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Good afternoon, everyone! Today we still have a lot more to review. Let’s continue talking about. Complex Sentences. Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses: a main clause, and a subordinate clause.

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Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Good afternoon, everyone!

Today we still have a lot more to review.

Let’s continue talking about

Complex Sentences


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Last week we learned that a complex sentence comprises two clauses:a main clause, and a subordinate clause.

A subordinate clause is introduced by a subordinating conjunction:


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Let’s practice using:

Now, let’s talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of Time.

when

while

as

whenever

as soon as

after

before

since

until


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

To show a sequence of events, each conjunction usually appears with a particular tense.

You may be the following guidelines useful:

when + simple

while + continuous

as (when) + simple

as (while) + continuous

whenever + simple

as soon as + perfect


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Athiwat often goes skiingwhen he has free time.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

When night came, the wanderers fell asleep.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

While Thongchai was going to the library,Athikan, Surachet and Paween enjoyed dancing.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Khro…..k

As Mr. Brown was driving, his wife was taking a nap.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

As Thapakorn was digging the ground,Suppanit was planting some trees.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Why do I love you so?

As she looked into his eyes,she realized how much he loved her.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Whenever she has free time,Woraya rides a horse on her farm.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

We began to singas soon as we had set up our tent.


Exercise 3

EXERCISE 3

1. As I went into the room, I saw John

lying on the floor.

2. When she came home, her husband

was cooking dinner.

3. While my sister was watching television,

the telephone rang.

4. As soon as she had had dinner, she

began to read a novel.


Exercise 31

EXERCISE 3

5. She had done the work before she went

to the movie.

6. When Tom saw his sister, she was

cooking dinner.

7. As I looked at him, I thought of a

baboon.

8. As John turned around, Tom suddenly

stopped talking.


Exercise 32

EXERCISE 3

9. When I walked towards him, he looked

at me angrily.

10. While I was cleaning my room, he was

washing his clothes.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Other conjunctions precede clauses in different tenses.

after + perfect

before + simple

since + simple

until + simple


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

After Thammakorn had finished his piano lesson,he went to his trumpet class.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

After he had studied for a while, he began to feel sleepy.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Before the little boy got back to his house,he had found a toy truck.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

My little sister had climbed a treebefore she fell down and broke her leg.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

They have been in love with each other since they first met.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

They enjoyed their romantic moments at Kaeng Lerng Jarn until they got hungry.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

They listened to music at the club until the kids wanted to go home.


Exercise 4

EXERCISE 4

1. After he had gone to see is parents, he

visited his aunt.

2. She had finished her work before she

went to bed.

3. He had been listening to the radio since

he got up.

4. I was worried about the problem until my

sister told me what actually happened.


Exercise 41

EXERCISE 4

5. She cried in her room until someone

knocked at the door.

6. The old lady had thought about her plan

before she went to see the police.

7. She has been talkative since she was

a little girl.

8. My students had been quiet for a while

before they began to talk again.


Exercise 42

EXERCISE 4

9. Before we saw a man running across

the yard, we had heard a frightening

scream.

10. The girl decided to consult her parents

after she had thought about the

problem for several days.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

We will continue withsubordinate clauses of Reason.

Let’s practice using:

because

now that

due to

owing to

because of


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

You may be the following guidelines useful:

because + clause

now that + clause

due to + phrase

owing to + phrase

because of + phrase


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

My little brotherclimbed the treebecause he wanted to pick some apples.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Because she is obese, she could hardly move her body around.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

He felt excited becausehe thought he had found some dinosaur fossils.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Now that is often used to indicate a current situation.

Now that Chainarong has got a new car, he can drive it around the campus.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Now that it has stopped snowing,Chonlathon can go out to build a snow man.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Remember that when the reason is expressed in a phrase, use:

Due to his broken leg, he has to stay at home for at least one month.

due to

owing to


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Owing to his heavy bag, the man could not go very far.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Besidesdue toandowing to, we also use:

because of

Because of her obesity, she can hardly move around.

with a phrase.


Exercise 5

EXERCISE 5

1.She didn’t do well on her final exam

because she didn’t study hard.

2.They finally became successful because

they worked hard.

3.He refused to take the job because he

knewit was too difficult for him.

4.Many people get sick because the

weather has been very bad.


Exercise 51

EXERCISE 5

5.My mother has been very unhappy

because she is unable to think of a way

to help my brother.

6.The young student has been worried

because he is not doing well with his

studies.

7.The girl pretended to be sick because

she didn’t want to reveal the secret.


Exercise 52

EXERCISE 5

8. I could not understand anything at all

because he spoke too fast.

9. Everyone was worried about the

problem because it seems not only

serious but also inconceivable.

10.They took a journey to the mysterious

land because they wanted to prove the

story.


Exercise 6

EXERCISE 6

1.…..because her weight is increasing.

2.…..because he lost a lot of money.

3.…..because it snows heavily.

4.…..because her husband died.

5. …..because his father was ill.

6. Because they are poor, ……….

7. Because the weather was cold, ……


Exercise 61

EXERCISE 6

8. Because water supply is insufficient, …..

9. …..because his son’s grades are low.

10. ….because their income is low.


Exercise 7

EXERCISE 7

1.Now that it’s been raining for over a

month,…………

2.Now that he has found out the truth,….

3.Now that all of the guests havearrived,

…..

4.Now that she has studied hard for the

test,……………..

5.Now that my father has sent me some

money,………..


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

So thatandin order that are used to indicate apurpose.

PRESENT:

PAST:

would

will

could

can

might

may


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

They built a fire so that they could cook some food.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Passana told the kids a storyin order that they would be quiet.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Araya built a model castleso that she could show her talent to her parents.


Exercise 8

EXERCISE 8

1. The teacher spoke loudly so that all of

his students could hear him.

2. The football team practiced hard in order

that they would win.

3. The lady stood on the table so that the

man would notice her.

4. She gave her son a nice present so that

he would be happy.


Exercise 81

EXERCISE 8

5. Mrs. Knodel explained the problem to

Peter so that he could understand the

situation.

6. We put bars on the lower windows in

order that no one could climb in.

7. She tied a bell around her cat’s neck

so that the birds would know when he

was approaching.


Exercise 82

EXERCISE 8

8. I put my address on my dog’s collar

so that anyone who finds him will know

where he comes from.

9. The policeman stopped the traffic every

few minutes so that the pedestrians

would be able to cross the road.

10.She built a high wall around her garden

so that her fruit would not be stolen.


Exercise 9

EXERCISE 9

1. The burglar cut the telephone wires

for fear that I could call the police.

2. He had a telephone installed in his

house for fear that his secretary would

not be able to contact him.

3. I turned down the oven for fear that the

meat would burn while I was out..


Exercise 91

EXERCISE 9

4. The government had the notices written

in several languages for fear that not all

the would understand them.

5. She never lets her children play with

matches for fear that they may set

themselves on fire.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

To show a purpose of an action, we also use:

in order to

so as to

as in the examples given:


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Passana told the kids a storyin order to keep them quiet.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Araya built a model castleso as to show her talent to her parents.


Exercise 12

EXERCISE 12

1. Mr. White studied the problem again

in order to come up with a better

solution.

2. I examined the tiny object carefully

so as to find out what it really was.

3. She had her ears plugged so as not to

(in order not to) be disturbed.


Exercise 121

EXERCISE 12

4. He studied five hours a day in order to

pass the entrance examination.

5. My father had our garden fenced

so as to prevent the fruit from being

stolen.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

A concession or contrast is signaled by such conjunctions as:

although

even though

though


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Although the boat was very heavy, they managed to put it on top of the van.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Although the wind was very strong, the boy tried to fly a kite.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Although he knows that cliff climbing is dangerous, Jirayu enjoys it very much.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Although he is old, the man feels young and enjoys his free time.

How wonderful life is!


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Even though it was getting dark, the couple continued to enjoy their romantic moments.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

When the contrast is expressed in a phrase, use:

despite

in spite of

OR

Despite danger, the young man enjoys cliff climbing very much.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

In spite of his old age, my grandpa feels young and enjoys his life.

How wonderful life is!


Exercise 13

EXERCISE 13

1. Although it was not a very good movie,

I enjoyed watching it.

2. Although she is a bad-tempered person,

her husband seems to love her very

much.

3. Although his grades were low, he didn’t

appear to be worried.


Exercise 131

EXERCISE 13

4. Although the letter was very short, it

was very informative.

5. Although the boy was ill, he helped his

poor family by taking a part-time job in

a restaurant.

6. Although he had apologized for having

misunderstood her, she was still angry

at him.


Exercise 132

EXERCISE 13

7. Although the fairy story told by my uncle

was very long, we were not bored at all.

8. Although the farmer had threatened to

punish us, we used to play hide-and-

seek in the corn field.


Exercise 133

EXERCISE 13

9. Although I was good at center-forward,

I was chosen to play goalkeeper.

10. Although we were forbidden to play

cards, I used to play rummy in my

room.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

To show unlikelihood in present situation, a sub- ordinate clause may begin with

even if


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

I’m so sorry about what I did.Please forgive me.

Even if he apologizes to her a thousand times, she will never forgive him.


Exercise 15

EXERCISE 15

1. Even if she eats five times a day, she

will never gain weight.

2. Even if he goes away from her, she will

never be sad.

3. Even if she doesn’t pass the exam, she

won’t be worried.


Exercise 151

EXERCISE 15

4. Even if we practice very hard, we will

lose the game anyway.

5. Even if he spends a million dollars

buying her nice presents, he won’t win

her heart.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

To show contrast in situation, the following patterns are also used:

However + adjective

However + adverb


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

However high the balloon goes up, the kids are not scared at all.

Hi, Birdie!

What a beautiful campus Khamriang is!


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

I mustn’t rely on anyone else but myself!

However hard the work is, he always tries hard to do it all by himself.


Exercise 16

EXERCISE 16

1. However hard I studied, I never got

good grades in chemistry.

2. Whether you allow me or not, I am

going with you.

3. It doesn’t matter what my boss thinks,

I have decided to quit the job.


Exercise 161

EXERCISE 16

4. However pretty she is, I never admire

her.

5. Whether he still loves her or not, my

sister doesn’t really care.

6. It doesn’t matter how she feels about

me, I am happy to fall in love with her.


Exercise 162

EXERCISE 16

7. However impressive her grades are, I

don’t think she is very intelligent.

8. Whether you agree with me or not, I

think skill is more important than luck.

9. However rich the man appears to be, he

doesn’t seem to be very happy.


Exercise 163

EXERCISE 16

10. However late her husband came home,

my sister always waited for him.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Let’s practice using:

Now, it’s time to talk aboutsubordinate or adverbial clauses of degree.

as……as….

so….as….

such……as…

so…..that…

such…….that….


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

The following guidelines may be useful for you.

as adjective/adverb as….

so adjective /adverb as….

such noun phrase as…


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

The pilot tried to answer the little boy’s questions as clearly as they could.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Playing basketball isn’t so hard as he used to think.

I can do it.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Riding a bike ismuch more enjoyable thanshe expected.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Digging the ground isn’t such a hard job as he imagined.

This is a good way to earn money.


Exercise 17

EXERCISE 17

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • as…as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • such…as…

  • as….as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • such…as…

  • as….as…/ so….as…


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

EXERCISE 17

  • as……as…

  • than

  • such…..as…

  • than

  • as….as…/ so….as…

  • than

  • as….as…/ so….as…


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

The following guidelines may be useful for you.

so adjective/adverb that…

such noun phrase that….


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Jane is so attractive that many boys dream of her.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

It was such a risky race that he fell and broke his leg.


Exercise 18

EXERCISE 18

1. The singer was so attractive that

everyone fell in love with her.

2. The little boy was so ill thathe could

not walk.

3. The student wasso intelligent thathe

never failed any exam.


Exercise 181

EXERCISE 18

4. It was such a confusing exercise that

no one in our class could do it.

5. She issuch a popular person that

everyone in the whole city knows her.

6. The man wasso angry thathe knocked

over all the things in his room.


Exercise 182

EXERCISE 18

7. It was such a difficult exam thatno one

did well.

8. The movie was so boring thateveryone

fell asleep.

9. He gave us such a long assignment that

no one could finish it.


Exercise 183

EXERCISE 18

10.The English writing course was so

difficult thatonly three students did

well on the final test.

11.She sang such an old song thatno one

knew the lyric.

12. It wassuch a time-consuming exercise

thatwe spent six hours doing it.


Exercise 184

EXERCISE 18

13. I read the story so many times thatI

could remember almost every word.

14. It was such a bad storm thatabout

50 houses were damaged.

15. I hadsuch a frightening dream that

when I woke up I found myself crying.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

A subordinate clause of condition, orIF CLAUSE, is introduced by:

if

provided that

supposing that


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

SITUATION 1:

FUTURE AND POSSIBLE

conditionmain clause

present simplewill+verb


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If the weather is fine,he will play the guitar all night to entertain his special friend.

It is possible for him to do that.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

SITUATION 2:

PRESENT AND IMPOSSIBLE

conditionmain clause

past simplewould + verb


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If he were taller, he would play basketball much better.

But it’s impossible now!


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If I were a huge bird, I would fly home by myself.

But I am not. I can’t be a bird.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

SITUATION 3:

PAST AND IMPOSSIBLE

conditionmain clause

past perfectwould have + PP


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If I had gone to Thailand with my husband, I would have enjoyed elephant back trekking with him.

Too bad!

I didn’t go with him!


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But for + a noun phrasemay be used to replace an if clause indicating a situation in the past.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

If he hadn’t had a heavy bag on his back, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.

But for the heavy bag, the man would have reached the camp much sooner.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

If it hadn’t rained, the boy would have arrived on time.

But for the rain, he would have arrived on time.


Exercise 19

EXERCISE 19

  • …..., I will give him a lift.

  • …….if you stand on it.

  • ……., you will be ill.

  • ……., I will telephone you at once.

  • The police will arrest him if……..

  • …..,… if she doesn’t start at once.

  • …….., you will ruin your eyes.

  • Someone will steal your car if…..


Exercise 191

EXERCISE 19

9. …......, I will give you100 baht.

10. ……if my parachute doesn’t open?

11. I will lend you my pearls if……..

12. If he is late, I will …………..

13. ……., he will bury it at once.

14. …., it will not be in anybody’s way.

15. If you don’t go away, I…………

16. ………., I would type it myself.


Exercise 192

EXERCISE 19

17. …......, I would give it to you.

18. He would look a lot better if……..

19. ….., you would not lose so much

20. More tourists would come………..

21. ………if I were you.

22. ……….., would you visit me?

23. …….., what would you do with it?

24. I would buy shares …………….


Exercise 193

EXERCISE 19

25. If he cleaned his windscreen, …..

26. ..you would not be able to get out.

27. ., if everyone said exactly ……..

28. If I won a big prize…..…..

29. What would you do if a…….….?

30. ……….…..if I knew Greek?

31. …….., I would have visited you.

32. .., his ship wouldn’t have been sunk.


Exercise 194

EXERCISE 19

33. If you had arrived ten minutes……..

34. ….if you had been here last week.

35. ……., I would have been killed.

36. ……. if I hadn’t seen it with my…….

37. ., he would have fallen 500 metres.

38. ……, would you have accepted?

39. The burglars would not have done…

40. If I had known, ……………………


Exercise 195

EXERCISE 19

41. I would have offered to help…….

42. ……., it wouldn’t have stung you.

43. If I had realized what a……..…..

44. …….., I would have stopped.

45. ….., we would have reached our..

46. ……, we will have a celebration.

47. What will happen if I press …..?

48. …….., if I had had a vote then.


Exercise 196

EXERCISE 19

49. ……..., where will you stay?

50. ……. if the storm doesn’t cease.

51. ……, which would you choose?

52. Someone will sit on your …….

53. …….. if you did not talk so much.

54. If you had read the instructions…..

55. …,,,…. if I had a long ladder.

56. …..….., I will go mad.


Exercise 197

EXERCISE 19

57. ……... if we run out of petrol here.

58. If you hadn’t sneezed, he……

59. …..…, it will not be fit to drink.

60. …….., I wouldn’t have lent him….


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Unless is used to indicate a condition opposite in meaning to that conveyed by ‘if’..

Unless = if + negative


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

If she doesn’t get enough exercise, she will never lose weight.

Unless she gets enough exercise, she will never lose weight.


Exercise 20

EXERCISE 20

  • Unless you drive carefully,you…

  • Unless he knew the truth, he…….

  • Unless he smoked, he …………….

  • Unless he saves his money, he…..

  • Unless it rains, I’ll …………

  • Unless you keep practicing, you …..

  • Unless she had a new dress, she….

  • Unless he practices his French, he….


Exercise 201

EXERCISE 20

9. Unless the students arrived on

time, the teacher……..

10. Unless the bell rang, the teacher…


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

It’s time to practice writing.

when

while

as

since

as soon as

whenever

after

before

because

now that

although

in order to

in order that

so that

Write a complete sentences, using each of the subordinate conjunctions given.


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

That’s not enough yet.

however + adv

so….that

such….that

even if

if

provided that


Good afternoon everyone today we still have a lot more to review

Very well done!

CONGRATULATIONS!


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