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Chapter 1. New World Beginnings. Peopling the Americas. Many different theories Land Bridge Kayaks/boats, walking etc. Massive diversity by 1492 (Columbian encounter) Agriculture (some areas)= population/ civilization growth  nation-states.

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Chapter 1

Chapter 1

New World Beginnings


Peopling the americas
Peopling the Americas

  • Many different theories

    • Land Bridge

    • Kayaks/boats, walking etc.

  • Massive diversity by 1492 (Columbian encounter)

  • Agriculture (some areas)= population/ civilization growth nation-states


The origins of the first Americans remain something of a mystery. According to the most plausible theory of how the Americas were populated, for some 25,000 years people crossed the Bering land bridge from Eurasia to North America. Gradually they dispersed southward down ice-free valleys, populating both the American continents.


The european world
The European World mystery. According to the most plausible theory of how the Americas were populated, for some 25,000 years people crossed the Bering land bridge from Eurasia to North America. Gradually they dispersed southward down ice-free valleys, populating both the American continents.

  • Crusades opens west to goods

  • Muslim middlemen, expensive

  • Marco Polo- China

  • 1450 invention of the caravel – importance?

  • New trade posts- slaves (Portuguese)

  • New nation-state of Spain


Goods on the early routes passed through so many hands along the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.


The european world1
The European World the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.

  • Time was right for Columbus- perfect conditions

  • October 12, 1492 reached Bahamas (Arawaks)

  • Lasting effects- interdependent economic systems


Interdependence
Interdependence the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.

EUROPE= markets, capital, technology

AFRICA= slave labor

AMERICAS= raw materials, foodstuff


The Columbian Exchange the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.Columbus’s discovery initiated the kind of explosion in international commerce that a later age would call “globalization.”


When worlds collide
When Worlds Collide the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.

  • Foodstuffs= population explosion

  • European crops/animals

  • Sugar Revolution in Caribbean

  • Europeans= disease and epidemic

    • up to 90% death rate effect?


Spanish conquistadores
Spanish Conquistadores the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.

  • Treaty of Tordesillas- Spanish/Portuguese “claim”

  • “God, gold, glory” (not necessarily in that order)

  • Precious metal increase in Old World (outcome on economic system)

  • Encomienda System


Mexican conquest
Mexican Conquest the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.

  • 1519 Hernando Cortes left for Mexico

  • Local tribe unrest (Aztec tribute system)

  • Cortes= Quetzalcoatl?

  • Tenochtitlan

  • Noche triste (June 30, 1520)

  • Rapid fall of Aztec empire by small group of Spaniards (why?)

  • Assimilation/syncretism


Artists’ Rendering of Tenochtitlán the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.Amid tribal strife in the fourteenth century, the Aztecs built a capital on a small island in a lake in the central Valley of Mexico. From here they oversaw the most powerful empire yet to arise in Mesoamerica. Two main temples stood at the city’s sacred center, one dedicated to Tlaloc, the ancient rain god, and the other to Huitzilopochtli, the tribal god, who was believed to require human hearts for sustenance.


Spanish america
Spanish America the way that their ultimate source remained mysterious to Europeans.

  • Spanish replace Aztec/Incans (Mexico, Peru) silver producing

  • Subjugation of native population

  • St. Augustine founded 1565

  • Conversion to Christianity Pope’s Revolt 1680


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