National basin delineation
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National Basin Delineation. Project Team: Ken Howard Ami Arthur Gina Cox Dave Slayter Nathan Kuhnert Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS)/ National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) . National Basin Delineation. Project objective:

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National basin delineation

National Basin Delineation

Project Team: Ken Howard

Ami Arthur

Gina Cox

Dave Slayter

Nathan Kuhnert

Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies (CIMMS)/

National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL)


National basin delineation1

National Basin Delineation

Project objective:

To delineate flash flood basins using a minimum drainage area threshold of 2 mi2 for use in the Flash Flood Monitoring and Prediction (FFMP) program.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

****/ (main directory)

1) ****_orig_basins

  • A polygon shapefile of the original small basins (before aggregation).

    2) ****_aggr_basins

  • A polygon shapefile of the aggregated basins within the radar coverage area. These are the basins for which the FFMP average rainfall values are calculated.

  • This is one of the two shapefiles required by FFMP. Any basin customization should ultimately result in a file named ****_aggr_basins with the specific attributes required by FFMP.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

3) ****_str_gen

  • A polyline shapefile of the synthetic stream lines generated from the DEM.

    4) ****_bins

  • A point shapefile of the radar bin center points with the associated Pfafstetter basin IDs (aggregated).

  • This is the second shapefile required by FFMP.

    5) ****_nhd_rch

  • A polyline shapefile of stream lines from the National Hydrography Dataset (NHD).

    6) ****_reg_nhd

  • A polygon shapefile of NHD waterbodies including lakes, reservoirs, ponds, and swamps.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

****/custom/

1) ****_ref_basins

  • A polygon shapefile of the original basins (before aggregation) with the necessary hydrologic connectivity attributes for use with the AMBER Basin Customization Extension in ArcView.

    2) ****_ref_sl

  • A polyline shapefile of the synthetic stream lines (generated from the DEM) with the necessary hydrologic connectivity attributes for use with the AMBER Basin Customization Extension. There is a one-to-one relationship between stream lines in this shapefile and basins in the ****_ref_basins shapefile.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_aggr_basins

a) Pfaf_id

  • 13-character Pfafstetter basin ID

    b) Streamname

  • Stream name as available from the NHD

    c) Huc

  • 8-digit HUC ID

    d) Huc_name

  • Name of the 8-digit HUC


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_aggr_basins

e) X-outlet

  • Longitude of the basin outlet

    f) Y_outlet

  • Latitude of the basin outlet

    g) State

  • Two-character state abbreviation (based on basin outlet)

    h) CWA

  • Three-character county warning area ID (based on basin outlet)


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_aggr_basins

i) Countyname

  • Name of the county

    j) FIPS

  • Five-character FIPS ID

    k) RFC

  • Five-character River Forecast Center ID (based on basin outlet)

    l) Modified

  • Flag to indicate whether a basin has been merged with other basins. 0 indicates a basin in its original state, 1 indicates a merged basin.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_aggr_basins

m) Reservoir

  • Flag to indicate whether a basin intersects a lake or reservoir according to those water bodies included in the NHD. 0 indicates no intersection with a reservoir, 1 indicates an intersection.

    n) Area_sq_mi

  • Basin area in square miles

    o) Flow_acc

  • An approximate flow accumulation value (in thousands of grid cells).


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_aggr_basins

p) X_centroid

  • Longitude of the basin centroid

    q) Y_centroid

  • Latitude of the basin centroid


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_orig_basins

The ****_orig_basins shapefile contains the same attributes as the ****_aggr_basins shapefile, with one additional field:

Pfaf_aggr

  • Pfafstetter ID of this basin in the ****_aggr_basins shapefile

    In addition, the ****_orig_basins Pfafstetter ID field is named Pfaf_orig to distinguish it from the Pfaf_id field in ****_aggr_basins.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_bins

a) Azimuth_dg

  • Azimuth of the radar bin center point in degrees

    b) Range_km

  • Range of the radar bin center point in kilometers

    c) X_coord

  • Longitude of the radar bin center point

    d) Y_coord

  • Latitude of the radar bin center point

    e) Pfaf_id

  • Pfafstetter ID of the associated FFMP basin (aggregated)


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesAttributes in ****_ref_sl and ****_ref_basins

These two shapefiles have the same attributes as the ****_orig_basins shapefile plus the following hydrologic connectivity attributes:

a) Basin_id

  • The integer basin ID assigned by the AMBER Basin Customization Extension

    b) Parent_id

  • The Basin_id of the immediate downstream basin

    c) Length_mi

  • Length of the synthetic stream reach in square miles

    d) Flow_acc

  • Area in square miles of the upstream contributing drainage area

    e) Upstream*

  • The Basin_id of the immediate upstream basin(s)


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

Hydrologic Connectivity Attributes


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set ShapefilesProjection Information

Projection: Geographic (lat/lon)

Datum: NAD83

Units: Decimal Degrees

Spheroid: GRS80


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

The ****_orig_basins shapefile contains all small basins in the HUCs covering the area. There is one stream reach per basin.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

The ****_aggr_basins shapefile contains aggregated basins within the radar coverage area. There may be multiple stream reaches per basin.


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

The NHD reach and water body shapefiles are included for all HUCs covering the area. These are a good reference for "the real world".


National basin delineation

FFMP Basin Data Set Shapefiles

The ****_ref_basins and ****_ref_sl shapefiles contain the hydrologic connectivity attributes necessary for use with the AMBER Basin Customization Extension in ArcView.


Basic basin delineation procedure

Basic Basin DelineationProcedure

Begin with a Digital Elevation Model (DEM)

  • A digital map of terrain

  • Gridded or "raster" format

    • Rows & columns of elevations

  • Integer elevation values


How are dems created

How are DEMs created?

Created from various scale maps....

1:24000

1:100000

1:250000


A bunch of blocks to represent the earth

A Bunch of Blocks to Represent the Earth


A dem what the computer sees what you see

A DEMWhat the Computer Sees & What You See


Other views

Other Views


Dem 90 meter

DEM (90-meter)


Basins derived from the 90 meter dem

Basins Derived from the 90-meter DEM


Dem 30 meter

DEM (30-meter)


Basins derived from the 30 meter dem

Basins Derived from the 30-meter DEM


The national elevation dataset ned

The National Elevation Dataset (NED)

  • Produced at the USGS EROS Data Center

  • A 30-meter resolution seamless mosaic of 7.5-minute DEMs for the U.S.

  • Base DEMs have been edge-matched to ensure there are no gaps or missing data


The national elevation dataset ned1

The National Elevation Dataset (NED)

Filtering techniques have been applied to minimize artifacts from the original DEM creation methods.


National basin delineation

The National Elevation Dataset (NED)

The NED is a dynamic dataset-updates are made when better quality or higher resolution DEMs are available.


Nssl s partnership with the usgs eros data center

NSSL’s Partnership with the USGS EROS Data Center

  • NSSL assisted EROS with the “blind pass" processing for Stage 1 of their Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) project.

    • This involved producing a hydrologically conditioned (filled) DEM, flow direction and flow accumulation grids, slope, contours, basins, and synthetic streams from the NED.

  • Access to the NED and basin delineation scripts, along with the guidance and expertise of several EROS scientists ensured the highest quality basin delineation attainable from a blind pass process.


  • Begin with the usgs 8 digit hydrologic cataloging units of the u s

    Delineation Methodology

    Begin with the USGS 8-Digit Hydrologic Cataloging Units of the U.S.


    8 digit hydrologic unit code huc basin with a 25000 meter buffer

    Delineation Methodology

    8-digit Hydrologic Unit Code (HUC) basin with a 25000-meter buffer.

    NED tiles covering the buffered area are merged and clipped.


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    The DEM must be projected from Geographic coordinates to the Albers Equal Area projection with units in meters.

    Note: Basins should not be delineated in Geographic coordinates (lat/lon) because flow direction may be incorrectly derived.


    Delineation methodology

    Delineation Methodology

    Projection Information (CONUS)

    Projection: Albers Equal Area

    Datum: NAD 83

    Units: Meters

    Spheroid: GRS1980

    Parameters:

    • 1st standard parallel 29 30 0.000

    • 2nd standard parallel 45 30 0.000

    • Central meridian -96 00 0.000

    • latitude of projection’s origin 23 00 0.000

    • false easting (meters) 0.00000

    • false northing (meters) 0.00000


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Filling the DEM

    • “Sinks” in the DEM are filled to remove small imperfections in the data.

    • A sink is a cell with undefined drainage direction (all neighboring cells are higher elevations).

    • Sinks are filled to a point where water will flow out of the cell.

      • The pour point is the boundary cell with the lowest elevation for the contributing area of a sink.


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Flow Direction

    • Derived from the filled DEM

    • Each cell flows to a neighboring cell based on the steepest slope.

    32

    64

    128

    16

    1

    8

    4

    2


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Flow Direction Grid


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Flow Accumulation

    • Note that each grid cell flows into another grid cell and so forth.

    • One could tally or keep track of the total number of grid cells that flow into each “downstream” grid cell.

    • This is generally known as a flow accumulation data set.

    • Grid cells with high flow accumulation values are areas of concentrated flow and are identified as stream channels according to the specified flow accumulation threshold.

    • Grid cells with flow accumulation values of zero are topographic highs or ridges.

    This grid cell has a flow accumulation value of 15.


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Flow Accumulation Grid


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Stream Network

    • Derived from the flow accumulation grid.

    • Based on the specified minimum flow accumulation threshold.

      • Cells with flow accumulation greater than the threshold are designated as "stream channel" cells and will form the stream network.

    • A minimum flow accumulation threshold of 5000 grid cells (~1.74 mi2) was used to delineate the FFMP basins.


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Outflow Points

    • Outflow points are the cells with the maximum flow accumulation along a stream segment.

    • Derived from the flow accumulation and stream link grids.


    National basin delineation

    Delineation Methodology

    Catchments

    • Basins are delineated to each outflow point.

    • Derived from the flow direction and outflow point grids.


    National basin delineation project related websites

    National Basin Delineation Project Related Websites

    National Basin Delineation Project

    http://www.nssl.noaa.gov/wrd/wish/basins

    National Elevation Dataset (NED)

    http://ned.usgs.gov

    Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA)

    http://edna.usgs.gov

    National Hydrography Dataset (NHD)

    http://nhd.usgs.gov

    Pfafstetter Basin Codification System

    http://edcdaac.usgs.gov/gtopo30/hydro/P311.html


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