      • DSTO task that incorporates all relevant Division expertise (EWRD, WSD, AVD, ISRD)

    • Development of the CMD&V Master Plan

    • AOSG as the client for CMD&V


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Case Study Outline

  • The AACT

  • Key elements:

    • Agreed prioritisation

    • Problem breakdown

    • Transparency

    • Team approach

  • Experience and conclusions


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Agreed Prioritisation

  • Operational Concept Document (OCD):

    • No guidance on process for priority

    • Envisaged series of threat-platform plans

    • Stovepiped rather than coordinated

  • Integrated approach to take advantage of commonalities:

    • many platforms have the same signatures

    • threats are common to many platforms

    • similar flares/jammers/CMDS are used

  • CMD&V Principles on Prioritisation:

    • Priorities are set, at least initially, without regard to resources

    • To ensure the process is transparent, a final process of identifying unmet priorities is implemented


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

FEG Operations

Threat System MEZ

Countermeasure effectiveness

Platform residual vulnerability

Threat proliferation

FEG Threat Rank (1)

Force composition weighting

(3)

ADF threat priority (4)

Operating platform priorities

  • Most important factor is that the process is:

    • defined,

    • recorded (in the Master Plan),

    • AGREED by an appropriate authority,

    • ADHERED TO (or altered by the appropriate authority).

Reduces priority when high effectiveness and confidence

Reduces priority when threat knowledge is low


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

DI(G) OPS 13.13, EWSP for ADF Aircraft – CMD&V

  • Management Body

  • JEWOSU

  • CO (Chair)

  • OIC CM Branch

  • 2IC CM Branch

  • EWRD

  • Head EOCM

  • Head RFCM

  • Head Aerosystems EW

  • Invited representatives

  • DIO

  • ADF FEG Commander Reps

  • Head Pyrotechnics (WSD)

  • DMO

  • Steering Group

  • DG Capability Management – AF (chair)

  • DG Aerospace Development

  • Chief of Staff, HQ Air Command

  • Commander 16BDE (Aviation)

  • Commander, Australian Navy Aviation Grp

  • Commander, AOSG

  • Invited representatives:

  • Chief of Staff, SOCOM

  • DG Electronic Warfare (DMO)

  • ASRP-AF

  • RL (AIR) – EWRD

  • Director Missile Systems (DIO)

  • CO JEWOSU

CMD&V authority


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

CMD&V Master Plan


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Year

Year

Acqusitions

Acqusitions

CMD&V Implications

CMD&V Implications

Signature for HIL

Signature for HIL

Airframe and CMDS model for HIL

Airframe and CMDS model for HIL

2004

2004

-

-

05

05

Project

Project

Flare trajectories for HIL

Flare trajectories for HIL

Jammer implementation in HIL

Jammer implementation in HIL

RCS Measurement of platform for

RCS Measurement of platform for

development of chaff programs

development of chaff programs

2005

2005

-

-

06

06

Project

Project

Characterisation of chaff expendables

Characterisation of chaff expendables

HIL CM effectiveness studies to

HIL CM effectiveness studies to

ascertain optimal sequences

ascertain optimal sequences

2006

2006

-

-

07

07

AIR54XX

Initial DIRCM trial early FY0607

Initial DIRCM trial early FY0607

2007

2007

-

-

08

08

Project

Project

Resource supplementation

Resource supplementation

Resource supplementation

PA10 Task 6.2 ($x) to implement

PA10 Task 6.2 ($x) to implement

PA10 Task 6.2 ($x) to implement

2008

2008

-

-

09

09

Project

Project

jammer

jammer

jammer

in HIL (complete Jul 05)

in HIL (complete Jul 05)

in HIL (complete Jul 05)

PA10 Task 7 ($x) partially implemented

PA10 Task 7 ($x) partially implemented

PA10 Task 7 ($x) partially implemented

signature in HIL

signature in HIL

signature in HIL

AEW&C funded laser plume trials (RAF

Project funded laser plume trials (RAF

AEW&C funded laser plume trials (RAF

2009

2009

-

-

10

10

Project

Project

Portreath

Portreath

Portreath)

) in Apr 03 and Apr 05

) in Apr 03 and Apr 05

EWSP acquisition priorities


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

FEG Priorities and Validation Status

ANNEX A

Priority List

EWSP Acquisitions

Significant knowledge shortfalls

Knowledge Audit

Dynamic elements

Scheduled

elements

Priority list development


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Problem breakdown

(or knowledge audit)

  • Threat systems’ performance, characteristics and vulnerability

  • Platforms to be defended – signatures, platform configuration, platform performance

  • Threat warning – signatures of threats, response time, sensitivity, bandwidth and capability of warning sensors

  • Expendables used for CMs – trajectories, spatial extent, spectra and temporal signature

  • Jammers – power available, response time, spectra, modulation and beam patterns


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Knowledge audit – threat example


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Knowledge audit – platform example


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Knowledge audit - definitions


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

CMD&V Principles

  • Problem breakdown:

    • The underlying knowledge and skills needed to achieve CMD&V priorities, and the time required to develop these, are identified as part of the prioritisation process and are recognised as equally important as operational drivers in achieving the desired outcomes.

    • Where subjective ratings are used, these ratings are done against a defined scale applicable to CMD&V activity.


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Priority list example


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Unmet priorities

Dynamic elements

FEG Priorities and Validation Status

(Annex A)

Dependencies

Priority List

(Annex D)

Scheduled

elements

EWSP Acquisitions

Annex B)

Significant knowledge shortfalls

Knowledge Audit

(Annex C)

Next FY

Next FY

NextFY

Next FY

Annex G – CMD&V Personnel Plan

Annex E – CMD&V Activity Plan

Annex H – CMD&V Finance Summary

Annex F – CMD&V System Plan

FY + 2

Etc.

FY + 3

FY + 2

FY + 3

Etc.

FY + 3

Etc.

FY + 2

FY + 3

Etc.

FY + 2

Planning in traceable manner


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

CMD&V Annual Report

  • Transparency:

  • All activity, system development and personnel development are linked to priorities in a traceable manner.

  • An Annual Report evaluates performance of the overall CMD&V Master Plan and provides a baseline for the next round of planning.


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

AACT in the field


The australian experience in developing a cmd v capability

Experience & conclusions

  • What was required:

    • Operational imperative,

    • Auditable prioritisation process (recovery),

    • Operational engagement,

    • EWSP fitted platforms,

    • Effective management of a program, and

    • Funding.

  • What we have done:

    • Defence Instruction (AF) and CAF as Capability Manager,

    • CMD&V Master Plan,

    • Steering Group,

    • Numerous new projects (two-edged sword), and

    • Management Body, and

    • Endorsement of Master Plan  Approval of funds.

  • Challenges:

  • Sustaining of what has been developed,

  • CMD&V beyond self-protection and against complex systems of systems,

  • CMD&V beyond the Air environment


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