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Good afternoon, everyone! Today we still have a lot more to review. Let’s continue talking about. Complex Sentences. Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses: a main clause, and a subordinate clause.

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Good afternoon, everyone!

Today we still have a lot more to review.

Let’s continue talking about

Complex Sentences

Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses:a main clause, and a subordinate clause.

A subordinate clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction:

Let’s practice using:

Now, let’s talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of Time.





as soon as





To show a sequence of events, each conjunction usually appears with a particular tense.

You may be the following guidelines useful:

when + simple

while + continuous

as (when) + simple

as (while) + continuous

whenever + simple

as soon as + perfect

Athiwat often goes skiingwhen he has free time.

When night came, the wanderers fell asleep.

While Thongchai was going to the library,Athikan, Surachet and Paween enjoyed dancing.


As Mr. Brown was driving, his wife was taking a nap.

As Thapakorn was digging the ground,Suppanit was planting some trees.

Why do I love you so?

As she looked into his eyes,she realized how much he loved her.

Whenever she has free time,Woraya rides a horse on her farm.

We began to singas soon as we had set up our tent.


1. As I went into the room, I saw John

lying on the floor.

2. When she came home, her husband

was cooking dinner.

3. While my sister was watching television,

the telephone rang.

4. As soon as she had had dinner, she

began to read a novel.


5. She had done the work before she went

to the movie.

6. When Tom saw his sister, she was

cooking dinner.

7. As I looked at him, I thought of a


8. As John turned around, Tom suddenly

stopped talking.


9. When I walked towards him, he looked

at me angrily.

10. While I was cleaning my room, he was

washing his clothes.

Other conjunctions precede clauses in different tenses.

after + perfect

before + simple

since + simple

until + simple

After Thammakorn had finished his piano lesson,he went to his trumpet class.

After he had studied for a while, he began to feel sleepy.

Before the little boy got back to his house,he had found a toy truck.

My little sister had climbed a treebefore she fell down and broke her leg.

They have been in love with each other since they first met.

They enjoyed their romantic moments at Kaeng Lerng Jarn until they got hungry.

They listened to music at the club until the kids wanted to go home.


1. After he had gone to see is parents, he

visited his aunt.

2. She had finished her work before she

went to bed.

3. He had been listening to the radio since

he got up.

4. I was worried about the problem until my

sister told me what actually happened.


5. She cried in her room until someone

knocked at the door.

6. The old lady had thought about her plan

before she went to see the police.

7. She has been talkative since she was

a little girl.

8. My students had been quiet for a while

before they began to talk again.


9. Before we saw a man running across

the yard, we had heard a frightening


10. The girl decided to consult her parents

after she had thought about the

problem for several days.

We will continue withsubordinate clauses of Reason.

Let’s practice using:


now that

due to

owing to

because of

You may be the following guidelines useful:

because + clause

now that + clause

due to + phrase

owing to + phrase

because of + phrase

My little brotherclimbed the treebecause he wanted to pick some apples.

Because she is obese, she could hardly move her body around.

He felt excited becausehe thought he had found some dinosaur fossils.

Now that is often used to indicate a current situation.

Now that Chainarong has got a new car, he can drive it around the campus.

Now that it has stopped snowing,Chonlathon can go out to build a snow man.

Remember that when the reason is expressed in a phrase, use:

Due to his broken leg, he has to stay at home for at least one month.

due to

owing to

Owing to his heavy bag, the man could not go very far.

Besidesdue toandowing to, we also use:

because of

Because of her obesity, she can hardly move around.

with a phrase.


1.She didn’t do well on her final exam

because she didn’t study hard.

2.They finally became successful because

they worked hard.

3.He refused to take the job because he

knewit was too difficult for him.

4.Many people get sick because the

weather has been very bad.


5.My mother has been very unhappy

because she is unable to think of a way

to help my brother.

6.The young student has been worried

because he is not doing well with his


7.The girl pretended to be sick because

she didn’t want to reveal the secret.


8. I could not understand anything at all

because he spoke too fast.

9. Everyone was worried about the

problem because it seems not only

serious but also inconceivable.

10.They took a journey to the mysterious

land because they wanted to prove the



1.…..because her weight is increasing.

2.…..because he lost a lot of money.

3.…..because it snows heavily.

4.…..because her husband died.

5. …..because his father was ill.

6. Because they are poor, ……….

7. Because the weather was cold, ……


8. Because water supply is insufficient, …..

9. …..because his son’s grades are low.

10. ….because their income is low.


1.Now that it’s been raining for over a


2.Now that he has found out the truth,….

3.Now that all of the guests havearrived,


4.Now that she has studied hard for the


5.Now that my father has sent me some


So thatandin order that are used to indicate apurpose.









They built a fire so that they could cook some food.

Passana told the kids a storyin order that they would be quiet.

Araya built a model castleso that she could show her talent to her parents.


1. The teacher spoke loudly so that all of

his students could hear him.

2. The football team practiced hard in order

that they would win.

3. The lady stood on the table so that the

man would notice her.

4. She gave her son a nice present so that

he would be happy.


5. Mrs. Knodel explained the problem to

Peter so that he could understand the


6. We put bars on the lower windows in

order that no one could climb in.

7. She tied a bell around her cat’s neck

so that the birds would know when he

was approaching.


8. I put my address on my dog’s collar

so that anyone who finds him will know

where he comes from.

9. The policeman stopped the traffic every

few minutes so that the pedestrians

would be able to cross the road.

10.She built a high wall around her garden

so that her fruit would not be stolen.


1. The burglar cut the telephone wires

for fear that I could call the police.

2. He had a telephone installed in his

house for fear that his secretary would

not be able to contact him.

3. I turned down the oven for fear that the

meat would burn while I was out..


4. The government had the notices written

in several languages for fear that not all

the would understand them.

5. She never lets her children play with

matches for fear that they may set

themselves on fire.

To show a purpose of an action, we also use:

in order to

so as to

as in the examples given:

Passana told the kids a storyin order to keep them quiet.

Araya built a model castleso as to show her talent to her parents.


1. Mr. White studied the problem again

in order to come up with a better


2. I examined the tiny object carefully

so as to find out what it really was.

3. She had her ears plugged so as not to

(in order not to) be disturbed.


4. He studied five hours a day in order to

pass the entrance examination.

5. My father had our garden fenced

so as to prevent the fruit from being


A concession or contrast is signaled by such conjunctions as:


even though


Although the boat was very heavy, they managed to put it on top of the van.

Although the wind was very strong, the boy tried to fly a kite.

Although he knows that cliff climbing is dangerous, Jirayu enjoys it very much.

Although he is old, the man feels young and enjoys his free time.

How wonderful life is!

Even though it was getting dark, the couple continued to enjoy their romantic moments.

When the contrast is expressed in a phrase, use:


in spite of


Despite danger, the young man enjoys cliff climbing very much.

In spite of his old age, my grandpa feels young and enjoys his life.

How wonderful life is!


1. Although it was not a very good movie,

I enjoyed watching it.

2. Although she is a bad-tempered person,

her husband seems to love her very


3. Although his grades were low, he didn’t

appear to be worried.


4. Although the letter was very short, it

was very informative.

5. Although the boy was ill, he helped his

poor family by taking a part-time job in

a restaurant.

6. Although he had apologized for having

misunderstood her, she was still angry

at him.


7. Although the fairy story told by my uncle

was very long, we were not bored at all.

8. Although the farmer had threatened to

punish us, we used to play hide-and-

seek in the corn field.


9. Although I was good at center-forward,

I was chosen to play goalkeeper.

10. Although we were forbidden to play

cards, I used to play rummy in my


To show unlikelihood in present situation, a sub- ordinate clause may begin with

even if

I’m so sorry about what I did.Please forgive me.

Even if he apologizes to her a thousand times, she will never forgive him.


1. Even if she eats five times a day, she

will never gain weight.

2. Even if he goes away from her, she will

never be sad.

3. Even if she doesn’t pass the exam, she

won’t be worried.


4. Even if we practice very hard, we will

lose the game anyway.

5. Even if he spends a million dollars

buying her nice presents, he won’t win

her heart.

To show contrast in situation, the following patterns are also used:

However + adjective

However + adverb

However high the balloon goes up, the kids are not scared at all.

Hi, Birdie!

What a beautiful campus Khamriang is!

I mustn’t rely on anyone else but myself!

However hard the work is, he always tries hard to do it all by himself.


1. However hard I studied, I never got

good grades in chemistry.

2. Whether you allow me or not, I am

going with you.

3. It doesn’t matter what my boss thinks,

I have decided to quit the job.


4. However pretty she is, I never admire


5. Whether he still loves her or not, my

sister doesn’t really care.

6. It doesn’t matter how she feels about

me, I am happy to fall in love with her.


7. However impressive her grades are, I

don’t think she is very intelligent.

8. Whether you agree with me or not, I

think skill is more important than luck.

9. However rich the man appears to be, he

doesn’t seem to be very happy.


10. However late her husband came home,

my sister always waited for him.

Let’s practice using:

Now, it’s time to talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of degree.






The following guidelines may be useful for you.

as adjective/adverb as….

so adjective /adverb as….

such noun phrase as…

The pilot tried to answer the little boy’s questions as clearly as they could.

Playing basketball isn’t so hard as he used to think.

I can do it.

Riding a bike ismuch more enjoyable thanshe expected.

Digging the ground isn’t such a hard job as he imagined.

This is a good way to earn money.


  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • as…as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • such…as…

  • as….as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • such…as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…


  • as……as…

  • than

  • such……

  • than

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • than

  • as….as…/ so….as…

The following guidelines may be useful for you.

so adjective/adverb that…

such noun phrase that….

Jane is so attractive that many boys dream of her.

It was such a risky race that he fell and broke his leg.


1. The singer was so attractive that

everyone fell in love with her.

2. The little boy was so ill thathe could

not walk.

3. The student wasso intelligent thathe

never failed any exam.


4. It was such a confusing exercise that

no one in our class could do it.

5. She issuch a popular person that

everyone in the whole city knows her.

6. The man wasso angry thathe knocked

over all the things in his room.


7. It was such a difficult exam thatno one

did well.

8. The movie was so boring thateveryone

fell asleep.

9. He gave us such a long assignment that

no one could finish it.


10.The English writing course was so

difficult thatonly three students did

well on the final test.

11.She sang such an old song thatno one

knew the lyric.

12. It wassuch a time-consuming exercise

thatwe spent six hours doing it.


13. I read the story so many times thatI

could remember almost every word.

14. It was such a bad storm thatabout

50 houses were damaged.

15. I hadsuch a frightening dream that

when I woke up I found myself crying.

A subordinate clause of condition, orIF CLAUSE, is introduced by:


provided that

supposing that



conditionmain clause

present simplewill+verb

If the weather is fine,he will play the guitar all night to entertain his special friend.

It is possible for him to do that.



conditionmain clause

past simplewould + verb

If he were taller, he would play basketball much better.

But it’s impossible now!

If I were a huge bird, I would fly home by myself.

But I am not. I can’t be a bird.



conditionmain clause

past perfectwould have + PP

If I had gone to Thailand with my husband, I would have enjoyed elephant back trekking with him.

Too bad!

I didn’t go with him!

But for + a noun phrasemay be used to replace an if clause indicating a situation in the past.

If he hadn’t had a heavy bag on his back, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.

But for the heavy bag, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.

If it hadn’t rained, the boy would have arrived on time.

But for the rain, he would have arrived on time.


  • …..., I will give him a lift.

  • …….if you stand on it.

  • ……., you will be ill.

  • ……., I will telephone you at once.

  • The police will arrest him if……..

  • …..,… if she doesn’t start at once.

  • …….., you will ruin your eyes.

  • Someone will steal your car if…..


9. …......, I will give you100 baht.

10. ……if my parachute doesn’t open?

11. I will lend you my pearls if……..

12. If he is late, I will …………..

13. ……., he will bury it at once.

14. …., it will not be in anybody’s way.

15. If you don’t go away, I…………

16. ………., I would type it myself.


17. …......, I would give it to you.

18. He would look a lot better if……..

19. ….., you would not lose so much

20. More tourists would come………..

21. ………if I were you.

22. ……….., would you visit me?

23. …….., what would you do with it?

24. I would buy shares …………….


25. If he cleaned his windscreen, …..

26. would not be able to get out.

27. ., if everyone said exactly ……..

28. If I won a big prize…..…..

29. What would you do if a…….….?

30. ……….…..if I knew Greek?

31. …….., I would have visited you.

32. .., his ship wouldn’t have been sunk.


33. If you had arrived ten minutes……..

34. ….if you had been here last week.

35. ……., I would have been killed.

36. ……. if I hadn’t seen it with my…….

37. ., he would have fallen 500 metres.

38. ……, would you have accepted?

39. The burglars would not have done…

40. If I had known, ……………………


41. I would have offered to help…….

42. ……., it wouldn’t have stung you.

43. If I had realized what a……..…..

44. …….., I would have stopped.

45. ….., we would have reached our..

46. ……, we will have a celebration.

47. What will happen if I press …..?

48. …….., if I had had a vote then.


49. ……..., where will you stay?

50. ……. if the storm doesn’t cease.

51. ……, which would you choose?

52. Someone will sit on your …….

53. …….. if you did not talk so much.

54. If you had read the instructions…..

55. …,,,…. if I had a long ladder.

56. …..….., I will go mad.


57. ……... if we run out of petrol here.

58. If you hadn’t sneezed, he……

59. …..…, it will not be fit to drink.

60. …….., I wouldn’t have lent him….

Unless is used to indicate a condition opposite in meaning to that conveyed by ‘if’..

Unless = if + negative

If she doesn’t get enough exercise, she will never lose weight.

Unless she gets enough exercise, she will never lose weight.


  • Unless you drive carefully,you…

  • Unless he knew the truth, he…….

  • Unless he smoked, he …………….

  • Unless he saves his money, he…..

  • Unless it rains, I’ll …………

  • Unless you keep practicing, you …..

  • Unless she had a new dress, she….

  • Unless he practices his French, he….


9. Unless the students arrived on

time, the teacher……..

10. Unless the bell rang, the teacher…

It’s time to practice writing.





as soon as





now that


in order to

in order that

so that

Write a complete sentences, using each of the subordinate conjunctions given.

That’s not enough yet.

however + adv



even if


provided that

Very well done!


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