09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book
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09a Transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them See pp. 360-370 in book. What parts of the PNS are most proximal to the CNS?. Spinal nerves Cranial nerves. Spinal nerves

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09a Transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them See pp. 360-370 in book

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09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book

09aTransition to cranial nerves and the pathways associated with themSee pp. 360-370 in book


What parts of the pns are most proximal to the cns

What parts of the PNS are most proximal to the CNS?

  • Spinal nerves

  • Cranial nerves


09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book

  • Spinal nerves

    • Described as mixed nerves: carry both sensory (afferent) and motor (efferent) fibers of trunk and limbs

      • Somatic afferent and efferent

      • Autonomic/visceral afferent and efferent


09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book

  • Spinal peripheral nerves (cont.)

    • Sensory: posterior

      • Dorsal root connects to

        dorsal horn of gray matter

      • GSA (general somatic

        afferent) and GVA

        (general visceral afferent)

    • Motor: anterior

      • Ventral root connects from ventral horn of gray matter: beginning of “final common pathway” of somatic motor system, contains lower motor neurons

      • GSE (general somatic efferent) and GVE (general visceral efferent)


Now transition to cranial nerves

Now, transition to cranial nerves

  • Compare cranial nerves to spinal nerves

    • Some cranial nerves are motor only, and some are sensory only. (Only some of the cranial nerves are mixed, like the spinal nerves are)

    • Some of the cranial nerves do not carry both somatic and autonomic nervous system functions; the spinal nerves carry both somatic and autonomic nervous systems functions


09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book

  • Cranial nerves

    • Some are sensory only, some are motor only, and some are mixed.

    • All have some relation to speech, language, hearing, communication, and/or swallowing

    • Largely voluntary, but some include autonomic and reflexive pathways

    • Organized in pairs

    • Each pair designated by name and Roman numeral


Cranial nerves have associated nuclei which are organized in clusters and columns

Cranial nerves have associated nuclei, which are organized in clusters and columns

Damage to nuclei can mimic damage to the cranial nerves themselves


09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book

Focus in on cranial nerves (there are 12 pairs)

  • Roots connect to CNS

    • brainstem

    • uppermost spinal cord

  • Exit brain and pass through skull to reach the sense organs or muscles of head and neck with which they are associated

  • Relatively unprotected (susceptible to damage)

  • All twelve relevant to speech, language, communication hearing, &/or swallowing

  • When cranial nerves or their associated nuclei are damaged, this can be one of the causes of:

    • dysarthria (speech motor disorder)

    • dysphagia(swallowing disorder)


Steps in learning cranial nerves

Steps in learning cranial nerves

  • Find location of cranial nerves

  • Learn the names associated with each cranial nerve

  • Overview of organization of cranial nerves

  • Details of each cranial nerve

    • Name and location

    • Function

    • Clinical tests of function


Cranial nerves ventral view

Cranial Nerves – Ventral view


09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book

Cranial Nerves – Dorsal view

Dfdf

Trochlear Nerve (IV)


09a transition to cranial n erves and the pathways associated with them see pp 360 370 in book

Cranial Nerves – Lateral view


Names of the cranial nerves a friendly mnemonic

Names of the cranial nerves: A friendly mnemonic…


Some cranial nerves sensory some motor and some both

Some cranial nerves sensory, some motor, and some both


Relationship to speech hearing facial expression swallowing

Relationship to speech, hearing, facial expression, swallowing…


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