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Nature of Science. Branches of Science Study 1. Biological (Biology / Life Science) *The study of living things. 2. Physical (Physics): Study of Matter & Energy interaction. 3. Chemistry:

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Nature of science

Nature of Science

Branches of Science Study

1. Biological (Biology / Life Science)

*The study of living things.

2. Physical (Physics): Study of Matter &

Energy interaction.

3. Chemistry:

Study of the structure & property

interaction of matter with energy.

Nature of science1

Nature of Science

Pure vs. Applied Science

1. What is Pure Science????

* It’s the advancement of knowledge.

But by what means???

*1. Study 2. Reading 3. Developing an

understanding of the subject area.

Nature of science2

Nature of Science

2. What is applied science????

*It’s the knowledge obtained that’s

applied to/toward something.

* It improves the quality of life for


* It’s also called technology.

Nature of science3

Nature of Science

**** Ok! It’s confer and discuss time. Go to your 12:00 appt and discuss & determine whether the following are Pure or Applied Science.

****Jeff is taking a sampling of fish in a pond to determine the population.

****Sarah observes the shape of the moon that seems to change every night.

***A radar system is developed to track the paths of storm systems.

Nature of science4

Nature of Science

Exercise vs. A Problem

1. What are the characteristics of an

exercise ??????

****The problem is clearly defined (you

know what to look for).

****All the steps, materials, & solution is

obvious. Everything is layed out: Steps, materials, equipment, etc.

Nature of science5

Nature of Science

2. What are the characteristics of a problem:

**Problems are not clearly defined.

** Sometimes the:

a. Steps are missing or unclear.

b. You work by trial and & error.

c. It involves uncertainty.

Nature of science6

Nature of Science

Now here is your task:

First I want you to read pages 6-12.

Then go back to your 12:00 o’clock appt and create a 5-panel cartoon in the development of the peel and stick notepad. Then under it, create a supporting 5 sentence paragraph using the words Pure science, Applied Science, Problem while supporting your cartoon drawing.

Nature of science7

Nature of Science

Problem Solving Strategies

What are they?????

* Clearly define the problem: (Know

what’s being asked).

* Use Prior Knowledge (What have you

learned from past experience).

***Predict a solution (make an educated


Nature of science8

Nature of Science

Problem Solving Strategies

***Look for patterns (like puzzle solving)

**Develop/Design a model (drawings,

pictures, schematics).

**** Critical Thinking Process:

Break the problem down into smaller, simpler, solvable problems.

Science Skills to Utilize

1. Your 5 senses.

2. Observing

3. Measuring

4. Classifying


6. Predicting.

7. Modeling

8. Communicating

Science concepts

Science Concepts


* Studied by order (high to low),

classifying, Hierarchies, or complexity.


* Create something to represent an idea.

***Structure and Function:

* Relationship between objects.

Science concepts1

Science Concepts

****Structure & Function

***How things work and support each

other. Ex: Bicycle peddle to gear wheel

to the chain to the back tire (draw

it now).

****Compare & Contrast:

***How objects are similar and how the are

different. Ex: Cats and dogs, bees & birds.

Science concepts2

Science Concepts

***Cause & Effect:

** Cause must occur in order for an effect to happen. Ex: You in bed, roll over in your sleep and fall to floor (draw this as an example).


**It is continuous . Requires various changes in its rate. Ex: Various car speeds on the road.

Science concepts3

Science Concepts


**Part of the whole. Involves energy and matter interaction. Has defined pathways. Ex: bike pedal to chain sprocket to rear gear and wheel = movement.

Talk and confer time

Talk and Confer time!!!!!

Now go to your 3 o’clock appt and discuss and come to an agreement on which science concept agrees with the following statements:

***Summer follows spring.

***A tidal wave results from an underwater


****The heart, blood vessels, and arteries work

to circulate the blood.

****An ice skater’s foot pushes the skate blade

backward & the skater glides forward.

Metric measurement system

Metric Measurement System

1. It’s the only system of measurement

used in science.

2. It’s based on units of ten (10).

3. Used for measures of time, length,

temperature, volume, mass & density.

Metric measurement system1

Metric Measurement System

Units of Measurement


**Millimeters (mm), Centimeters (cm), Meter (m), Kilometer (km).


***Seconds (s)


** Milliliter (ml), Liter (L)

Metric measurement system2

Metric Measurement System

Units of Measurement

** Temperature:

*Measured in celicus degrees (C).

* Unit of measure is Kelvin (K).

C + 293 = K or K-293 = C.

Metric measurement system3

Metric Measurement System

Units of Measurement


** Kilograms (kg) & grams (g).


g/ml = grams per milliliter

g/cm3 = grams per centimeter cube.

Metric measurement system4

Metric Measurement System

Tools of Choice for Metric Measurement

1. Mass:

Base Unit: Kilogram (kg) 1,000g = 1kg

Tool used: Triple Beam Balance

* This the measure of the total matter of an


* The tool requires a zero-out procedure.

Triple beam balance zero out procedures

Triple-Beam BalanceZero-Out Procedures

1. Wipe-off & Clean the Platform

Measurement top.

2. Move all counter weights to the left &

flush to the platform frame.

3. “White line” on the bar must be even to

the “White line” on the frame.

4. Turn counter-weight knob counter-clock wise to raiser bar line. Turn it away from you.

Triple beam balance zero out procedures1

Triple-Beam BalanceZero-Out Procedures

5. Turn Knob clockwise to lower bar line

to match the frame line. Turn the knob

toward you.

6. Once both lines meet; you have

successfully zero-out the Triple-Beam

and you’re ready to go.

Metric measurement system5

Metric Measurement System

Tools of Choice

1. For Volume:

(Solids): Meter Stick (1,000 mm, 100cm,

Meter Tape 1m).

Metric Ruler (300mm, 100cm).


* Area= length * Width or A=l*w (always in square).

Metric measurement system6

Metric Measurement System

Tools of Choice

*** For Volume of a solid:

Volume = length x width x height or

V= l x w x h ( always in cube).

* Volume accounts for the amount of space occupied by an object.

Now how about volume for liquids?????

Metric measurement system7

Metric Measurement System

Tools of Choice

*** Volume for liquids:

**Tools for liquid measurements are flasks, beakers, & graduated cylinders.

** Always in ml & L. 1,000ml = 1L

*****Beware of the meniscus factor for glass beakers & grad cylinders.

**** Always look for the bubble down effect.

Metric measurement system8

Metric Measurement System

Tools of Choice

1. Tools: Meter Stick, Meter Tape, Metric


2. Measures in: mm, cm, m, km.

3. It’s the measurement between two intervals or the distance between two points.

Smallest : mm 1/1000, cm 1/100, dcm 1/10,

m 1, dm 10, hecm 100, km 1,000m

Metric measurement system9

Metric Measurement System


1. What is it: It’s the mass per unit volume of

any material.

It’s also a derived unit……You must use 2

different measurements to get your answer.

3. Equation: Density = Mass divided by Volume….. or D =M/V.

Metric measurement system10

Metric Measurement System

Density Equations in action

****For Liquids D=M/V

M=grams V=ml… so M=200g & V=50ml

D=200g/50ml ……..D= 4g/ml.

*****Now for Solids D=M/V

M=50g V= mm, cm, m, km cube (3)

D=50g/500cm(3) = .1g/cm(3).

Any Questions on how to do this????

Discuss and confer time
Discuss and confer time

  • Ok! Now get with your 9:00 appt and complete the following:


    Mass 10g Volume 2ml

    Mass 4g Volume 20cm(3)

    Mass 100g Volume 35cm(3)

    Convert the following:

    14mm= ,126cm= , 1,500m= , 35C + 293=

Graphing procedures and rules
Graphing Procedures and Rules

  • Reference pages to use: Blue book

    Chp #2, pages 48-52 and 736-741.

    ****Graphs are Visual displays of recorded information.

    ** In science we use Line graphs, Bar graphs, pie charts/graphs and table charts.

Graphing procedures and rules1
Graphing Procedures and Rules

  • Line Graphs:

    a. Used to show trends or continuous change (speed/temperature/light,etc).

    b. Used to show relationships between two (2) quantities.

    c. Plotting Data:

    Y-Axis (vertical line) dependent variable.

Graphing procedures rules
Graphing Procedures & Rules

  • Data Plotting:

    X-Axis (Horizontal line) independent variable.

    *** Titles required on both axis.

    Bar Graphs

    1. Used to show data collected by counting & comparing.

Graphing procedures rules1
Graphing procedures & Rules

***Bar Graphs:

2. The Bars aren’t connected (except when using histogram type of bar graphs).

3. Unlike the plotted points on a line graph, the bars are never ever connected.

Graphing procedures rules2
Graphing Procedures & Rules

*** Pie/Circle Graphs & Charts:

  • Are shown of the total sum of the whole quantity is broken down into parts.

    2. The parts are named and in percentages (%).

Graphing procedures rules3
Graphing Procedures & Rules

  • Table / Data Charts:

    1. Organized in Columns and Rows.

    2. First column of Data table describes the contents of each row.

    3. All other columns need headings (Quantity/ units of data).

Graphing procedures rules4
Graphing Procedures & Rules

**Things to Consider when doing Table/Data Charts:

1. Purpose of the table.

2. Kind and number of items:

(Number of values for the I.V. & D.V.,

Total number of trials, units for each


3. Clearest & Cleanest way to record Data.

Graphing procedures rules5
Graphing Procedures & Rules

Rules to follow in Developing Graphs

  • Give each graph a title ( main title, Y-Axis or D.V. a title, and x-Axis or I.V. a title).(-5

    2. Choose a scale that includes all data, easy to read, and makes for a good display. (-5)

    3.Always make sure the I.V. & D.V. are displayed on the proper axis. (-10)

Graphing procedures rules6
Graphing Procedures & Rules

4.Even though graphs start at zero. You will never ever display a zero at the X & Y axis intersection. (-6)

5. Put data on the lines, not in the spaces between the lines. (-5)

6. Keep the spacing of data on each axis to scale & evenly uniformed. (-5)