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Equality and Non-discrimination at Work. Basics of International Labour Standards. Core human rights documents.

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equality and non discrimination at work

Equality and Non-discrimination at Work

Basics of International

Labour Standards

core human rights documents
Core human rights documents
  • ILO Constitution: all human beings, irrespective of race, creed or sex, have the right to pursue both their material well-being and their spiritual development in conditions of freedom and dignity, of economic security and equal opportunity;
  • Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  • Convention on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination
Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women
  • International Covenant on ESC Rights
    • Article 7
    • (a) (i) Fair wages and equal remuneration for work of equal value without distinction of any kind, in particular women being guaranteed conditions of work not inferior to those enjoyed by men, with equal pay for equal work;
    • (c) Equal opportunity for everyone to be promoted in his employment to an appropriate higher level, subject to no considerations other than those of seniority and competence;
  • International Covenant on CP Rights
c100 equal remuneration 1951
C100: Equal Remuneration, 1951


  • to ensure that men and women workers receive equal remuneration for work of equal value, establishing rates of remuneration without discrimination based on sex.
  • The State has to ensure equal remuneration between men and women in the public sector and to promote the principle in the private sector.
scope of application
Scope of application
  • Applies to all workers
  • Applies to all elements of remuneration
  • Implies a comparison between jobs
  • Comparison between jobs is not limited to the same job, the same employer or the same sector
scope of remuneration
Scope of remuneration
  • The basic, ordinary or minimum wage or salary and
  • any other additional emoluments,
  • paid directly or indirectly by the employer,
  • in cash or in kind,
  • arising out of the workers’ employment.
c111 discrimination employment and occupation 1958
C111: Discrimination (Employment and Occupation), 1958


  • The development and implementation of a national policy promoting equality of opportunity and treatment in employment and occupation, with a view to eliminating discrimination.
  • The repeal of any national legislation inconsistent with this national policy.


  • Applies to all persons
  • Applies to employment and occupation
convention no 111 definition of discrimination
Convention No.111: definition of discrimination
  • Any distinction, exclusion or preference based on (one or more of the prohibited grounds) which has the effect of nullifying or impairing equality of opportunity or treatment in employment or occupation.
  • Any discrimination whether it is
    • In law or in practice
    • Direct or indirect
direct and indirect discrimination
Direct and indirect discrimination


Explicit and usually intentional


May not be intentional. It is an apparently neutral law or practice which has a disproportionate negative impact on a particular group protected by the Convention or by national legislation.

prohibited grounds of discrimination
Prohibited grounds of discrimination




National extraction

Social origin


Political opinion

And any other ground specified by the national legislation (e.g. age, nationality, family responsibilities, language, sexual orientation, health, etc.)

application of convention no 111
Application of Convention No.111:

Equality of opportunity and treatment in employment and occupation includes:

Equal access to vocational training

General education, career guidance and counselling services and vocational training

Equal access to employment and occupation

Recruitment and hiring process, placement services, access particular occupations, including non-traditional occupations

Equality in terms of conditions of work

Professional training, opportunities for advancement, termination of employment, benefits, work environment, health and safety)

exceptions to prohibition of discrimination
Exceptions to prohibition of discrimination
  • Inherent requirements of the job
    • Truly relevant facts that mean only members of an identifiable group can do the job
    • Difficult to identify in most cases
  • Security of the State
    • Subject to review by a court
  • To overcome past discrimination
    • Affirmative action
    • Quotas not preferred method, but not forbidden
requirements of the convention
Requirements of the Convention
  • Repeal any statutory provisions, administrative regulations or practices that are inconsistent with the national policy.
  • Declare and pursue a national policy to promote equality of opportunity and treatment.
  • Enact legislation and promote educational programmes.
  • Pursue the policy in the context of employment under direct control of the national authority.
  • Ensure observance of the policy in the context of vocational guidance and training and placement services under the direction of the national authority.
  • Seek cooperation with employers’ and workers’ organizations in promoting the acceptance and observance of the policy.