Good afternoon, everyone! Today we still have a lot more to review. Let’s continue talking about. Complex Sentences. Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses: a main clause, and a subordinate clause.
Today we still have a lot more to review.
Let’s continue talking about
Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses:a main clause, and a subordinate clause.
A subordinate clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction:
Now, let’s talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of Time.
as soon as
To show a sequence of events, each conjunction usually appears with a particular tense.
You may be the following guidelines useful:
when + simple
while + continuous
as (when) + simple
as (while) + continuous
whenever + simple
as soon as + perfect
Athiwat often goes skiing appears with a particular tense. when he has free time.
When night came appears with a particular tense. , the wanderers fell asleep.
While Thongchai appears with a particular tense. was going to the library,Athikan, Surachet and Paween enjoyed dancing.
Khro…..k appears with a particular tense.
As Mr. Brown was driving, his wife was taking a nap.
As Thapakorn was digging the ground appears with a particular tense. ,Suppanit was planting some trees.
Why do I love you so? appears with a particular tense.
As she looked into his eyes,she realized how much he loved her.
Whenever she has free time, appears with a particular tense. Woraya rides a horse on her farm.
We began to sing appears with a particular tense. as soon as we had set up our tent.
1. As I went into the room, I saw John
lying on the floor.
2. When she came home, her husband
was cooking dinner.
3. While my sister was watching television,
the telephone rang.
4. As soon as she had had dinner, she
began to read a novel.
5. She had done the work before she went
to the movie.
6. When Tom saw his sister, she was
7. As I looked at him, I thought of a
8. As John turned around, Tom suddenly
9. When I walked towards him, he looked
at me angrily.
10. While I was cleaning my room, he was
washing his clothes.
Other conjunctions precede clauses in different tenses. appears with a particular tense.
after + perfect
before + simple
since + simple
until + simple
After Thammakorn had finished his piano lesson, appears with a particular tense. he went to his trumpet class.
After he had studied for a while, appears with a particular tense. he began to feel sleepy.
Before the little boy got back to his house, appears with a particular tense. he had found a toy truck.
My little sister had climbed a tree appears with a particular tense. before she fell down and broke her leg.
They have been in love with each other appears with a particular tense. since they first met.
They enjoyed their romantic moments at Kaeng Lerng Jarn appears with a particular tense. until they got hungry.
They listened to music at the club appears with a particular tense. until the kids wanted to go home.
1. After he had gone to see is parents, he
visited his aunt.
2. She had finished her work before she
went to bed.
3. He had been listening to the radio since
he got up.
4. I was worried about the problem until my
sister told me what actually happened.
5. She cried in her room until someone
knocked at the door.
6. The old lady had thought about her plan
before she went to see the police.
7. She has been talkative since she was
a little girl.
8. My students had been quiet for a while
before they began to talk again.
9. Before we saw a man running across
the yard, we had heard a frightening
10. The girl decided to consult her parents
after she had thought about the
problem for several days.
We will continue with appears with a particular tense. subordinate clauses of Reason.
Let’s practice using:
You may be the following guidelines useful: appears with a particular tense.
because + clause
now that + clause
due to + phrase
owing to + phrase
because of + phrase
My little brother appears with a particular tense. climbed the treebecause he wanted to pick some apples.
Because she is obese appears with a particular tense. , she could hardly move her body around.
He felt excited appears with a particular tense. becausehe thought he had found some dinosaur fossils.
Now that appears with a particular tense. is often used to indicate a current situation.
Now that Chainarong has got a new car, he can drive it around the campus.
Now that it has stopped snowing, appears with a particular tense. Chonlathon can go out to build a snow man.
Remember that when the reason is expressed in a phrase appears with a particular tense. , use:
Due to his broken leg, he has to stay at home for at least one month.
Owing to his heavy bag appears with a particular tense. , the man could not go very far.
Besides appears with a particular tense. due toandowing to, we also use:
Because of her obesity, she can hardly move around.
with a phrase.
1.She didn’t do well on her final exam
because she didn’t study hard.
2.They finally became successful because
they worked hard.
3.He refused to take the job because he
knewit was too difficult for him.
4.Many people get sick because the
weather has been very bad.
5.My mother has been very unhappy
because she is unable to think of a way
to help my brother.
6.The young student has been worried
because he is not doing well with his
7.The girl pretended to be sick because
she didn’t want to reveal the secret.
8. I could not understand anything at all
because he spoke too fast.
9. Everyone was worried about the
problem because it seems not only
serious but also inconceivable.
10.They took a journey to the mysterious
land because they wanted to prove the
1.…..because her weight is increasing.
2.…..because he lost a lot of money.
3.…..because it snows heavily.
4.…..because her husband died.
5. …..because his father was ill.
6. Because they are poor, ……….
7. Because the weather was cold, ……
8. Because water supply is insufficient, …..
9. …..because his son’s grades are low.
10. ….because their income is low.
1.Now that it’s been raining for over a
2.Now that he has found out the truth,….
3.Now that all of the guests havearrived,
4.Now that she has studied hard for the
5.Now that my father has sent me some
So that appears with a particular tense. andin order that are used to indicate apurpose.
They built a fire appears with a particular tense. so that they could cook some food.
Passana told the kids a story appears with a particular tense. in order that they would be quiet.
Araya appears with a particular tense. built a model castleso that she could show her talent to her parents.
1. The teacher spoke loudly so that all of
his students could hear him.
2. The football team practiced hard in order
that they would win.
3. The lady stood on the table so that the
man would notice her.
4. She gave her son a nice present so that
he would be happy.
5. Mrs. Knodel explained the problem to
Peter so that he could understand the
6. We put bars on the lower windows in
order that no one could climb in.
7. She tied a bell around her cat’s neck
so that the birds would know when he
8. I put my address on my dog’s collar
so that anyone who finds him will know
where he comes from.
9. The policeman stopped the traffic every
few minutes so that the pedestrians
would be able to cross the road.
10.She built a high wall around her garden
so that her fruit would not be stolen.
1. The burglar cut the telephone wires
for fear that I could call the police.
2. He had a telephone installed in his
house for fear that his secretary would
not be able to contact him.
3. I turned down the oven for fear that the
meat would burn while I was out..
4. The government had the notices written
in several languages for fear that not all
the would understand them.
5. She never lets her children play with
matches for fear that they may set
themselves on fire.
To show a purpose of an action, we also use appears with a particular tense. :
in order to
so as to
as in the examples given:
Passana told the kids a story appears with a particular tense. in order to keep them quiet.
Araya built a model castle appears with a particular tense. so as to show her talent to her parents.
1. Mr. White studied the problem again
in order to come up with a better
2. I examined the tiny object carefully
so as to find out what it really was.
3. She had her ears plugged so as not to
(in order not to) be disturbed.
4. He studied five hours a day in order to
pass the entrance examination.
5. My father had our garden fenced
so as to prevent the fruit from being
A appears with a particular tense. concession or contrast is signaled by such conjunctions as:
Although the boat was very heavy appears with a particular tense. , they managed to put it on top of the van.
Although the wind was very strong appears with a particular tense. , the boy tried to fly a kite.
Although he knows that cliff climbing is dangerous appears with a particular tense. , Jirayu enjoys it very much.
Although he is old appears with a particular tense. , the man feels young and enjoys his free time.
How wonderful life is!
Even though it was getting dark appears with a particular tense. , the couple continued to enjoy their romantic moments.
When the contrast is expressed in a phrase, use: appears with a particular tense.
in spite of
Despite danger, the young man enjoys cliff climbing very much.
In spite of his old age appears with a particular tense. , my grandpa feels young and enjoys his life.
How wonderful life is!
1. Although it was not a very good movie,
I enjoyed watching it.
2. Although she is a bad-tempered person,
her husband seems to love her very
3. Although his grades were low, he didn’t
appear to be worried.
4. Although the letter was very short, it
was very informative.
5. Although the boy was ill, he helped his
poor family by taking a part-time job in
6. Although he had apologized for having
misunderstood her, she was still angry
7. Although the fairy story told by my uncle
was very long, we were not bored at all.
8. Although the farmer had threatened to
punish us, we used to play hide-and-
seek in the corn field.
9. Although I was good at center-forward,
I was chosen to play goalkeeper.
10. Although we were forbidden to play
cards, I used to play rummy in my
To show unlikelihood in present situation, a sub- ordinate clause may begin with
I’m so sorry about what I did. clause may begin withPlease forgive me.
Even if he apologizes to her a thousand times, she will never forgive him.
1. Even if she eats five times a day, she
will never gain weight.
2. Even if he goes away from her, she will
never be sad.
3. Even if she doesn’t pass the exam, she
won’t be worried.
4. Even if we practice very hard, we will
lose the game anyway.
5. Even if he spends a million dollars
buying her nice presents, he won’t win
To show contrast in situation clause may begin with, the following patterns are also used:
However + adjective
However + adverb
However high the balloon goes up clause may begin with, the kids are not scared at all.
What a beautiful campus Khamriang is!
I mustn’t rely on anyone else but myself! clause may begin with
However hard the work is, he always tries hard to do it all by himself.
1. However hard I studied, I never got
good grades in chemistry.
2. Whether you allow me or not, I am
going with you.
3. It doesn’t matter what my boss thinks,
I have decided to quit the job.
4. However pretty she is, I never admire
5. Whether he still loves her or not, my
sister doesn’t really care.
6. It doesn’t matter how she feels about
me, I am happy to fall in love with her.
7. However impressive her grades are, I
don’t think she is very intelligent.
8. Whether you agree with me or not, I
think skill is more important than luck.
9. However rich the man appears to be, he
doesn’t seem to be very happy.
10. However late her husband came home,
my sister always waited for him.
Let’s practice using: clause may begin with
Now, it’s time to talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of degree.
The following guidelines may be useful for you. clause may begin with
as adjective/adverb as….
so adjective /adverb as….
such noun phrase as…
The pilot tried to answer the little boy’s questions clause may begin withas clearly as they could.
Playing basketball isn’t clause may begin withso hard as he used to think.
I can do it.
Riding a bike is clause may begin withmuch more enjoyable thanshe expected.
Digging the ground isn’t clause may begin withsuch a hard job as he imagined.
This is a good way to earn money.
EXERCISE clause may begin with17
The following guidelines may be useful for you. clause may begin with
so adjective/adverb that…
such noun phrase that….
Jane is clause may begin withso attractive that many boys dream of her.
It was clause may begin withsuch a risky race that he fell and broke his leg.
1. The singer was so attractive that
everyone fell in love with her.
2. The little boy was so ill thathe could
3. The student wasso intelligent thathe
never failed any exam.
4. It was such a confusing exercise that
no one in our class could do it.
5. She issuch a popular person that
everyone in the whole city knows her.
6. The man wasso angry thathe knocked
over all the things in his room.
7. It was such a difficult exam thatno one
8. The movie was so boring thateveryone
9. He gave us such a long assignment that
no one could finish it.
10.The English writing course was so
difficult thatonly three students did
well on the final test.
11.She sang such an old song thatno one
knew the lyric.
12. It wassuch a time-consuming exercise
thatwe spent six hours doing it.
13. I read the story so many times thatI
could remember almost every word.
14. It was such a bad storm thatabout
50 houses were damaged.
15. I hadsuch a frightening dream that
when I woke up I found myself crying.
A subordinate clause of condition clause may begin with, orIF CLAUSE, is introduced by:
SITUATION 1: clause may begin with
FUTURE AND POSSIBLE
If the weather is fine, clause may begin withhe will play the guitar all night to entertain his special friend.
It is possible for him to do that.
SITUATION 2: clause may begin with
PRESENT AND IMPOSSIBLE
past simplewould + verb
If he were taller, clause may begin withhe would play basketball much better.
But it’s impossible now!
If I were a huge bird clause may begin with, I would fly home by myself.
But I am not. I can’t be a bird.
SITUATION 3: clause may begin with
PAST AND IMPOSSIBLE
past perfectwould have + PP
If I had gone to Thailand with my husband clause may begin with, I would have enjoyed elephant back trekking with him.
I didn’t go with him!
But for + a noun phrase clause may begin withmay be used to replace an if clause indicating a situation in the past.
If he hadn’t had a heavy bag on his back clause may begin with, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.
But for the heavy bag, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.
If it hadn’t rained clause may begin with, the boy would have arrived on time.
But for the rain, he would have arrived on time.
9. …......, I will give you100 baht.
10. ……if my parachute doesn’t open?
11. I will lend you my pearls if……..
12. If he is late, I will …………..
13. ……., he will bury it at once.
14. …., it will not be in anybody’s way.
15. If you don’t go away, I…………
16. ………., I would type it myself.
17. …......, I would give it to you.
18. He would look a lot better if……..
19. ….., you would not lose so much
20. More tourists would come………..
21. ………if I were you.
22. ……….., would you visit me?
23. …….., what would you do with it?
24. I would buy shares …………….
25. If he cleaned his windscreen, …..
26. ..you would not be able to get out.
27. ., if everyone said exactly ……..
28. If I won a big prize…..…..
29. What would you do if a…….….?
30. ……….…..if I knew Greek?
31. …….., I would have visited you.
32. .., his ship wouldn’t have been sunk.
33. If you had arrived ten minutes……..
34. ….if you had been here last week.
35. ……., I would have been killed.
36. ……. if I hadn’t seen it with my…….
37. ., he would have fallen 500 metres.
38. ……, would you have accepted?
39. The burglars would not have done…
40. If I had known, ……………………
41. I would have offered to help…….
42. ……., it wouldn’t have stung you.
43. If I had realized what a……..…..
44. …….., I would have stopped.
45. ….., we would have reached our..
46. ……, we will have a celebration.
47. What will happen if I press …..?
48. …….., if I had had a vote then.
49. ……..., where will you stay?
50. ……. if the storm doesn’t cease.
51. ……, which would you choose?
52. Someone will sit on your …….
53. …….. if you did not talk so much.
54. If you had read the instructions…..
55. …,,,…. if I had a long ladder.
56. …..….., I will go mad.
57. ……... if we run out of petrol here.
58. If you hadn’t sneezed, he……
59. …..…, it will not be fit to drink.
60. …….., I wouldn’t have lent him….
Unless clause may begin with is used to indicate a condition opposite in meaning to that conveyed by ‘if’..
Unless = if + negative
Unless she gets enough exercise, she will never lose weight.
9. Unless the students arrived on
time, the teacher……..
10. Unless the bell rang, the teacher…
It’s time to practice writing. weight.
as soon as
in order to
in order that
Write a complete sentences, using each of the subordinate conjunctions given.
That’s not enough yet. weight.
however + adv
Very well done! weight.