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Molecular Nanotechnology www.zyvex.com/nano. Ralph C. Merkle Principal Fellow, Zyvex www.merkle.com. Nick Smith, Chairman House Subcommittee on Basic Research June 22, 1999. In Fiscal Year 1999, the federal government will spend approximately $230 million on nanotechnology research.

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Molecular nanotechnology www zyvex com nano

Molecular Nanotechnologywww.zyvex.com/nano

Ralph C. Merkle

Principal Fellow, Zyvex

www.merkle.com

Zyvex


Nick smith chairman house subcommittee on basic research june 22 1999

Nick Smith, ChairmanHouse Subcommittee on Basic ResearchJune 22, 1999

In Fiscal Year 1999, the federal government will spend approximately $230 million on nanotechnology research.

Zyvex


National nanotechnology initiative

National Nanotechnology Initiative

  • Interagency (AFOSR, ARO, BMDO, DARPA, DOC, DOE, NASA, NIH, NIST, NSF, ONR, and NRL)

  • Congressional hearings

  • Objective: double funding through existing channels

Zyvex


Academic and industry

Academic and Industry

  • Caltech’s MSC (1999 Feynman Prize), Rice CNST (Smalley), USC Lab for Molecular Robotics, etc

  • Private nonprofit (Foresight, IMM)

  • Private for profit (IBM, Zyvex, Covalent)

  • And many more….

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

There is a growing sense in the scientific and technical community that we are about to enter a golden new era.

Richard Smalley

1996 Nobel Prize, Chemistry

http://www.house.gov/science/smalley_062299.htm

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

The principles of physics, as far as I can see, do not speak against the possibility of maneuvering things atom by atom. It is not anattempt to violate any laws; it is something, in principle, that can be done; but in practice, it has not been done because we are toobig. Richard Feynman, 1959

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/feynman.html

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

The book that laid out the technical argument for molecular nanotechnology:Nanosystemsby K. Eric Drexler, Wiley 1992

Zyvex


Three historical trends in manufacturing

Three historical trendsin manufacturing

  • More flexible

  • More precise

  • Less expensive

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The limit of these trends nanotechnology

The limit of these trends: nanotechnology

  • Fabricate most structures consistent with physical law

  • Get essentially every atom in the right place

  • Inexpensive (~10-50 cents/kilogram)

http://www.zyvex.com/nano

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Coal

Sand

Dirt, water and air

Diamonds

Computer chips

Grass

It matters how atoms are arranged

Zyvex


Today s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds

Today’s manufacturing methods move atoms in statistical herds

  • Casting

  • Grinding

  • Welding

  • Sintering

  • Lithography

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Possible arrangements of atoms

.

What we can make today

(not to scale)

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

The goal:

a healthy bite.

.

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Products

Products

Core molecular

manufacturing

capabilities

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Today

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Overview of the development of molecular nanotechnology

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Products

Zyvex

Products


Terminological caution

Terminological caution

“Nanotechnology” has been applied to almost any research where some dimension is less than a micron (1,000 nanometers) in size.

Example: sub-micron optical lithography

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Two more fundamental ideas

Two morefundamental ideas

  • Self replication (for low cost)

  • Positional assembly (so molecular parts go where we want them to go)

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Von Neumann architecture for a self replicating system

Universal

Computer

Universal

Constructor

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/vonNeumann.html

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Drexler’s architecture for an assembler

Molecular

computer

Molecular

constructor

Positional device

Tip chemistry

Zyvex


Illustration of an assembler

Illustration of an assembler

http://www.foresight.org/UTF/Unbound_LBW/chapt_6.html

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Advanced Automation for Space Missions

Proceedings of the 1980 NASA/ASEE Summer Study

The theoretical concept of machine duplication is well developed. There are several alternative strategies by which machine self-replication can be carried out in a practical engineering setting.

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRepNASA.html

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A c program that prints out an exact copy of itself

A C program that prints out an exact copy of itself

main(){char q=34, n=10,*a="main() {char q=34,n=10,*a=%c%s%c; printf(a,q,a,q,n);}%c";printf(a,q,a,q,n);}

For more information, see the Recursion Theorem:

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html

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English translation

English translation:

Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes:

“Print the following statement twice, the second time in quotes:”

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Complexity of self replicating systems

(bits)

  • C program 800

  • Von Neumann's universal constructor500,000

  • Internet worm (Robert Morris, Jr., 1988)500,000

  • Mycoplasma capricolum1,600,000

  • E. Coli9,278,442

  • Drexler's assembler100,000,000

  • Human6,400,000,000

  • NASA Lunar

    • Manufacturing Facilityover 100,000,000,000

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/selfRep.html

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How cheap

How cheap?

  • Potatoes, lumber, wheat and other agricultural products are examples of products made using a self replicating manufacturing base. Costs of roughly a dollar per pound are common.

  • Molecular manufacturing will make almost any product for a dollar per pound or less, independent of complexity. (Design costs, licensing costs, etc. not included)

Zyvex


How long

How long?

  • The scientifically correct answer is I don’t know

  • Trends in computer hardware suggest early in the next century — perhaps in the 2010 to 2020 time frame

  • Of course, how long it takes depends on what we do

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Developmental pathways

Developmental pathways

  • Scanning probe microscopy

  • Self assembly

  • Ever smaller systems

  • Hybrid approaches

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Moving molecules with an SPM

(Gimzewski et al.)

http://www.zurich.ibm.com/News/Molecule/

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Self assembled dna octahedron seeman

Self assembled DNA octahedron(Seeman)

http://seemanlab4.chem.nyu.edu/nano-oct.html

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Dna on an spm tip lee et al

DNA on an SPM tip(Lee et al.)

http://stm2.nrl.navy.mil/1994scie/1994scie.html

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Buckytubes tough well defined

Buckytubes(Tough, well defined)

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Buckytube glued to spm tip dai et al

Buckytube glued to SPM tip(Dai et al.)

http://cnst.rice.edu/TIPS_rev.htm

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Building the tools to build the tools

Building the tools to build the tools

  • Directly manufacturing a diamondoid assembler using existing techniques appears very difficult .

  • We’ll have to build intermediate systems able to build better systems able to build diamondoid assemblers.

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

If we can make

whatever we want

what

do we want

to make?

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Diamond physical properties

Diamond Physical Properties

PropertyDiamond’s valueComments

Chemical reactivityExtremely low

Hardness (kg/mm2)9000CBN: 4500 SiC: 4000

Thermal conductivity (W/cm-K)20Ag: 4.3 Cu: 4.0

Tensile strength (pascals)3.5 x 109 (natural)1011 (theoretical)

Compressive strength (pascals)1011 (natural)5 x 1011 (theoretical)

Band gap (ev)5.5Si: 1.1 GaAs: 1.4

Resistivity (W-cm)1016 (natural)

Density (gm/cm3)3.51

Thermal Expansion Coeff (K-1)0.8 x 10-6SiO2: 0.5 x 10-6

Refractive index2.41 @ 590 nmGlass: 1.4 - 1.8

Coeff. of Friction0.05 (dry)Teflon: 0.05

Source: Crystallume

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Strength of diamond

Strength of diamond

  • Diamond has a strength-to-weight ratio over 50 times that of steel or aluminium alloy

  • Structural (load bearing) mass can be reduced by about this factor

  • When combined with reduced cost, this will have a major impact on aerospace applications

Zyvex


A hydrocarbon bearing

A hydrocarbon bearing

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/bearingProof.html

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Neon pump

Neon pump

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A planetary gear

A planetary gear

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/gearAndCasing.html

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A proposal for a molecular positional device

A proposal for a molecular positional device

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Classical uncertainty

Classical uncertainty

σ:mean positional error

k: restoring force

kb: Boltzmann’s constant

T:temperature

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A numerical example of classical uncertainty

A numerical example of classical uncertainty

σ:0.02 nm (0.2 Å)

k: 10 N/m

kb: 1.38 x 10-23 J/K

T:300 K

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Molecular tools

Molecular tools

  • Today, we make things at the molecular scale by stirring together molecular parts and cleverly arranging things so they spontaneously go somewhere useful.

  • In the future, we’ll have molecular “hands” that will let us put molecular parts exactly where we want them, vastly increasing the range of molecular structures that we can build.

Zyvex


Synthesis of diamond today diamond cvd

Synthesis of diamond today:diamond CVD

  • Carbon: methane (ethane, acetylene...)

  • Hydrogen: H2

  • Add energy, producing CH3, H, etc.

  • Growth of a diamond film.

The right chemistry, but little control over the site of reactions or exactly what is synthesized.

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

A hydrogen abstraction tool

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/Habs/Habs.html

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Some other molecular tools

Some other molecular tools

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A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures

A synthetic strategy for the synthesis of diamondoid structures

  • Positional assembly (6 degrees of freedom)

  • Highly reactive compounds (radicals, carbenes, etc)

  • Inert environment (vacuum, noble gas) to eliminate side reactions

Zyvex


The impact of nanotechnology depends on what s being made

The impact of nanotechnologydepends on what’s being made

  • Computers, memory, displays

  • Space Exploration

  • Medicine

  • Military

  • Environment, Energy, etc.

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Powerful computers

Powerful computers

  • In the future we’ll pack more computing power into a sugar cube than the sum total of all the computer power that exists in the world today

  • We’ll be able to store more than 1021 bits in the same volume

  • Or more than a billion Pentiums operating in parallel

  • Powerful enough to run Windows 2015

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Memory probe

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Displays

Displays

  • Molecular machines smaller than a wavelength of light will let us build holographic displays that reconstruct the entire wave front of a light wave

  • It will be like looking through a window into another world

  • Covering walls, ceilings and floor would immerse us in another reality

Zyvex


Space

Space

  • Launch vehicle structural mass will be reduced by about a factor of 50

  • Cost per pound for that structural mass will be under a dollar

  • Which will reduce the cost to low earth orbit by a factor 1,000 or more

    http://science.nas.nasa.gov/Groups/

    Nanotechnology/publications/1997/applications/

Zyvex


It costs less to launch less

It costs less to launch less

  • Light weight computers and sensors will reduce total payload mass for the same functionality

  • Recycling of waste will reduce payload mass, particularly for long flights and permanent facilities (space stations, colonies)

Zyvex


Swallowing the surgeon

Swallowing the surgeon

...it would be interesting in surgery if you could swallow the surgeon. You put the mechanical surgeon inside the blood vessel and it goes into the heart and “looks” around. ... Other small machines might be permanently incorporated in the body to assist some inadequately-functioning organ.

Richard P. Feynman, 1959

Nobel Prize for Physics, 1965

Zyvex


Nanomedicine volume i

Nanomedicine Volume I

  • By Robert Freitas

  • Surveys medical applications of nanotechnology

  • Extensive technical analysis

  • Volume I (of three) published in 1999

  • http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Mitochondrion

Molecular bearing

20 nm scale bar

Ribosome

Molecular computer

(4-bit) + peripherals

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

“Typical” cell

Mitochondrion

Molecular computer

+ peripherals

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Disease and illness are caused largely by damage at the molecular and cellular level

Today’s surgical tools are huge and imprecise in comparison

http://www.foresight.org/Nanomedicine

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Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

In the future, we will have fleets of surgical tools that are molecular both in size and precision.

We will also have computers that are much smaller than a single cell with which to guide these tools.

Zyvex


Medical applications

Medical applications

  • Killing cancer cells, bacteria

  • Removing blockages

  • Providing oxygen(artificial red blood cell)

  • Adjusting other metabolites

Zyvex


A revolution in medicine

A revolution in medicine

  • Today, loss of cell function results in cellular deterioration:

    function must be preserved

  • With medical nanodevices, passive structures can be repaired. Cell function can be restored provided cell structure can be inferred:

    structure must be preserved

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Cryonics

37º C

37º C

Restore

to health

Freeze

-196º C (77 Kelvins)

Temperature

Time

(many decades)

Zyvex


Clinical trials to evaluate cryonics

Clinical trialsto evaluate cryonics

  • Select N subjects

  • Freeze them

  • Wait 100 years

  • See if the medical technology of 2100 can indeed revive them

    But what do we tell those who don’t expect to live long enough to see the results?

Zyvex


Would you rather join

Would you rather join:

The control group?

(no action required)

or

The experimental group?

(see www.alcor.org for info)

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Military applications of molecular manufacturing have even greater potential than nuclear weapons to radically change the balance of power.

Admiral David E. Jeremiah, USN (Ret)

Former Vice Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff

November 9, 1995

http://www.zyvex.com/nanotech/nano4/jeremiahPaper.html

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Human impact on the environment depends on

Human impact on the environment depends on

  • Population

  • Living standards

  • Technology

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Restoring the environment with nanotechnology

Restoring the environment with nanotechnology

  • Low cost greenhouse agriculture

  • Low cost solar power

  • Pollution free manufacturing

  • The ultimate in recycling

Zyvex


Solar power and nanotechnology

Solar power and nanotechnology

  • The sunshine reaching the earth has almost 40,000 times more power than total world usage.

  • Nanotechnology will produce efficient, rugged solar cells and batteries at low cost.

  • Power costs will drop dramatically

Zyvex


Environmentally friendly manufacturing

Environmentally friendly manufacturing

  • Today’s manufacturing plants pollute because they use imprecise methods.

  • Nanotechnology is precise — it will produce only what it has been designed to produce.

  • An abundant source of carbon is the excess CO2 in the air

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

Nanotechnology offers ... possibilities for health, wealth, and capabilities beyond most past imaginings.

K. Eric Drexler

Zyvex


Molecular nanotechnology zyvex nano

The best way

to predict the future

is to invent it.

Alan Kay

Zyvex


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