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Good afternoon, everyone! Today we still have a lot more to review. Let’s continue talking about. Complex Sentences. Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses: a main clause, and a subordinate clause.

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Good afternoon, everyone!

Today we still have a lot more to review.

Let’s continue talking about

Complex Sentences


Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses:a main clause, and a subordinate clause.

A subordinate clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction:


Let’s practice using:

Now, let’s talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of Time.

when

while

as

whenever

as soon as

after

before

since

until


To show a sequence of events, each conjunction usually appears with a particular tense.

You may be the following guidelines useful:

when + simple

while + continuous

as (when) + simple

as (while) + continuous

whenever + simple

as soon as + perfect


Athiwat often goes skiing appears with a particular tense. when he has free time.


When night came appears with a particular tense. , the wanderers fell asleep.


While Thongchai appears with a particular tense. was going to the library,Athikan, Surachet and Paween enjoyed dancing.


Khro…..k appears with a particular tense.

As Mr. Brown was driving, his wife was taking a nap.


As Thapakorn was digging the ground appears with a particular tense. ,Suppanit was planting some trees.


Why do I love you so? appears with a particular tense.

As she looked into his eyes,she realized how much he loved her.


Whenever she has free time, appears with a particular tense. Woraya rides a horse on her farm.


We began to sing appears with a particular tense. as soon as we had set up our tent.


Exercise 3
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 3

1. As I went into the room, I saw John

lying on the floor.

2. When she came home, her husband

was cooking dinner.

3. While my sister was watching television,

the telephone rang.

4. As soon as she had had dinner, she

began to read a novel.


Exercise 31
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 3

5. She had done the work before she went

to the movie.

6. When Tom saw his sister, she was

cooking dinner.

7. As I looked at him, I thought of a

baboon.

8. As John turned around, Tom suddenly

stopped talking.


Exercise 32
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 3

9. When I walked towards him, he looked

at me angrily.

10. While I was cleaning my room, he was

washing his clothes.


Other conjunctions precede clauses in different tenses. appears with a particular tense.

after + perfect

before + simple

since + simple

until + simple


After Thammakorn had finished his piano lesson, appears with a particular tense. he went to his trumpet class.


After he had studied for a while, appears with a particular tense. he began to feel sleepy.


Before the little boy got back to his house, appears with a particular tense. he had found a toy truck.


My little sister had climbed a tree appears with a particular tense. before she fell down and broke her leg.


They have been in love with each other appears with a particular tense. since they first met.


They enjoyed their romantic moments at Kaeng Lerng Jarn appears with a particular tense. until they got hungry.


They listened to music at the club appears with a particular tense. until the kids wanted to go home.


Exercise 4
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 4

1. After he had gone to see is parents, he

visited his aunt.

2. She had finished her work before she

went to bed.

3. He had been listening to the radio since

he got up.

4. I was worried about the problem until my

sister told me what actually happened.


Exercise 41
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 4

5. She cried in her room until someone

knocked at the door.

6. The old lady had thought about her plan

before she went to see the police.

7. She has been talkative since she was

a little girl.

8. My students had been quiet for a while

before they began to talk again.


Exercise 42
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 4

9. Before we saw a man running across

the yard, we had heard a frightening

scream.

10. The girl decided to consult her parents

after she had thought about the

problem for several days.


We will continue with appears with a particular tense. subordinate clauses of Reason.

Let’s practice using:

because

now that

due to

owing to

because of


You may be the following guidelines useful: appears with a particular tense.

because + clause

now that + clause

due to + phrase

owing to + phrase

because of + phrase


My little brother appears with a particular tense. climbed the treebecause he wanted to pick some apples.


Because she is obese appears with a particular tense. , she could hardly move her body around.


He felt excited appears with a particular tense. becausehe thought he had found some dinosaur fossils.


Now that appears with a particular tense. is often used to indicate a current situation.

Now that Chainarong has got a new car, he can drive it around the campus.


Now that it has stopped snowing, appears with a particular tense. Chonlathon can go out to build a snow man.


Remember that when the reason is expressed in a phrase appears with a particular tense. , use:

Due to his broken leg, he has to stay at home for at least one month.

due to

owing to


Owing to his heavy bag appears with a particular tense. , the man could not go very far.


Besides appears with a particular tense. due toandowing to, we also use:

because of

Because of her obesity, she can hardly move around.

with a phrase.


Exercise 5
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 5

1.She didn’t do well on her final exam

because she didn’t study hard.

2.They finally became successful because

they worked hard.

3.He refused to take the job because he

knewit was too difficult for him.

4.Many people get sick because the

weather has been very bad.


Exercise 51
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 5

5.My mother has been very unhappy

because she is unable to think of a way

to help my brother.

6.The young student has been worried

because he is not doing well with his

studies.

7.The girl pretended to be sick because

she didn’t want to reveal the secret.


Exercise 52
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 5

8. I could not understand anything at all

because he spoke too fast.

9. Everyone was worried about the

problem because it seems not only

serious but also inconceivable.

10.They took a journey to the mysterious

land because they wanted to prove the

story.


Exercise 6
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 6

1.…..because her weight is increasing.

2.…..because he lost a lot of money.

3.…..because it snows heavily.

4.…..because her husband died.

5. …..because his father was ill.

6. Because they are poor, ……….

7. Because the weather was cold, ……


Exercise 61
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 6

8. Because water supply is insufficient, …..

9. …..because his son’s grades are low.

10. ….because their income is low.


Exercise 7
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 7

1.Now that it’s been raining for over a

month,…………

2.Now that he has found out the truth,….

3.Now that all of the guests havearrived,

…..

4.Now that she has studied hard for the

test,……………..

5.Now that my father has sent me some

money,………..


So that appears with a particular tense. andin order that are used to indicate apurpose.

PRESENT:

PAST:

would

will

could

can

might

may


They built a fire appears with a particular tense. so that they could cook some food.


Passana told the kids a story appears with a particular tense. in order that they would be quiet.


Araya appears with a particular tense. built a model castleso that she could show her talent to her parents.


Exercise 8
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 8

1. The teacher spoke loudly so that all of

his students could hear him.

2. The football team practiced hard in order

that they would win.

3. The lady stood on the table so that the

man would notice her.

4. She gave her son a nice present so that

he would be happy.


Exercise 81
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 8

5. Mrs. Knodel explained the problem to

Peter so that he could understand the

situation.

6. We put bars on the lower windows in

order that no one could climb in.

7. She tied a bell around her cat’s neck

so that the birds would know when he

was approaching.


Exercise 82
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 8

8. I put my address on my dog’s collar

so that anyone who finds him will know

where he comes from.

9. The policeman stopped the traffic every

few minutes so that the pedestrians

would be able to cross the road.

10.She built a high wall around her garden

so that her fruit would not be stolen.


Exercise 9
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 9

1. The burglar cut the telephone wires

for fear that I could call the police.

2. He had a telephone installed in his

house for fear that his secretary would

not be able to contact him.

3. I turned down the oven for fear that the

meat would burn while I was out..


Exercise 91
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 9

4. The government had the notices written

in several languages for fear that not all

the would understand them.

5. She never lets her children play with

matches for fear that they may set

themselves on fire.


To show a purpose of an action, we also use appears with a particular tense. :

in order to

so as to

as in the examples given:


Passana told the kids a story appears with a particular tense. in order to keep them quiet.


Araya built a model castle appears with a particular tense. so as to show her talent to her parents.


Exercise 12
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 12

1. Mr. White studied the problem again

in order to come up with a better

solution.

2. I examined the tiny object carefully

so as to find out what it really was.

3. She had her ears plugged so as not to

(in order not to) be disturbed.


Exercise 121
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 12

4. He studied five hours a day in order to

pass the entrance examination.

5. My father had our garden fenced

so as to prevent the fruit from being

stolen.


A appears with a particular tense. concession or contrast is signaled by such conjunctions as:

although

even though

though


Although the boat was very heavy appears with a particular tense. , they managed to put it on top of the van.


Although the wind was very strong appears with a particular tense. , the boy tried to fly a kite.


Although he knows that cliff climbing is dangerous appears with a particular tense. , Jirayu enjoys it very much.


Although he is old appears with a particular tense. , the man feels young and enjoys his free time.

How wonderful life is!


Even though it was getting dark appears with a particular tense. , the couple continued to enjoy their romantic moments.


When the contrast is expressed in a phrase, use: appears with a particular tense.

despite

in spite of

OR

Despite danger, the young man enjoys cliff climbing very much.


In spite of his old age appears with a particular tense. , my grandpa feels young and enjoys his life.

How wonderful life is!


Exercise 13
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 13

1. Although it was not a very good movie,

I enjoyed watching it.

2. Although she is a bad-tempered person,

her husband seems to love her very

much.

3. Although his grades were low, he didn’t

appear to be worried.


Exercise 131
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 13

4. Although the letter was very short, it

was very informative.

5. Although the boy was ill, he helped his

poor family by taking a part-time job in

a restaurant.

6. Although he had apologized for having

misunderstood her, she was still angry

at him.


Exercise 132
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 13

7. Although the fairy story told by my uncle

was very long, we were not bored at all.

8. Although the farmer had threatened to

punish us, we used to play hide-and-

seek in the corn field.


Exercise 133
EXERCISE appears with a particular tense. 13

9. Although I was good at center-forward,

I was chosen to play goalkeeper.

10. Although we were forbidden to play

cards, I used to play rummy in my

room.



I’m so sorry about what I did. clause may begin withPlease forgive me.

Even if he apologizes to her a thousand times, she will never forgive him.


Exercise 15
EXERCISE clause may begin with15

1. Even if she eats five times a day, she

will never gain weight.

2. Even if he goes away from her, she will

never be sad.

3. Even if she doesn’t pass the exam, she

won’t be worried.


Exercise 151
EXERCISE clause may begin with15

4. Even if we practice very hard, we will

lose the game anyway.

5. Even if he spends a million dollars

buying her nice presents, he won’t win

her heart.


To show contrast in situation clause may begin with, the following patterns are also used:

However + adjective

However + adverb


However high the balloon goes up clause may begin with, the kids are not scared at all.

Hi, Birdie!

What a beautiful campus Khamriang is!


I mustn’t rely on anyone else but myself! clause may begin with

However hard the work is, he always tries hard to do it all by himself.


Exercise 16
EXERCISE clause may begin with16

1. However hard I studied, I never got

good grades in chemistry.

2. Whether you allow me or not, I am

going with you.

3. It doesn’t matter what my boss thinks,

I have decided to quit the job.


Exercise 161
EXERCISE clause may begin with16

4. However pretty she is, I never admire

her.

5. Whether he still loves her or not, my

sister doesn’t really care.

6. It doesn’t matter how she feels about

me, I am happy to fall in love with her.


Exercise 162
EXERCISE clause may begin with16

7. However impressive her grades are, I

don’t think she is very intelligent.

8. Whether you agree with me or not, I

think skill is more important than luck.

9. However rich the man appears to be, he

doesn’t seem to be very happy.


Exercise 163
EXERCISE clause may begin with16

10. However late her husband came home,

my sister always waited for him.


Let’s practice using: clause may begin with

Now, it’s time to talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of degree.

as……as….

so….as….

such……as…

so…..that…

such…….that….


The following guidelines may be useful for you. clause may begin with

as adjective/adverb as….

so adjective /adverb as….

such noun phrase as…


The pilot tried to answer the little boy’s questions clause may begin withas clearly as they could.


Playing basketball isn’t clause may begin withso hard as he used to think.

I can do it.


Riding a bike is clause may begin withmuch more enjoyable thanshe expected.


Digging the ground isn’t clause may begin withsuch a hard job as he imagined.

This is a good way to earn money.


Exercise 17
EXERCISE clause may begin with17

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • as…as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • such…as…

  • as….as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • such…as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…


EXERCISE clause may begin with17

  • as……as…

  • than

  • such…..as…

  • than

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • than

  • as….as…/ so….as…


The following guidelines may be useful for you. clause may begin with

so adjective/adverb that…

such noun phrase that….


Jane is clause may begin withso attractive that many boys dream of her.


It was clause may begin withsuch a risky race that he fell and broke his leg.


Exercise 18
EXERCISE clause may begin with18

1. The singer was so attractive that

everyone fell in love with her.

2. The little boy was so ill thathe could

not walk.

3. The student wasso intelligent thathe

never failed any exam.


Exercise 181
EXERCISE clause may begin with18

4. It was such a confusing exercise that

no one in our class could do it.

5. She issuch a popular person that

everyone in the whole city knows her.

6. The man wasso angry thathe knocked

over all the things in his room.


Exercise 182
EXERCISE clause may begin with18

7. It was such a difficult exam thatno one

did well.

8. The movie was so boring thateveryone

fell asleep.

9. He gave us such a long assignment that

no one could finish it.


Exercise 183
EXERCISE clause may begin with18

10.The English writing course was so

difficult thatonly three students did

well on the final test.

11.She sang such an old song thatno one

knew the lyric.

12. It wassuch a time-consuming exercise

thatwe spent six hours doing it.


Exercise 184
EXERCISE clause may begin with18

13. I read the story so many times thatI

could remember almost every word.

14. It was such a bad storm thatabout

50 houses were damaged.

15. I hadsuch a frightening dream that

when I woke up I found myself crying.


A subordinate clause of condition clause may begin with, orIF CLAUSE, is introduced by:

if

provided that

supposing that


SITUATION 1: clause may begin with

FUTURE AND POSSIBLE

conditionmain clause

present simplewill+verb


If the weather is fine, clause may begin withhe will play the guitar all night to entertain his special friend.

It is possible for him to do that.


SITUATION 2: clause may begin with

PRESENT AND IMPOSSIBLE

conditionmain clause

past simplewould + verb


If he were taller, clause may begin withhe would play basketball much better.

But it’s impossible now!


If I were a huge bird clause may begin with, I would fly home by myself.

But I am not. I can’t be a bird.


SITUATION 3: clause may begin with

PAST AND IMPOSSIBLE

conditionmain clause

past perfectwould have + PP


If I had gone to Thailand with my husband clause may begin with, I would have enjoyed elephant back trekking with him.

Too bad!

I didn’t go with him!


But for + a noun phrase clause may begin withmay be used to replace an if clause indicating a situation in the past.


If he hadn’t had a heavy bag on his back clause may begin with, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.

But for the heavy bag, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.


If it hadn’t rained clause may begin with, the boy would have arrived on time.

But for the rain, he would have arrived on time.


Exercise 19
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

  • …..., I will give him a lift.

  • …….if you stand on it.

  • ……., you will be ill.

  • ……., I will telephone you at once.

  • The police will arrest him if……..

  • …..,… if she doesn’t start at once.

  • …….., you will ruin your eyes.

  • Someone will steal your car if…..


Exercise 191
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

9. …......, I will give you100 baht.

10. ……if my parachute doesn’t open?

11. I will lend you my pearls if……..

12. If he is late, I will …………..

13. ……., he will bury it at once.

14. …., it will not be in anybody’s way.

15. If you don’t go away, I…………

16. ………., I would type it myself.


Exercise 192
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

17. …......, I would give it to you.

18. He would look a lot better if……..

19. ….., you would not lose so much

20. More tourists would come………..

21. ………if I were you.

22. ……….., would you visit me?

23. …….., what would you do with it?

24. I would buy shares …………….


Exercise 193
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

25. If he cleaned his windscreen, …..

26. ..you would not be able to get out.

27. ., if everyone said exactly ……..

28. If I won a big prize…..…..

29. What would you do if a…….….?

30. ……….…..if I knew Greek?

31. …….., I would have visited you.

32. .., his ship wouldn’t have been sunk.


Exercise 194
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

33. If you had arrived ten minutes……..

34. ….if you had been here last week.

35. ……., I would have been killed.

36. ……. if I hadn’t seen it with my…….

37. ., he would have fallen 500 metres.

38. ……, would you have accepted?

39. The burglars would not have done…

40. If I had known, ……………………


Exercise 195
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

41. I would have offered to help…….

42. ……., it wouldn’t have stung you.

43. If I had realized what a……..…..

44. …….., I would have stopped.

45. ….., we would have reached our..

46. ……, we will have a celebration.

47. What will happen if I press …..?

48. …….., if I had had a vote then.


Exercise 196
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

49. ……..., where will you stay?

50. ……. if the storm doesn’t cease.

51. ……, which would you choose?

52. Someone will sit on your …….

53. …….. if you did not talk so much.

54. If you had read the instructions…..

55. …,,,…. if I had a long ladder.

56. …..….., I will go mad.


Exercise 197
EXERCISE clause may begin with19

57. ……... if we run out of petrol here.

58. If you hadn’t sneezed, he……

59. …..…, it will not be fit to drink.

60. …….., I wouldn’t have lent him….


Unless clause may begin with is used to indicate a condition opposite in meaning to that conveyed by ‘if’..

Unless = if + negative


If she doesn’t get enough exercise, she will never lose weight.

Unless she gets enough exercise, she will never lose weight.


Exercise 20
EXERCISE weight.20

  • Unless you drive carefully,you…

  • Unless he knew the truth, he…….

  • Unless he smoked, he …………….

  • Unless he saves his money, he…..

  • Unless it rains, I’ll …………

  • Unless you keep practicing, you …..

  • Unless she had a new dress, she….

  • Unless he practices his French, he….


Exercise 201
EXERCISE weight.20

9. Unless the students arrived on

time, the teacher……..

10. Unless the bell rang, the teacher…


It’s time to practice writing. weight.

when

while

as

since

as soon as

whenever

after

before

because

now that

although

in order to

in order that

so that

Write a complete sentences, using each of the subordinate conjunctions given.


That’s not enough yet. weight.

however + adv

so….that

such….that

even if

if

provided that


Very well done! weight.

CONGRATULATIONS!


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