Molecular nanotechnology www zyvex com nano
Download
1 / 70

Molecular Nanotechnology zyvex/nano - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on

Molecular Nanotechnology www.zyvex.com/nano. Ralph C. Merkle Principal Fellow, Zyvex www.merkle.com. Nick Smith, Chairman House Subcommittee on Basic Research June 22, 1999. In Fiscal Year 1999, the federal government will spend approximately $230 million on nanotechnology research.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Molecular Nanotechnology zyvex/nano' - crevan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Molecular nanotechnology www zyvex com nano

Molecular Nanotechnologywww.zyvex.com/nano

Ralph C. Merkle

Principal Fellow, Zyvex

www.merkle.com

Zyvex


Nick smith chairman house subcommittee on basic research june 22 1999
Nick Smith, ChairmanHouse Subcommittee on Basic ResearchJune 22, 1999

In Fiscal Year 1999, the federal government will spend approximately $230 million on nanotechnology research.

Zyvex


National nanotechnology initiative
National Nanotechnology Initiative

  • Interagency (AFOSR, ARO, BMDO, DARPA, DOC, DOE, NASA, NIH, NIST, NSF, ONR, and NRL)

  • Congressional hearings

  • Objective: double funding through existing channels

Zyvex


Academic and industry
Academic and Industry

  • Caltech’s MSC (1999 Feynman Prize), Rice CNST (Smalley), USC Lab for Molecular Robotics, etc

  • Private nonprofit (Foresight, IMM)

  • Private for profit (IBM, Zyvex, Covalent)

  • And many more….

Zyvex


There is a growing sense in the scientific and technical community that we are about to enter a golden new era.

Richard Smalley

1996 Nobel Prize, Chemistry

http://www.house.gov/ science/smalley_062299.htm

Zyvex


The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not anattempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are toobig. Richard Feynman, 1959

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html

Zyvex


The book that laid out the technical argument for molecular nanotechnology:Nanosystemsby K. Eric Drexler, Wiley 1992

Zyvex


Three historical trends in manufacturing
Three historical trends nanotechnology:in manufacturing

  • More flexible

  • More precise

  • Less expensive

Zyvex


The limit of these trends nanotechnology
The limit of these trends: nanotechnology nanotechnology:

  • Fabricate most structures consistent with physical law

  • Get essentially every atom in the right place

  • Inexpensive (~10-50 cents/kilogram)

http://www.zyvex.com/nano

Zyvex


Coal nanotechnology:

Sand

Dirt, water and air

Diamonds

Computer chips

Grass

It matters how atoms are arranged

Zyvex


Today s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds
Today’s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds

  • Casting

  • Grinding

  • Welding

  • Sintering

  • Lithography

Zyvex


Possible arrangements of atoms herds

.

What we can make today

(not to scale)

Zyvex


The goal: herds

a healthy bite.

.

Zyvex


Products herds

Products

Core molecular

manufacturing

capabilities

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Today

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Overview of the development of molecular nanotechnology

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Zyvex

Products


Terminological caution
Terminological caution herds

“Nanotechnology” has been applied to almost any research where some dimension is less than a micron (1,000 nanometers) in size.

Example: sub-micron optical lithography

Zyvex


Two more fundamental ideas
Two more herdsfundamental ideas

  • Self replication (for low cost)

  • Positional assembly (so molecular parts go where we want them to go)

Zyvex


Von Neumann architecture for a self replicating system herds

Universal

Computer

Universal

Constructor

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html

Zyvex


Drexler’s architecture for an assembler herds

Molecular

computer

Molecular

constructor

Positional device

Tip chemistry

Zyvex


Illustration of an assembler
Illustration of an assembler herds

http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html

Zyvex


Advanced Automation for Space Missions herds

Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study

The theoretical concept of machine duplication is well developed. There are several alternative strategies by which machine self-replication can be carried out in a practical engineering setting.

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRepNASA.html

Zyvex


A c program that prints out an exact copy of itself

A C program that prints out an exact copy of itself herds

main(){char q=34, n=10,*a="main() {char q=34,n=10,*a=%c%s%c; printf(a,q,a,q,n);}%c";printf(a,q,a,q,n);}

For more information, see the Recursion Theorem:

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html

Zyvex


English translation

English translation: herds

Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes:

“Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes:”

Zyvex


Complexity of self replicating systems herds

(bits)

  • C program 800

  • Von Neumann's universal constructor 500,000

  • Internet worm (Robert Morris, Jr., 1988) 500,000

  • Mycoplasma capricolum 1,600,000

  • E. Coli 9,278,442

  • Drexler's assembler 100,000,000

  • Human 6,400,000,000

  • NASA Lunar

    • Manufacturing Facility over 100,000,000,000

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html

Zyvex


How cheap
How cheap? herds

  • Potatoes, lumber, wheat and other agricultural products are examples of products made using a self replicating manufacturing base. Costs of roughly a dollar per pound are common.

  • Molecular manufacturing will make almost any product for a dollar per pound or less, independent of complexity. (Design costs, licensing costs, etc. not included)

Zyvex


How long
How long? herds

  • The scientifically correct answer is I don’t know

  • Trends in computer hardware suggest early in the next century — perhaps in the 2010 to 2020 time frame

  • Of course, how long it takes depends on what we do

Zyvex


Developmental pathways
Developmental pathways herds

  • Scanning probe microscopy

  • Self assembly

  • Ever smaller systems

  • Hybrid approaches

Zyvex


Moving molecules with an SPM herds

(Gimzewski et al.)

http://www.zurich.ibm.com/News/Molecule/

Zyvex


Self assembled dna octahedron seeman
Self assembled DNA octahedron herds(Seeman)

http://seemanlab4.chem.nyu.edu/nano-oct.html

Zyvex


Dna on an spm tip lee et al
DNA on an SPM tip herds(Lee et al.)

http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/1994scie/1994scie.html

Zyvex


Buckytubes tough well defined
Buckytubes herds(Tough, well defined)

Zyvex


Buckytube glued to spm tip dai et al
Buckytube glued to SPM tip herds(Dai et al.)

http://cnst.rice.edu/TIPS_rev.htm

Zyvex


Building the tools to build the tools
Building the tools to build the tools herds

  • Directly manufacturing a diamondoid assembler using existing techniques appears very difficult .

  • We’ll have to build intermediate systems able to build better systems able to build diamondoid assemblers.

Zyvex


If we can make herds

whatever we want

what

do we want

to make?

Zyvex


Diamond physical properties
Diamond Physical Properties herds

PropertyDiamond’s valueComments

Chemical reactivity Extremely low

Hardness (kg/mm2) 9000 CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000

Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K) 20 Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0

Tensile strength (pascals) 3.5 x 109 (natural) 1011 (theoretical)

Compressive strength (pascals) 1011 (natural) 5 x 1011 (theoretical)

Band gap (ev) 5.5 Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4

Resistivity (W-cm) 1016 (natural)

Density (gm/cm3) 3.51

Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1) 0.8 x 10-6 SiO2: 0.5 x 10-6

Refractive index 2.41 @ 590 nm Glass: 1.4 - 1.8

Coeff. of Friction 0.05 (dry) Teflon: 0.05

Source: Crystallume

Zyvex


Strength of diamond
Strength of diamond herds

  • Diamond has a strength-to-weight ratio over 50 times that of steel or aluminium alloy

  • Structural (load bearing) mass can be reduced by about this factor

  • When combined with reduced cost, this will have a major impact on aerospace applications

Zyvex


A hydrocarbon bearing
A hydrocarbon bearing herds

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/bearingProof.html

Zyvex


Neon pump
Neon pump herds

Zyvex


A planetary gear
A planetary gear herds

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/gearAndCasing.html

Zyvex



Classical uncertainty
Classical uncertainty herds

σ: mean positional error

k: restoring force

kb: Boltzmann’s constant

T: temperature

Zyvex


A numerical example of classical uncertainty
A numerical example of classical uncertainty herds

σ: 0.02 nm (0.2 Å)

k: 10 N/m

kb: 1.38 x 10-23 J/K

T: 300 K

Zyvex


Molecular tools
Molecular tools herds

  • Today, we make things at the molecular scale by stirring together molecular parts and cleverly arranging things so they spontaneously go somewhere useful.

  • In the future, we’ll have molecular “hands” that will let us put molecular parts exactly where we want them, vastly increasing the range of molecular structures that we can build.

Zyvex


Synthesis of diamond today diamond cvd
Synthesis of diamond today: herdsdiamond CVD

  • Carbon: methane (ethane, acetylene...)

  • Hydrogen: H2

  • Add energy, producing CH3, H, etc.

  • Growth of a diamond film.

The right chemistry, but little control over the site of reactions or exactly what is synthesized.

Zyvex


A hydrogen abstraction tool herds

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/Habs/Habs.html

Zyvex



A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures
A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures

  • Positional assembly (6 degrees of freedom)

  • Highly reactive compounds (radicals, carbenes, etc)

  • Inert environment (vacuum, noble gas) to eliminate side reactions

Zyvex


The impact of nanotechnology depends on what s being made
The impact of nanotechnology structuresdepends on what’s being made

  • Computers, memory, displays

  • Space Exploration

  • Medicine

  • Military

  • Environment, Energy, etc.

Zyvex


Powerful computers
Powerful computers structures

  • In the future we’ll pack more computing power into a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that exists in the world today

  • We’ll be able to store more than 1021 bits in the same volume

  • Or more than a billion Pentiums operating in parallel

  • Powerful enough to run Windows 2015

Zyvex


Memory probe structures

Zyvex


Displays
Displays structures

  • Molecular machines smaller than a wavelength of light will let us build holographic displays that reconstruct the entire wave front of a light wave

  • It will be like looking through a window into another world

  • Covering walls, ceilings and floor would immerse us in another reality

Zyvex


Space
Space structures

  • Launch vehicle structural mass will be reduced by about a factor of 50

  • Cost per pound for that structural mass will be under a dollar

  • Which will reduce the cost to low earth orbit by a factor 1,000 or more

    http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Groups/

    Nanotechnology/publications/1997/applications/

Zyvex


It costs less to launch less
It costs less to launch less structures

  • Light weight computers and sensors will reduce total payload mass for the same functionality

  • Recycling of waste will reduce payload mass, particularly for long flights and permanent facilities (space stations, colonies)

Zyvex


Swallowing the surgeon
Swallowing the surgeon structures

...it would be interesting in surgery if you could swallow the surgeon. You put the mechanical surgeon inside the blood vessel and it goes into the heart and “looks” around. ... Other small machines might be permanently incorporated in the body to assist some inadequately-functioning organ.

Richard P. Feynman, 1959

Nobel Prize for Physics, 1965

Zyvex


Nanomedicine volume i
Nanomedicine Volume I structures

  • By Robert Freitas

  • Surveys medical applications of nanotechnology

  • Extensive technical analysis

  • Volume I (of three) published in 1999

  • http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine

Zyvex


Mitochondrion structures

Molecular bearing

20 nm scale bar

Ribosome

Molecular computer

(4-bit) + peripherals

Zyvex


“Typical” cell structures

Mitochondrion

Molecular computer

+ peripherals

Zyvex


Disease and illness are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level

Today’s surgical tools are huge and imprecise in comparison

http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine

Zyvex


In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision.

We will also have computers that are much smaller than a single cell with which to guide these tools.

Zyvex


Medical applications
Medical applications are molecular both in size and precision.

  • Killing cancer cells, bacteria

  • Removing blockages

  • Providing oxygen (artificial red blood cell)

  • Adjusting other metabolites

Zyvex


A revolution in medicine
A revolution in medicine are molecular both in size and precision.

  • Today, loss of cell function results in cellular deterioration:

    function must be preserved

  • With medical nanodevices, passive structures can be repaired. Cell function can be restored provided cell structure can be inferred:

    structure must be preserved

Zyvex


Cryonics are molecular both in size and precision.

37º C

37º C

Restore

to health

Freeze

-196º C (77 Kelvins)

Temperature

Time

(many decades)

Zyvex


Clinical trials to evaluate cryonics
Clinical trials are molecular both in size and precision.to evaluate cryonics

  • Select N subjects

  • Freeze them

  • Wait 100 years

  • See if the medical technology of 2100 can indeed revive them

    But what do we tell those who don’t expect to live long enough to see the results?

Zyvex


Would you rather join
Would you rather join: are molecular both in size and precision.

The control group?

(no action required)

or

The experimental group?

(see www.alcor.org for info)

Zyvex


Military applications of molecular manufacturing have even greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

Admiral David E. Jeremiah, USN (Ret)

Former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

November 9, 1995

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/nano4/jeremiahPaper.html

Zyvex


Human impact on the environment depends on
Human impact on the environment depends on greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

  • Population

  • Living standards

  • Technology

Zyvex


Restoring the environment with nanotechnology
Restoring the environment with nanotechnology greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

  • Low cost greenhouse agriculture

  • Low cost solar power

  • Pollution free manufacturing

  • The ultimate in recycling

Zyvex


Solar power and nanotechnology
Solar power and nanotechnology greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

  • The sunshine reaching the earth has almost 40,000 times more power than total world usage.

  • Nanotechnology will produce efficient, rugged solar cells and batteries at low cost.

  • Power costs will drop dramatically

Zyvex


Environmentally friendly manufacturing
Environmentally friendly manufacturing greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

  • Today’s manufacturing plants pollute because they use imprecise methods.

  • Nanotechnology is precise — it will produce only what it has been designed to produce.

  • An abundant source of carbon is the excess CO2 in the air

Zyvex


Nanotechnology offers ... possibilities for health, wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings.

K. Eric Drexler

Zyvex


The best way wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings.

to predict the future

is to invent it.

Alan Kay

Zyvex


ad