Starfish regeneration
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Starfish Regeneration. Lexie Ferko Kaitlyn Kushman Alissa Mosser. Kingdom: Animalia. This kingdom is also known as Metazoa. All animals are members of the kingdom. It doesn’t contain prokaryotes or protists. All members are multicellular and are heterotrophs.

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Starfish Regeneration

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Starfish regeneration

Starfish Regeneration

LexieFerko

KaitlynKushman

AlissaMosser


Kingdom animalia

Kingdom: Animalia

  • This kingdom is also known as Metazoa.

  • All animals are members of the kingdom.

  • It doesn’t contain prokaryotes or protists. All members are multicellular and are heterotrophs.

  • The bodies of most animals are made up of tissues specialized to perform specific functions.

  • The two types of animals are Vertebrates and Invertebrates.

  • There is also 800,000 species in this kingdom.


Genus asterias

Genus: Asterias

  • A genus of the Asteriidae family of sea stars.

  • Usually found in the Northern Atlantic region

  • It includes the most well known species of sea stars:

    • The (Atlantic) common starfish

    • Asterias rubens

    • The northern Pacific sea star


Species forbesi

Species: Forbesi

  • This kingdom is also called Asteriasforbesi.

  • It is found in the Atlantic Ocean. They don’t form colonies.

  • They like rocks and boulders and are tan, brown or olive colored.

  • Like all sea stars, a forbesi has “spiny skin”.

    • “Spiny skin” is a thin layer of skin covering spiny ossicles which covers their skeleton.


Why is it important to understand how this organism reproduces

Why is it important to understand how this organism reproduces?

  • Benefits

    • The lost leg can reproduce to a new star

    • Some starfish have 5 arms or 20 and more

    • Starfish is cut in half, it can grow back that other half

    • The leg grows back, it can look strange


World applications

World Applications

  • If humans lost their arms and legs, scientist can use starfish to see how humans are able to get it back

  • Ex.

    • Humans are trees, starfish are animals. Trees cannot hunt but starfish can.


Cellular division

Cellular Division

  • A starfish divides by a process called regeneration.

  • If a starfish is cut in half, each half of the starfish will regenerate the missing body parts from its own cells making two complete, independent, and genetically identical starfish.

  • Sometimes a starfish will drop off its own limbs and eventually form a new limbs which regeneration would be considered asexual production.


Mitosis

Mitosis

  • Mitosis is the process of cell division where the nucleus of the cell divides.

  • Two sets of identical chromosomes, or organized DNA proteins are formed.

  • Mitosis is always accompanied by a process called cytokinesis, in which the rest of the cell divides.

  • There are four phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.


Prophase

Prophase

  • By the time prophase starts, the nucleus already has two complete identical sets of DNA. The chromosomes spread throughout the nucleus begin to form an “X” shape and are held together in the middle. Each half of the X is a copy of DNA. They're called mitotic chromosomes when they coil together. Near the end of this, the material enclosing the nucleus and the cytoskeleton disappear.


Prophase cont d

Prophase (cont’d)

  • Once the material enclosing the nucleus dissolves, or, in the case of closed mitosis, after the DNA forms into Xs, structures called centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell and help make a spindle apparatus of microtubules, which is essentially like ropes running across the cell. The chromosomes also develop structures in the middle called kinectochores, which are later used to hook onto the microtubules.


Metaphase

Metaphase

  • As metaphase begins, the microtubules connect to the kinectochores on each side of the chromosome, to be pulled apart later. The chromosomes align themselves, which is spread around the cell like vertical lines. The chromosomes are symmetrically positioned on the metaphase plate. The end of metaphase, each chromosome has microtubules connected to both of its halves, and they are lined up in a straight line along the equator of the cell.


Anapshase

Anapshase

  • Once the chromosomes are lined up correctly, the spindle apparatus pulls the two identical DNA halves apart from one another and moves them to opposite sides of the cell. These two sets of chromosomes will develop into the nuclei of two daughter cells which are perfectly identical to each other and the parent cell.


Telephase

Telephase

  • The chromosomes start to uncoil and spread out again, as they were before they formed into Xs. While this happens, the spindle apparatus is broken down. After that, the nuclear membrane forms again around the chromosomes, as in closed mitosis. Although this is the last phase, cell division is not complete until cytokinesis happens.


Starfish regeneration

  • wiseGEEK. (n.d). What Is Mitosis? Retrieved from http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-mitosis.htm#

  • VBS. (August 15, 2002). Mitosis. Retrieved from http://staff.jccc.net/pdecell/celldivision/mitosis1.html

  • Classzone.com. (n.d) Both sexual and asexual reproduction involve cell division. Retrieved from www.paulgoodenough.com/mrchitty/TEXTBOOK/Source/Chapter17 Pg 562-585/section 3.pdf


Works cited

Works Cited

  • Lewis, C. (2013, February). animal diversity web. Retrieved from http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Asterias_rubens/

  • Chau, K. (2000). Asteriasforbesi. Retrieved from http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Asterias_forbesi/

  • Myers, P. (2012). Animal diversity web. In University of Michigan Retrieved from http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts


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