MEOR Using Facultative Anaerobic Indigenous Consortia and Bio-surfactants
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MEOR Using Facultative Anaerobic Indigenous Consortia and Bio-surfactants. Xiaofang Wei 1 Xingli Li 2 Keyu Liu 3 Yuehui She 4 Jing Wang 1 1 China University of Petroleum 2 GRI, Jiangsu Oilfield 3 CSIRO Petroleum 4 Yangtz University. Acknowledgements. CSIRO WfO Flagship

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MEOR Using Facultative Anaerobic Indigenous Consortia and Bio-surfactants

Xiaofang Wei1 Xingli Li2Keyu Liu3 Yuehui She4 Jing Wang1

1 China University of Petroleum

2 GRI, Jiangsu Oilfield

3 CSIRO Petroleum

4 Yangtz University


Acknowledgements

  • CSIRO WfO Flagship

  • Biochemical Engineering Laboratory, CUP, Beijing

    • Yijng Luo, Mang Lu, Peiwen Zheng, Zhongzhi Zhang

  • The Langfang Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina

    • Core-flooding technical support

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Presentation Outline

  • Background of the MEOR study

  • Nutrient stimulation

    • MEOR screening and assessment

  • Bacteria selection and metabolite analysis

    • Oil spreading and blood agar lysis methods

    • Emulsification

    • Interfacial tension (IFT)

  • Core flooding experiments

    • Experimental procedure

    • Results

  • Conclusions and Future work

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Unrecovered oil range

from 1-2 trillion barrels

Enhanced Oil Recovery

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


World Average Oil Price

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Oil Consumption (BP Statistical Review, 2006)

1 km

l

l

Australia:0.9 mbbl/day

China:7.0

US:20.6

World:82.5

US 1 cubic km oil / year

China

Australia

United States

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


EOR Portfolio

NON-THERMAL

Imm. Gas

Drives

Other

Chemical

Miscible

Slug Process

Polymer

CO2

MEOR

Enriched Gas Drive

Surfactant

Flue Gas

FOAM

Vaporizing Gas Drive

Alkaline

Inert Gas

CO2 Miscible

Micellar

MEOR is a rapidly growing EOR technique currently under laboratory research or field investigation

N2 Miscible

ASP

Alcohol

Emulsion

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


MEOR Mechanisms and Strategies

  • Acids, gas, solvents production

    • Commonly made by carbohydrate fermentation

    • Inject carbohydrates (molasses, etc.)

  • Selective plugging

    • Create biofilms, cell mass and/or mineral precipitates

    • Any nutrient could work: use nitrate as electron acceptor

    • If reservoir has high divalent cation concentration, CO2 production may stimulate carbonate formation

  • Hydrocarbon degradation

    • Inject electron acceptor and/or limiting nutrients (N, S, P, metals)

  • Biosurfactant production

  • Emulsifiers

    • Periodic cycles of nutrient-excess and nutrient limitation

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Microbially Converting CO2 to CH4 in Depleted Reservoirs (from Maeda, 2009)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Implementing MEOR (from McInerney,2009)

  • Not all reservoirs are candidates for MEOR

  • Environmental conditions limit microbial growth

  • Recommendations:

    • Temperature: <80oC

    • pH: 5-9

    • Salinity: <10%

    • Depth: <2500 m

    • API gravity: > 15o

    • Residual oil saturation: >25%

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Background of the Reservoir Investigated

  • Characteristics of the Huatugou Oil Reservoir, Qinghai Oilfield, China

    • Production history: 1958-present

    • EOR: Water-flooding

    • Formation Water Salinity <2x104 ppm

    • Reservoir P/T: 45℃ /22 MPa

    • Fm water pH≤7

    • Low sulfate concentration

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Microbial Screening

  • Hydrocarbon Degrading Bacteria (HBD)

    • Microbes population>105 cells/ml(Bottle test)

  • Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB)

    • Not Detected (PCR)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


MEOR Screening

The Huatugou reservoir is a good candidate for MEOR

  • Relatively high microbe population: >105 (Cell counting)

  • Low formation Water Salinity: <2x104 ppm

  • Low reservoir T: 45℃

  • Suitable formation water chemistry: pH≤7

  • Low corrosion risk: no SRB detected

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Nutrient Stimulation

  • Proper nutrient (Carbon Source: Reservoir oil)

  • Target facultative anaerobic indigenous consortia

  • Cell Population is up to 108 cells/ml

  • Minor IFT and Viscosity changes

  • Gas production observed

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactant: species selection and identification

  • Two strains were selected and named as BIOS682-1and BIOS682-2

  • Initial screening by the blood agar lysis method: positive

  • Screening using the oil spreading method

    • Pure culture clear zone diameters : 4.5 cm and 4.8 cm

    • Mixed culture clear zone diameter: 5.0 cm

  • Species identification using 16s RNA

    • BIOS682-1: Brevibacillus agri (99% similarity)

    • BIOS682-2: Brevibacillus levicki (95%, a possible new species)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactants: speciesculture and assessment

  • Mixed culture of two selected strains

    • 5ml oil/50ml-medium cultured for 3 weeks at 45℃

    • Under facultative anaerobic condition (headspace filled with N2)

  • Oil-water separation

    • Oil was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min at room temperature

    • Oil was extracted by using CCl4 (oil in water)

  • The surface tension

    • Equipment: Contact Angle analyzer (DCA322)

  • Emulsification (Culture and reservoir oil 1:1 v/v)

    • Emulsification maintained for 100 hrs after 15 min u/s bathing

    • The ratio between emulsified oil and water measured

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactant producing species:culture and assessment

  • Surface tension reduction: 24%

  • Emulsification improvement: 14%

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactant analysis

  • Bio-surfactant of lipopeptide extraction protocol

    • centrifuged twice at 4°C @10,000 rpm for 20 min

    • the supernatant was mixed with 6mol HCL @ pH=2 (24 hrs 4°C)

    • The floccules were collected using centrifuge (4°C @10,000 rpm for 20 min)

    • The settlings were washed using acidic solution (pH=2), then dissolved in weak alkali solution (pH=8)

    • Extracted with DCM and methanol solution (v/v 3:1)

    • Dried under vacuum at low temperature

    • The primary products were dissolved in alkali solution (pH=8)

    • The extraction was then dried under vacuum

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactant analysis

  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

    • Initial screening

  • Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS).

    • The purified product was hydrolyzed for 14 hrs at 110 ℃ with 6N HCl in N2 chamber

    • Equipment: Agilent 1100 system

a-Amino acid

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactant analysis

  • Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC)

Metabolite

Standard Sample

lipopeptidebio-surfactant(Pink): Qualitative analysis

Solution used is a mixture of n-butanol/alcohol/water(4:1:1)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactant analysis

Metabolite

Standard Sample

lipopeptidebio-surfactant-Amino Acid (Yellow)

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Bio-surfactant analysis

Amino Acid contents in the metabolites

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


4. Core-flooding Experiment

Oil

Collector

Core Holder

Water

Microbes

Core-flooding experiment design:

  • T/P: 45℃/22 MPa

  • Water-cut: 70%

  • Incubation time: 3 days

  • Injected volume: 2.5 PV of Cultured solution

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Synthetic Core Plugs for Core Flooding Experiments

  • Material: oil zone sandstone recovered from the producing well,

    • DisintegratedCleaned

    • Sieved to 30, 80 and 120 meshes, respectively

  • A two-layer heterogeneous sand packs with different permeabilities was constructed

    • Layer 1: 2:2:1 mix of 30-80, 80-120 and >120 meshes

    • Layer 2: 1:1 mix of 30-80 and 80-120 meshes

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Core-flooding Experiment

η=(B-A)-C

  • B: final oil recovery %

  • A: oil recovery % from 0.5 pv nutrient solution injection

  • C: oil recovery % (Blank) from 0.5 pv synthetic formation water injection

  • η: incremental oil recovery (%)

Core plug properties

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Results of core-flooding

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Conclusions

  • The Huatugou reservoir in the Qinghai Oilfield is a good candidate for MEOR

  • The indigenous facultative anaerobic flora from the reservoir was stimulated by adding proper nutrients to promote their activities

  • The two indigenous aerobic species selected can co-metabolize well and produced more bio-surfactant than from a single strain in the reservoir

  • The two species identified by 16s RNA are Brevibacillus agri (BIOS682-1); and a possible new species in genus of Bacillus brevis (BIOS682-2).

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Conclusions

  • The metabolites of BIOS682 contain low concentration of amino acids

  • An 11% incremental recovery was achieved using a combined microbial and biosurfactant solution injection.

  • The facultative anaerobic flora play an important role in peeling the oil form rock or breaking down the large oil drops.

  • The use of cultured solution with bio-surfactant and other metabolites is much more effective than the use of the indigenous microbes alone in recovering residual oil.

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Future work

  • In-situ experiments (Field Trials)

  • Further analysis of the metabolites

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


Dr Xiaofang Wei

Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina

[email protected]

Dr Keyu Liu

Research Team Leader

CSIRO Petroleum

[email protected]

Thank You

30th IEA Workshop and Symposium on EOR Sept. 21-23, 2009, Canberra, Australia


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