Cohesion and Flow: Bringing Your Paper Together with Jessica Barron Writing Consultant Walden University. Session Overview. Importance of cohesion and flow Techniques, tools, and language to use Tips for evaluating your own work. What are cohesion and flow ?.
From Merriam-Webster’s Online:
As an academic writer, you want to create a paper that is
I went to the market. I got a bunch of apples. I went to the park. I like birds. Birds eat worms and sometimes berries. There are many different types of birds like blue jays, hawks, and pigeons. I like to feed pigeons and sit down. My back hurt. I go to the doctor.
What is the focus? Is it the market? The park? Birds?
Short, clunky sentences
No relationship between sentences/events
Verb tense shifts
I had a rather eventful day. First, I went to the market, where I picked up a bunch of fresh apples. Next, I walked to the park and sat down on a bench to feed the pigeons. When I stood up again, my back began to hurt, so I took a cab to the doctor’s office.
Establish topic/focus of paragraph
Use time cues as transitions
Vary sentence structure and length
Eliminate unnecessary information (birds)
Cook (2010) supported the idea of differentiated instruction. Jones (2007) stated that students work best by rote memorization. Educators should focus on teaching to the individual needs and abilities of their students. Some students will slip through the cracks. Applying varied strategies in the classroom helps “encourage each student’s potential without the need for traditional intervention” (Nygaard, 2010, p. 64).
Buried topic sentence
No relationship between researchers’ ideas
No closing sentence
Educators should focus on teaching to the individual needs and abilities of their students. Cook (2010), for instance, supported the idea of differentiated instruction. Though Jones (2007) stated that students work best by rote memorization, recent research has shown that some students do not respond well to this style of teaching. Instead, teachers need to apply varied strategies in the classroom to help “encourage each student’s potential without the need for traditional intervention” (Nygaard, 2010, p. 64). Such strategies meet each student’s individual learning style and pair low achievers with high achievers to promote sharing and collaboration.
Move topic sentence to first position Include transitional expressions
Maintain formal scholarly voice Close idea of paragraph and hint at the next idea
Thesis: “a position or proposition that a person…advances and offers to maintain by argument” (Merriam-Webster, 2011)
Sample: The SAT test’s cultural insensitivity contributes to low scores among male minority students.
Anything that doesn’t work toward the thesis doesn’t belong in the paper.
Definition of the disposition
Addressing other dispositions
Refuting other dispositions as more significant
Impacts on teacher flexibility and instruction
THESIS: Disposition 3 is the most significant for teachers to model.
Enhances student achievement
Personal classroom experience
Positive changes to curriculum based on disposition
Provide context and establish argument
Subtopics expand on the general topic of the heading
Provide closure, ensure cohesion!
1. What you put in the top of the funnel must relate to what comes before it. Use this opening sentence to introduce an idea, like a miniature thesis for the paragraph.
2. Follow your topic sentence with scholarly support and start to narrow the topic with this evidence.
4. What comes out of the funnel should conclude the topic of that paragraph and lead into the next.
3. Analyze your evidence to narrow your topic even more and contextualize it within that paragraph.
... Jones (2009) confirmed that the store manager had no future plans to provide apples to his patrons.
While apples were no longer available, oranges were still an option at Market X. They are not as popular of a fruit, according to...
Without a transition:
Jones (2009) found that pigeons were dirty animals. Fillmore (2006) stated that pigeons made great pets.
With a transition:
Jones (2009) found that pigeons were dirty animals. Previously, Fillmore (2006) stated that pigeons made great pets.
Jones (2009) found that pigeons were dirty animals. On the other hand, Fillmore (2006) stated that pigeons made great pets.
Jones (2009) found that pigeons were dirty animals. Nevertheless, Fillmore (2006) stated that pigeons made great pets.
Additionally, the author found....Also, he discovered....Furthermore, the study noted...Moreover, the results displayed...Finally, the article...
Thanks for joining us this evening!