Chapter 6 plant biotechnology contd
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Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology (contd.). Vaccines, Clones & Transgenics. What are plant vaccines?. Plant vaccines contain dead or weakened strains of plant virus which are injected to plants against diseases Vaccines can also be encoded in plant DNA

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Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology (contd.)

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Chapter 6Plant Biotechnology (contd.)

Vaccines, Clones &Transgenics


What are plant vaccines?

  • Plant vaccines contain dead or weakened strains of plant virus which are injected to plants against diseases

  • Vaccines can also be encoded in plant DNA

  • Transgenic plants can synthesize protein antigens that retain immunological properties


What are plant vaccines?

  • The Tobacco Mosaic virus (TMV), produces a protein on surface of the virus which turns on the plant immune system in tobacco plants

  • Tobacco plants with TMV has the resistance against the virus


Plants as surrogates to produce antigens

  • With the advent of modern molecular biology techniques in the 1980s, new strategies were developed for the production of subunit vaccines

  • Green plants are used as the “surrogate production organism” to produce antigens of human pathogens


Five antigens expressed in plants and useful to animals and man

  • Rabies virus G-protein in tomato

  • Norwalk virus Capsid protein in tobacco & potato

  • Hepatitus B virus surface antigen in tobacco & potato

  • E.coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B) in tobacco & potato

  • Cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) in potato


Banana is a likely delivery plant

  • Eaten raw

  • Appealing to children

  • Inexpensive to produce

  • Native to many developing countries

  • Still under clinical trials


Genetic pesticides

  • The BT gene in Bacillus thuringiensis , produces a crystalline protein that kills insects and their larvae (an insecticidal protein).

  • Instead of spreading the bacteria in the field now can spread Bt genes!!! Tomatoes, potatoes, corn , cotton etc.

  • Today, plants can be genetically engineered to produce their own Bt


Genetic herbicides

  • Crops are genetically engineered to be resistant to common herbicide called glyphosate( an enzyme which block photosynthesis)

  • Generally herbicides are used to kill weeds and by doing so, crops get affected.

  • Hence the need for genetically engineered herbicide resistant crops


Golden Rice

  • Deficiency of Vitamin A causes night blindness.

  • Genetically engineered rice to produce large amount of Beta carotene, a provitamin which body converts to Vitamin A.

    Read pg 144 test book for further info


Reference

  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/bic/BTTOX/bttoxin.htm

  • http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~vista/html_pubs/biotech/insect.htm


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