Chapter 6 plant biotechnology contd
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Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology (contd.). Vaccines, Clones & Transgenics. What are plant vaccines?. Plant vaccines contain dead or weakened strains of plant virus which are injected to plants against diseases Vaccines can also be encoded in plant DNA

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Chapter 6 Plant Biotechnology (contd.)

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Chapter 6 plant biotechnology contd

Chapter 6Plant Biotechnology (contd.)

Vaccines, Clones &Transgenics


What are plant vaccines

What are plant vaccines?

  • Plant vaccines contain dead or weakened strains of plant virus which are injected to plants against diseases

  • Vaccines can also be encoded in plant DNA

  • Transgenic plants can synthesize protein antigens that retain immunological properties


What are plant vaccines1

What are plant vaccines?

  • The Tobacco Mosaic virus (TMV), produces a protein on surface of the virus which turns on the plant immune system in tobacco plants

  • Tobacco plants with TMV has the resistance against the virus


Plants as surrogates to produce antigens

Plants as surrogates to produce antigens

  • With the advent of modern molecular biology techniques in the 1980s, new strategies were developed for the production of subunit vaccines

  • Green plants are used as the “surrogate production organism” to produce antigens of human pathogens


Five antigens expressed in plants and useful to animals and man

Five antigens expressed in plants and useful to animals and man

  • Rabies virus G-protein in tomato

  • Norwalk virus Capsid protein in tobacco & potato

  • Hepatitus B virus surface antigen in tobacco & potato

  • E.coli heat-labile enterotoxin B subunit (LT-B) in tobacco & potato

  • Cholera toxin B subunit (CT-B) in potato


Banana is a likely delivery plant

Banana is a likely delivery plant

  • Eaten raw

  • Appealing to children

  • Inexpensive to produce

  • Native to many developing countries

  • Still under clinical trials


Genetic pesticides

Genetic pesticides

  • The BT gene in Bacillus thuringiensis , produces a crystalline protein that kills insects and their larvae (an insecticidal protein).

  • Instead of spreading the bacteria in the field now can spread Bt genes!!! Tomatoes, potatoes, corn , cotton etc.

  • Today, plants can be genetically engineered to produce their own Bt


Genetic herbicides

Genetic herbicides

  • Crops are genetically engineered to be resistant to common herbicide called glyphosate( an enzyme which block photosynthesis)

  • Generally herbicides are used to kill weeds and by doing so, crops get affected.

  • Hence the need for genetically engineered herbicide resistant crops


Golden rice

Golden Rice

  • Deficiency of Vitamin A causes night blindness.

  • Genetically engineered rice to produce large amount of Beta carotene, a provitamin which body converts to Vitamin A.

    Read pg 144 test book for further info


Reference

Reference

  • http://www.nal.usda.gov/bic/BTTOX/bttoxin.htm

  • http://www.ag.uiuc.edu/~vista/html_pubs/biotech/insect.htm


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