证据与法律推理
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证据与法律推理. 主讲人:熊明辉教授. 我的联系方式. 办公地点 南校区文科三楼逻辑与认知研究所 304C 室 联系电话 办公室: 84113340 手机: 13678924906 电子邮箱 [email protected] [email protected] 即时通号 QQ: 1164157358 飞信: 798283253 个人主页 http://logic.sysu.edu.cn/faculty/xiongminghui. 教学纪律. 作业

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4827598

证据与法律推理

主讲人:熊明辉教授


4827598

我的联系方式

  • 办公地点

    南校区文科三楼逻辑与认知研究所304C室

  • 联系电话

    办公室:84113340 手机:13678924906

  • 电子邮箱

  • [email protected]

  • [email protected]

  • 即时通号

    QQ: 1164157358 飞信:798283253

  • 个人主页

  • http://logic.sysu.edu.cn/faculty/xiongminghui

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教学纪律

  • 作业

  • 完成PPT上每讲之后课外作业,通过电子邮件提交,过期补交不予认可。

  • 作业提交电子专业用邮箱:[email protected]

  • 考试

  • 本门课程不安排期中考试。

  • 期末考试为课程论文,第17周星期三之前提交论文电子版到专用邮箱,并且星期三上课时间提交打印稿,过期提交一律不予认可。

  • 期末成绩=平时成绩(40%)+考试成绩(60%)。其中,平时成绩根据课堂表现和课外作业完成情况与质量评定。

期末课程论文题目

(选做一题,论文不少于6000字)

我国当前证据法中存在的问题及其对策

试论法律与逻辑的关系

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目录

  • 第1讲 导 论

  • 第2讲 法律证据

  • 第3讲 法律推理

  • 第4讲 法律逻辑

  • 第5讲 法律分析

  • 第6讲 法律论证

  • 第7讲 法律解释

  • 第8讲 侦查推理

什么是分析

分析哲学

语言学分析

法律概念图式

法律经济分析

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教学计划

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目录

  • 第1讲 导 论

  • 第2讲 法律证据

  • 第3讲 法律论证

  • 第4讲 法律逻辑

  • 第5讲 法律分析

  • 第6讲 法律解释

  • 第7讲 侦查推理

什么是分析

分析哲学

语言学分析

法律概念图式

法律经济分析

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法律分析

  • 1 Controversy over Legal Method in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    1.1 Three Stances

    1.1.1 The Rejection of Method

    1.1.2 Methodological Heteronomy

    1.1.3 Methodological Autonomy

    1.2 Methods of Legal Reasoning

    1.3 Logic – Analysis – Argumentation – Hermeneutics

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什么是分析?

  • It is difficult to define analysis.

  • The main reason for this is that there are many procedures labeled “analysis”.

  • Here, of course, we are concerned only with a few of them.

  • Then two methods of analysis, which play an important role in the philosophy of law will be described.

  • These methods are linguistic analysis and economic analysis.

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什么是分析?

  • Historically speaking, a plethora of definitions of analysis have been offered. It is convenient to start with three paradigmatic examples.

  • The Ancient Greek mathematician, Pappus, says:

  • For in analysis we suppose that which is sought to be already done, and we inquire from what it results, and again what is the antecedent of the latter, until we on our backward way light upon something already known and being first in order. And we call such a method analysis, as being a solution backwards (anapalinlysin).

公元4世纪,古希腊数学家Pappus在其巨著《数学汇编》中对蜜蜂巢房就有了精彩的描述,称蜂窝的优美形状是自然界最有效劳动的代表。他猜想,截面呈六边形的蜂窝,是蜜蜂采用最少量的蜂蜡建造而成的。他的这一猜想被称为“蜂窝猜想”,并已被数学界证明。受蜂巢结构的启迪,人们创造性地发明了各种蜂窝结构技术和产品,他们具有结构稳定、用料省、覆盖面广、强度高和重量轻等众多优点。例如,在移动通讯领域,按蜂窝结构设置机站的位置,能以最少的投资覆盖最大的区域,并使机站内的手机获得最好的通讯信号。以蜜蜂巢房结构为基础的蜂窝技术已被广泛用于航空、航天、通信、建筑等领域,并越来越被人们所重视。

  • Pappus of Alexandria (GreekΠάππος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς) (c. 290 – c. 350) was one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his Synagoge or Collection (c. 340), and for Pappus's Theorem in projective geometry. Nothing is known of his life, except (from his own writings) that he had a son named Hermodorus, and was a teacher in Alexandria.

  • Collection, his best-known work, is a compendium of mathematics in eight volumes, the bulk of which survives. It covers a wide range of topics, including geometry, recreational mathematics, doubling the cube, polygons and polyhedra.

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什么是分析?

  • Descartes, in turn, in the 13th of his work “Regulae ad directionemingenii”(the rules for the direction of the mind)remarks:

    If we are to understand a problem perfectly, we must free it from any superfluous conception, reduce it to the simplest terms, and by a process of enumeration split it up into the smallest possible parts.

René Descartes (31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) (Latinized form: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian") was a French philosopher and writer who spent most of his adult life in the Dutch Republic. He has been dubbed the 'Father of Modern Philosophy', and much subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. In particular, his Meditations on First Philosophy continues to be a standard text at most university philosophy departments.

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什么是分析?

  • Several hundred years later B. Russell put forward yet another definition of analysis:

    We start [the analysis] from a body of common knowledge, which constitutes our data. On examination, the data are found to be complex, rather vague, and largely interdependent logically. By analysis we reduce them to propositions which are as nearly as possible simple and precise, and we arrange them in deductive chains, in which a certain number of initial propositions form a logical guarantee for all the rest.

  • Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, and social critic. At various points in his life he imagined himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these things, in any profound sense. He was born in Wales, into one of the most prominent aristocratic families in Britain.

  • In 1950, Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought.

  • Freethought is a philosophical viewpoint that holds that opinions should be formed on the basis of science, logic, and reason, and should not be influenced by authority, tradition, or dogma. The cognitive application of freethought is known as 'freethinking', and practitioners of freethought are known as 'freethinkers'.

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什么是分析?

  • The quoted definitions seem to describe distinct, albeit not entirely different, procedures.

  • In the first definition analysis is a search for logical reasons (let us label it analysis1).

  • In the second it is “decomposition” (analysis2).

  • Finally, in the third definition, analysis is a translation into a certain language, which meets specific conditions, like simplicity or precision (analysis3).

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什么是分析?

  • Of these three conceptions – analysis as a search for logical reasons, analysis as decomposition and analysis as translation – it is analysis2 that seems best to correspond with our intuitions.

  • In the dictionaries of various European languages “analysis” is usually understood as a method that leads from complex concepts to more simple ones.

  • Analysis – thus defined – is usually contrasted with synthesis, which is a process of building complex entities from simple elements.

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什么是分析?

  • Let us note that analysis2 differs from the two other conceptions as it has as its subject concepts – which are to be decomposed into simpler concepts. Analysis1and analysis3, on the other hand, concern sentences or propositions.

  • Only propositions can have logical reasons and only sentences can be translated into other sentences (sentences can also be decomposed but then they are treated as syntactic phenomena and not as bearers of meaning).

  • It has to be noted that this difference is not as important as it may seem at first sight.

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什么是分析?

  • One of the members of the Vienna Circle and a great representative of analytic philosophy, R. Carnap, defined logical analysis in the following way:

    “The logical analysis of a particular expression consists in the setting-up of a linguistic system and the placing of that expression in this system”.

  • The expression in question can, of course, refer to a specific concept. Therefore, there may exist very close links between analysis2 and analysis3.

Rudolf Carnap (May 18, 1891 – September 14, 1970) was an influential German-born philosopher who was active in Europe before 1935 and in the United States thereafter. He was a major member of the Vienna Circle and an advocate of logical positivism.

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分析的历史

  • Ancient thinkers applied different methods of analysis. It is of special interest to observe the procedures of searching for proper definitions.

  • This method is usually tied with the name of Socrates and is illustrated well in many of Plato’s dialogues.

  • The Socratic method is an example of analysis2.

  • Analysis1, in turn, can be found in those fragments of dialogues where Plato puts forward a hypothesis and seeks reasons for its acceptance.

  • Analysis1is also carried out in Aristotle’s “Analytics”, the work that founded logical research.

  • It is interesting to note that, in antiquity, only analysis1 was theoretically described (especially in the already quoted work of Pappus).

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分析的历史

Ruggero John Aldisert (born November 10, 1919 in Carnegie, Pennsylvania) is a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuitfrom 1968 to 1986 and the chief judge from 1984 to 1986.

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分析的历史

  • In the middle ages, especially after the “renaissance” of the twelfth century, analytical methods were widely used, as witnessed in the achievements of the scholasticism.

  • One can easily agree with J. M. Bocheński, that analysis of a comparable level of precision recurred not earlier than the twentieth century.

  • The middle ages, by contrast, did not offer any new, fully developed methods of analysis (with the exception of some theories of John Buridan).

Józef Maria Bocheński (Czuszów, Congress Poland, Russian Empire, 30 August 1902 – February 8, 1995, Fribourg, Switzerland) was a PolishDominican, logician and philosopher.

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分析的历史

  • The works of Descartes constituted the next important step in the methodological discussion of analysis.

  • In “Discourse on method” one finds a passage, which distinguishes between four principles of reasoning and describes one of them as follows:

    Divide each of the difficulties I examined into as many parts as possible and as may be required in order to resolve them better.

  • There are few doubts what Descartes has in mind here: analysis as decomposition (analysis2). This conception of analysis was popularized in the famous “Logic of Port Royal”, a book written in Cartesian spirit by Arnauld and Nicole.

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分析的历史

  • The work, published in 1662, was used as the basic textbook on logic as late as the nineteenth century, influencing the common acceptance of analysis2.

  • The methods of analysis2 can be found in the works of the greatest philosophers of modern times: Leibniz, the British empiricists, and Kant.

John Mill

(1806-1873)

David Hume

(1711-1776)

George Berkeley

(1685–1753)

John Lock

(1632-1704)

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分析的历史

  • The third of the meanings given to analysis – analysis as translation– started to enjoy the status of an important methodological concept after the so-called linguistic turn in philosophy, which occurred with the publication of the works of Frege, Moore, Russell and Whitehead.

  • It is convenient here to devote a few words to the reasons why the “linguistic turn” caused a change in how the notion of analysis was understood.

  • Speaking somewhat boldly, philosophers before the linguistic turn, and at least since Descartes, were interested in what constitutes thinking or reasoning.

  • “The inner discourse” or as the author of the “The discourse on method” would put it, “the chain of ideas in the human mind”, constituted the subject of the philosophers’ interest.

GotlobFrege

(1848-1925)

G. E. Moore

(1873-1958)

B. Russell

(1872-1970)

A. E. Whitehead

(1861-1947)

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分析的历史

  • This interest was supplemented with a peculiar understanding of reasoning, which was based on a metaphor of seeing: for Descartes “to think” means “to see ideas with the mind’s eyes”.

  • It is not surprising then that, in such a framework, what interests philosophers are ideas or concepts and the method of analysis leads to decomposing the complex images into simpler ones.

  • After the linguistic turn the situation changes: sentences now occupy the central place that had been reserved for concepts (even though conceptsplay an important role in some kinds of analytic philosophy).

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目录

  • 第1讲 导 论

  • 第2讲 法律证据

  • 第3讲 法律论证

  • 第4讲 法律逻辑

  • 第5讲 法律分析

  • 第6讲 法律解释

  • 第7讲 侦查推理

什么是分析

分析哲学

语言学分析

法律概念图式

法律经济分析

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分析哲学

  • Analytic Philosophy

  • In the twentieth century there emerged a philosophical movement that is usually referred to as “analytic philosophy”.

  • It would be inappropriate to characterize analytic philosophy as a school of thought that uses analysis as its method; there are numerous other philosophical traditions making use of analysis.

  • The problem is that because of the diversity of schools labeled “analytic” it is difficult to establish the necessary or sufficient conditions for referring to someone as an “analytic philosopher”.

  • J. M. Bocheńskimaintains that there are four keywords pertinent to analytic philosophy: analysis(分析), language(语言), logic(逻辑)and objectivism(客观性).

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分析哲学

  • J. M. Bocheńskiunderstands analysis as opposed to philosophical synthesis; the task of a philosopher is not to construct all-embracing systems but to solve concrete problems.

  • The keyword “language” refers to accepting language as the basic medium of philosophizing.

  • “Logic”, in turn, underlines analytic philosophers’ trust in formal tools.

  • Finally, “objectivism” is opposed to any kind of subjectivism.

  • The above mentioned principles are realized to varying degrees in different schools of analytic philosophy.

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分析哲学

  • For instance, members and followers of the Vienna Circle put special emphasis on applying logical methods.

  • The Oxford School of Ordinary Language, by contrast, dismissed logic as useless and concentrated on painstaking analysis of how words are actually used in ordinary language.

  • Bocheński’sproposal is not, therefore, a definition of analytic philosophy but only indicates the principles important to analytic philosophers.

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分析哲学

  • Analytic philosophers are usually divided into two “wings” (camps).

  • The first wing is occupied by the reconstructionists, whose aim is to reform ordinary language using logical tools.

  • The second wing – the descriptionists– aims only to describe how ordinary language functions and uses methods of an informal character.

  • The methods of reconstruction are often referred to as “hard”, whilst descriptive techniques are called “soft”.

  • Therefore, we have “hard” (formal) analytic philosophers on the one hand, and “soft” (anti-formal) on the other.

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分析哲学

  • Today the above mentioned division is questionable. But in the middle of the twentieth century there were good reasons to justify it.

  • The “formal approach” was represented then by members and followers of the Vienna Circle (who, after the Second World War stayed in the United States or in the United Kingdom).

  • On the other hand, the “anti-formal” methods were applied by Wittgenstein in Cambridge and by the Oxford School of Ordinary Language.

  • The differences between the two approaches were clearly visible then, as was the animosity between the representatives of both wings of analytic philosophy.

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分析哲学

  • G.E. Moore is considered the “founding father” of analytic philosophy.

  • His Principia Ethica(1903) marks symbolically the beginning of a philosophy that – being in opposition to neo-Hegelianism – concentrated on conceptual analysis based on common sense. Moore can easily be classed as a representative of the anti-formal wing of analytic philosophy.

  • The same may be said of the “second” philosophy of L. Wittgenstein or the Oxford School of Ordinary Language.

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分析哲学

  • Around the time Moore “founded” anti-formal analytic philosophy, the “formal” wing began to emerge.

  • German logician G. Fregeis usually regarded as the first representative of this way of philosophizing.

  • In addition to Frege’s work, as a milestone in the history of logic – and of “hard” analysis – one should also mention Russell’s and Whitehead’s Principia Mathematica, published in 1910–1913.

  • In the spirit of Principia L. Wittgenstein wrote his first major work, TractatusLogico- Philosophicus. The idea of applying logical methods in philosophy was radicalized by the Vienna Circle, founded by M. Schlickin 1920s.

  • Among members of the Circle one should mention O. Neurath, R. Carnapand F. Waissmann.

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分析哲学

  • Less radical, but still logically oriented, was another distinguished philosophical school: the Lvov-Warsaw School, with its founder K. Twardowskiand famous members: J. Lukasiewicz, S. Leśniewski, K. Ajdukiewicz, A. Tarski, T. Kotarbińskiand others.

  • More contemporary methods of analysis, represented mainly by American and British philosophers, cannot easily be classified as formal or informal, although in some cases such a classification is to a certain extent justified.

  • For instance, W.V. O. Quinecan be labeled a representative of “hard” analysis; J. Hintikkalikewise. G. Evans, on the other hand, used rather “soft” methods

Gareth Evans

1946-1980

T. Kotarbiński

1886-1981

K. Ajdukiewicz

1890-1963

W. V. O. Quine

1908-2000

J. Hintikka

1929-

K. Twardowski

1866-1938

J. Lukasiewicz

1878-1956

S. Leśniewski

1886-1939

A. Tarski

1901-1983

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分析哲学

  • However, some first rate philosophers, such as H. Putnam, M. Dummettand D. Davidson, do not easily qualify as representatives of either of the two groups.

  • Of the many approaches employed by analytic philosophers we examine below only linguistic analysis, which is characteristic of the Oxford School of Ordinary Language. There are several reasons for this.

  • First, the methodological richness of analytic philosophy makes it impossible to present everything.

  • Second, linguistic analysis is a method that is relatively well defined.

  • Third, it has played an important role in legal theory and the philosophy of law.

  • Finally, it is a model example of anti-formal analysis.

1917-2003

M. Dummett

1925-

H. Putnam

1929-

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目录

  • 第1讲 导 论

  • 第2讲 法律证据

  • 第3讲 法律论证

  • 第4讲 法律逻辑

  • 第5讲 法律分析

  • 第6讲 法律解释

  • 第7讲 侦查推理

什么是分析

分析哲学

语言学分析

法律概念图式

法律经济分析

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语言学分析

  • Linguistic Analysis

  • Philosophical analyses which are labeled “soft” can be found in the writings of one of the “founding fathers” of analytic philosophy, G. E. Moore(1873-1958). In such works as Principia Ethica(1903), Moore developed a common sense philosophy, which made extensive use of analysis of the ordinary meaning of words.

  • Similar methods were applied by other philosophers belonging to the Cambridge School of Analysis such as J. Wisdom, M. Black and S. Stebbing.

Susan Stebbing

(1885-1943)

Max Black

(1909-1988)

John Wisdom

(1904-1993)

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语言学分析

  • Linguistic Analysis

  • In reference to linguistic analysis one cannot fail to mention the “second” philosophy of L. Wittgenstein (1889-1951).

  • Wittgenstein claimed to have solved all the major problems of philosophy in Tractatuslogico-philosophicusand, after publishing it in the early 1920s, decided not to follow any “academic career”. He returned to Cambridge and to philosophical thinking at the beginning of the 1930s.

  • He developed then a new conception, which – in opposition to the one employed in Tractatus– abandoned logic in favor of analyzing ordinary language in its diverse forms.

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语言学分析

  • Linguistic Analysis

  • Linguistic analysis in its classic form was developed in Oxford by J. L. Austin(1911-1960) and his followers. Austin, the author of How to Do Things with Words (1962), put ordinary language at the center of philosophical attention, maintaining that analysis of the subtle ways in which ordinary language functions is the proper way to approach philosophical problems.

  • Among other representatives of the Oxford School one should mention P. F. Strawson (1919-2006) and G. Ryle (1900-1976). One should also add to this list J. Searle(1932-), although he did not regard himself as a linguistic philosopher.

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语言学析

  • Linguistic Analysis

  • Among the legal philosophers making use of linguistic analysis one should mention H. L. A. Hart(1907-1992), and some elements of this kind of analysis can also be traced in the works of R. Dworkin (1931-) or J. Raz (1939-). It is not improper to mention K. Opalek, who in his monograph “Z teoriidyrektywinorm” (From the theory of the Directive standards) (1974) applied both “hard” and “soft” methods to analyze such concepts as “directive”, “norm” or “imperative”.

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语言学分析

  • Linguistic Analysis

  • It is difficult to state precisely what linguistic analysis consists of. One could say that it is the analysis of concepts that are used in ordinary language; this, however, is neither precise nor adequate.

  • The most characteristic feature of linguistic analysis is the special role of ordinary language. Strawson says that concepts which are basic from the philosophical point of view – if there is such a thing – are to be looked for in non-technical, ordinary language and not in specialized languages.

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目录

  • 第1讲 导 论

  • 第2讲 法律证据

  • 第3讲 法律论证

  • 第4讲 法律逻辑

  • 第5讲 法律分析

  • 第6讲 法律解释

  • 第7讲 侦查推理

什么是分析

分析哲学

语言学分析

法律概念图式

法律经济分析

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法律概念图式

  • Legal Conceptual Scheme

  • Let us look more closely at how H. L. A. Hart (1907-1992) used the methods of linguistic analysis in order to elucidate “the concept of law”.

  • Hart’s undertaking can be seen from the maximalist perspective as an attempt to show how the concept of law functions in our conceptual scheme.

  • Consequently, one will not find in Hart’s analysis a definition of law that characterizes it by reducing it to more elementary elements. Moreover, in The Concept of Law Hart adapts an anti-definitional approach. This approach is connected to the diagnosis of ordinary concepts of language that was popular in J. L. Austin’s school.

张文显,男,汉族,1951年8月28日(农历)出生,河南省南阳人,1975年11月入党,1970年2月参加工作,研究生学历,法学硕士,哲学博士。吉林大学哲学社会科学资深教授(一级教授),博士生导师。二级大法官著名法学家、现任吉林省高级人民法院院长、党组书记。

“北国春城长春座落在美丽的吉林大学校园内”!

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法律分析

  • Legal Conceptual Scheme

  • Such concepts are necessarily vague. Accordingly, every concept has a core of determinate meaning and a penumbra of indeterminacy; in other words, there are objects that are certainly covered by the concept’s denotation, but there are also many borderline cases – objects which cannot easily be placed inside or outside the concept’s denotation.

  • In the case of such concepts, defining – understood traditionally, as determining the set of necessary and sufficient conditions for predicating the given concept of the given object – is pointless for it leads to the elimination of borderline cases, and therefore creates a false picture of how the concept functions in ordinary language.

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法律分析

  • Legal Conceptual Scheme

  • This anti-definitional approach does not, however, mean that one cannot say anything about ordinary language concepts.

  • On the contrary: the principle of the primacy of ordinary language enables the subtle analysis of various concepts and interrelations between concepts.

  • As a result, however, we never arrive at a simple definition. As Hart puts it himself in his opus magnum:

    “(. . .) this book is offered as an elucidation of the concept of law rather than a definition of ‘law’”.

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法律分析

  • Legal Conceptual Scheme

  • Hart commences his discussion by criticizing the definition of law proposed by a nineteenth century English philosopher, J. L. Austin, the author of The Province of Jurisprudence Determined.

  • Austin’s definition is usually reduced to the following slogan: “law is an order backed by a threat of sanction”.

John Langshaw Austin (March 26, 1911 – February 8, 1960) was a Britishphilosopher of language, born in Lancaster and educated at Shrewsbury School and Balliol College, Oxford University.

刘星(1958-)

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法律分析

  • Legal Conceptual Scheme

  • This analysis of how the word “law” is used leads Hart to claim that law consists of a union between primary and secondary rules.

  • Primary rules are rules that confer powers or state obligations.

  • Secondary rules are about the primary rules: they determine how to introduce, change and interpret the primary rules.

  • Among the secondary rules there is also the rule of recognition, which enables us to say which legal rules are valid.

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法律分析

  • Legal Conceptual Scheme

  • Our discussion of linguistic analysis was centered on the legal-theoretic problems.

  • The discussion has shown that this method can serve legal philosophers well.

  • It is not surprising then that linguistic analysis has been used to investigate numerous problems, ranging from legal language, discourse and the ontology of law, to more specific problems, like the validity of norms.

  • It is not difficult, either, to envisage applying this kind of analysis in the field of legal dogmatics and legal practice.

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法律分析

  • Legal Conceptual Scheme

  • An interesting relationship between the methods of linguistic analysisand the interpretation of law was observed by R. Sarkowicz, who developed a three-layer conception of legal interpretation.

  • Among the three layers of interpretation, he identifies the level of presuppositions, on which the interpreter reconstructs the worldview, the system of values, andthe conception of social institutions as assumed by the legislator.

  • These pieces of information are presuppositions (in a loose sense of the word) of legal text. Therefore, in Sarkowicz’s conception, one of the characteristic methods of linguistic analysis becomes an important component of the process of legal interpretation.

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目录

  • 第1讲 导 论

  • 第2讲 法律证据

  • 第3讲 法律论证

  • 第4讲 法律逻辑

  • 第5讲 法律分析

  • 第6讲 法律解释

  • 第7讲 侦查推理

什么是分析

分析哲学

语言学分析

法律概念图式

法律经济分析

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法律经济分析

  • Economic Analysis of Law

  • Economic analysis of law – i.e., applying economic tools to the analysis of what the law should be – is not a new idea. Some elements of this approach can be traced in the writings of Machiavelli(马基亚维利,1469-1527),Montesquieu(孟德斯鸠) and the representatives of the German historical school.

  • Economic analysis of law par excellence originated, however, in the Anglo-Saxon world. This is hardly surprising, given that the Anglo-Saxons built the foundations of economics itself, as witnessed by the Scottish Enlightenment and the philosophies of Bentham(1748-1832)and J. S. Mill (1806-1873).

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Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr. (March 8, 1841 – March 6, 1935) was an American jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1902 to 1932. Noted for his long service, his concise and pithy opinions, and his deference to the decisions of elected legislatures, he is one of the most widely cited United States Supreme Court justices in history, particularly for his "clear and present danger" majority opinion in the 1919 case of Schenck v. United States, and is one of the most influential American common law judges. Holmes retired from the Court at the age of 90, making him the oldest Justice in the Supreme Court's history. He also served as an Associate Justice and as Chief Justice on the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, and was Weld Professor of Law at the Harvard Law School, of which he was an alumnus.

法律经济分析

“The life of the law has not been logic; it has been experience.”

The Common Law 1881 p.1

  • Economic Analysis of Law

  • Already in 1897, one of the greatest representatives of American realism in legal theory, O. W. Holmes, Jr.(1841-1935)wrote:

    For the rational study of the law the black-letter man may be the man of the present, but the man of the future is the man of statistics and the master of economics.

  • Holmes’ prophecy had already become reality by the beginning of the twentieth century, when American, German and Scandinavian jurists attempted to apply economic methods to the analysis of law. Economics was not, however, the only perspective they adopted. Economic tools were only part of the theoretical arsenal used by legal realism.

  • The fallacy to which I refer is the notion that the only force at work in the development of the law is logic. … So in the broadest sense it is true that the law is a logical development, like everything else.

  • The training of lawyers is a training in logic.

  • The processes of analogy, discrimination, and deduction are those in which they are most at home. The language of judicial decision is mainly the language of logic.

  • The Path of the Law, 10 Harvard Law Review 457 (1897)

Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr. (1809 –1894) was an American physician, professor, lecturer, and author.

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法律经济分析

  • Richard Allen Posner (born January 11, 1939) is an American jurist and legal theorist who is currently a judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit in Chicago and a Senior Lecturer at the University of Chicago Law School. He is an influential figure in the law and economics school of thought.

  • Posner has been called "the world’s most distinguished legal scholar.“ He is the author of nearly 40 books on jurisprudence, legal philosophy, and several other topics, including The Problems of Jurisprudence, Sex and Reason, Overcoming Law, Law, Pragmatism and Democracy, and The Problematics of Moral and Legal Theory. The Journal of Legal Studies has identified Posner as the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century, and a 1999 New York Times article identified Posner as one of the most respected judges in the United States

  • Economic Analysis of Law

  • Out of this tradition the Chicago School of Law & Economics originated. It is usually held that the school was established in the 1970s. However, by the end of the 1950s, research on the borderline between law and economics was undertaken. Amongst the seminal articles of those times one should mention

  • R. Coase’s “The Problem of Social Cost” (1960),

  • A. Alchian’s “Some Economics of Property Right” (1965)

  • G. Calabresi’s “Some Thoughts on Risk-Distribution and the Law ofTorts” (1961).

  • In 1972 R. Posner published his Economic Analysis of Law, defending the thesis that the traditional institutions of common law are economically effective.

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法律经济分析

  • Economic Analysis of Law

  • In this way the Chicago School was fully established in the mid-1970s. Posner is regarded as its main representative. The idea of applying economic tools to law proved useful enough to prompt research in various academic centers in the United States and around the world.

  • Today it is difficult to count the many schools carrying out their research under the heading of the economic analysis of law. Both the variety and number of enthusiasts of the economic analysis of law make it impossible to talk about a unified research program. It seems however that all the representatives of Law & Economics share a basic thesis, which says that the law is (or should be) economically effective (i.e., it leads or should lead to economically effective allocation of goods).

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法律分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • Let us look at the following example. Let us assume we have a simple legal system consisting of just one norm:

    (A) Whoever causes damage to someone else must redress it.

  • The obligation expressed in (A) is not very precisely determined. Almost all the concepts used in its formulation give rise to interpretational problems. How should one define “damage”? What does it mean that a person A caused damage to a person B? Should it be the case that only those actions of A that directly result in a damage count as torts? What does it mean to “redress” the damage? These are the questions to be answered in the process of interpreting of (A). What are the criteria of interpretation to be employed?

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法律经济分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • Let us look at the following situation.

  • John has caused damage to Adam. Therefore, on the basis of (A), he has to redress it.

  • But in certain circumstances we may ask:

    should John redress the entire damage?

  • Such a question is sound in a situation in which Adam’s behavior contributed to the damage.

  • What are the criteria for answering it?

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法律经济分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • Let us try to build a simple economic model, which can serve as a basis for the required answer.

  • What indicators need to be taken into account? It is clear that we need to know the value of the damage. Let us call it S. Let us assume further that Adam could have undertaken an action that resulted in no damage. Such an action naturally has its own cost. Let KP stand for the cost of Adam’s preventive actions.

  • The comparison of S and KP does not tell us much. Obviously, if the cost of the preventive action KP is higher than the damage S, then undertaking the preventive action would be irrational.

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法律经济分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • Let us consider now whether we should expect the plaintiff (in our case: Adam) to undertake preventive action when KP< S. The answer to this question will be positive only if the damage occurs in every case in which the plaintiff refrains from acting. If, however, the plaintiff’s refrain does not in every case result in damage, the inequality KP< S is useless.

  • Let us assume then that by P we will understand the probability of damage where the plaintiff does not undertake the preventive action. Let us assume, further, that undertaking the preventive action eliminates the possibility of the damage.

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法律经济分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • In such circumstances, every time the unit cost of prevention is lower than the unit cost of the damage (KP< P · S), it is rational to undertake preventive action. Let us illustrate this using our example.

  • Assume that the damage S, John has caused to Adam is 100. Let the probability of the damage P equal 10%, and the cost KP– 4. It is easy to observe that KP < P · S, for 4 < 10. It would be rational then for Adam to undertake preventive action. If he refrained from doing this, the court could say that his behavior contributed to the damage. John will not, therefore, be responsible for the entire damage.

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法律经济分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • Let us look more closely at how the court’s reasoning runs here.

  • John has caused damage to Adam; the damage amounts to 100 and the question the court has to answer reads: should John redress the entire damage, or only a part of it? The court will choose the former possibility only if Adam’s behavior did not contribute to the damage. When can one say that this is the case? Our simple economic model suggests that it is the case when the unit cost of prevention is lower than the value of the damage multiplied by the probability of its occurrence.

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法律分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • The model presented above is, of course, quite simplistic as it rests on many idealistic assumptions.

  • We have assumed, for instance, that the preventive actions reduce to 0 the probability of the occurrence of the damage. What if, however, the preventive actions reduce the probability only by half ? Let us inspect the table below (from now on by P we understand the probability of the occurrence of the damage in the given circumstances):

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法律经济分析

  • Idea of Economization

  • Under these changed circumstances, in Situation 1, in which the plaintiff does not undertake the preventive actions, the social cost is 10. In Situation 2, in which preventive actions are undertaken reducing the probability of the occurrence of the damage to 5%, the social cost equals 9 (that includes the expected damage and the cost of the preventive action). Since the social costs in Situation 2 are lower, this is the desired situation; the plaintiff should therefore undertake the preventive actions.

  • If he refrained from doing so and damage occurred, the court will hold him responsible for contributing to the damage. If P1 stands for the probability in Situation 1, and P2 for the probability in Situation 2, the rule forming the basis of the court’s decision can be formulated in the following way: if (P2 · S) + KP < P1 · S, then the plaintiff contributed to the damage.

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法律经济分析

  • Bentham’s observation can be presented as a simple economic formula.

  • Let Z stand for the income expected from the crime, K for the loss connected with the punishment, and P for the probability of punishment. Someone who acts rationally will commit a crime only if the expected income will be higher than the cost of punishment multiplied by the probability of punishment:

  • Crime will be committed if Z > P · K.

  • Idea of Economization

  • It is not surprising that economic analysis has been used most widely in private law, in which economic efficiency may be considered the highest aim.

  • More problematic is the application of the economic method to criminal law. An exception is the determination of a sanction, and designing the system of sanctions, which does seem to fit with economic analysis.

  • J. Bentham wrote in 1788: “the profit of the crime is the force which urges man to delinquency: the pain of the punishment is the force employed to restrain him from it. If the first of these forces be the greater, the crime will be committed; if the second, the crime will not be committed”.

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法律经济分析

  • 1 Controversy over Legal Method in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    1.1 Three Stances

    1.1.1 The Rejection of Method

    1.1.2 Methodological Heteronomy

    1.1.3 Methodological Autonomy

    1.2 Methods of Legal Reasoning

    1.3 Logic – Analysis – Argumentation – Hermeneutics

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作 业

  • 介绍五位分析哲学的代表人物及其理论对法律分析的影响?

  • 什么是法律分析分析?其代表人物及其理论有哪些?

  • 如何理解哈特的“法律”概念?

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