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Tourism impacts. Tourism impacts. The next generation. The technology fix - Ski Dubai , United Arab Emirates. Or is the answer in Sustainable Destination Management?. Sustainable Tourism and the role of Tourism in Sustainable Development.

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Sustainable Tourism and the role of Tourism in Sustainable Development

  • International declarations: Brundtland 1987; Agenda 21 - for tourism 1995.

  • Sustainable development:

  • ‘’Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ (WCED, 1987)


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Sustainable Tourism Development

  • ‘Sustainable development is simply one step beyond what was traditionally termed conservation - wise use of resources. ..... development based on ‘acceptable’ levels of social and environmental change.

    Gunn, 1994.


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WTO definition of Sustainable Tourism Development

‘Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunity for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social, and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity, and life support systems’

(World Tourism Organisation, 1997)


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Break sustainable tourism down into three core elements Development

  • The holistic approach – environment, economy and society/culture

  • The time dimension – long term

  • Include all stakeholders


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CORE 1 – THE HOLISTIC APPROACH Development

Sustainable tourism development sustainable in terms of –

  • Economy

  • Environment

  • Society and culture


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Sustainable tourism Development

  • The holy grail of tourism?

  • Tourism that is:

  • Environmentally

  • Economically

  • Socio-culturally

  • Sustainable


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Society & culture Development

Environment

Economy

Integration, communication, collaboration


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Economic health Development

Well-being of society

Guest satisfaction

protection

of natural resources

Healthy culture

Balanced priorities in sustainable tourism


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Balancing Objectives in Tourism Development Development

  • For example, is it possible to balance and trade-off between the following objectives?

    • Economic Growth

    • Preservation of Ecology / Biodiversity

    • Preservation of Cultural Heritage

    • Social Welfare

    • Regional Development Imbalance


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Balancing Objectives in Tourism Development Development

  • The above objectives are often included in the ‘holistic’ approach to sustainable tourism development.

    (Muller, 1994.)



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Ethics and tourism DevelopmentWhat is the role of the individual?

  • How do I behave when on holiday?

  • Do I interact with the local people and local environment from a basis of respect, or use them simply for my convenience?

  • Can I make a more positive contribution to the local economy?

  • How ethical are my tour company’s policies?

http://www.tourismconcern.org.uk


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Would you be more likely to book a holiday with a company if they had a written code of ethics?

  • Yes

  • No

  • Don’t know


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Would you be more likely to book a holiday with a company if they had a written code of ethics

Tearfund (2002)


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Who is driving the ethics debate? they had a written code of ethics

  • Global organisations (e.g. UNESCO, WTO, UNEP)

  • International NGOs (e.g. WTO, Tourism Concern)

  • Charities (e.g. VSO)

  • Christian organisations (e.g. Tearfund)

  • Industry organisations (e.g. AITO, ABTA)


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ARTICLE 1 they had a written code of ethicsTourism's contribution to mutual understanding and respect between peoples and societiesARTICLE 2Tourism as a vehicle for individual and collective fulfilmentARTICLE 3Tourism, a factor of sustainable developmentARTICLE 4 Tourism, a user of the cultural heritage of mankind and contributor to its enhancement

ARTICLE 5Tourism, a beneficial activity for host countries and communitiesARTICLE 6Obligations of stakeholders in tourism developmentARTICLE 7Right to tourismARTICE 8Liberty of tourist movementsARTICLE 9Rights of the workers and entrepreneurs in the tourism industry

WTO Global Code of Ethics Principles

See http://www.world-tourism.org/code_ethics/eng/principles.htm


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Issues of ethical concern for tour operators they had a written code of ethics

  • Relationship with host community

  • Treatment of employees

  • Marketing of products

  • Attitude to the natural environment

Weeden (2002)


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Utilising ethical credentials they had a written code of ethics

  • Use of locally owned organisations

  • Keep group sizes small

  • Treat all employees fairly

  • Promote packages truthfully

Weeden (2002)


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Using ethical credentials pays off they had a written code of ethics

Meyer et al. (2004)


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Ethical questions for you and your company they had a written code of ethics

  • Would your guests be willing to pay more money for their holiday if workers at the destination were guaranteed good wages and working conditions?

  • Would your guests be willing to pay more money for their holiday if the hotel served locally produced food?

  • Would your guests be willing to pay more money for their holiday if some of the money went to a local charity?


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CORE 2 – TIME DEMENSION they had a written code of ethics

  • Time dimension – long lasting (inter-generational equity)

  • ‘Tourism …viable over an indefinite period and does not degrade or alter the environment (human and physical)’ Butler 1993

  • Ensure that productivity can be sustained into the long term future


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  • How long is long term? they had a written code of ethics

  • What is the average business investment time scale?

  • What is the normal political timescale?


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Complication to core 2 – the present?? they had a written code of ethics

  • Social equity dimension – (intra-generational equity)

  • spread wealth more evenly throughout current generations; throughout the world

  • Provide for a better level of fairness and opportunity between different countries


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CORE 3 - INCLUDE ALL STAKEHOLDERS they had a written code of ethics

  • Holistic – includes all aspects and stakeholders

  • Cooperation, partnerships and compromises

  • Facilitate and engage public participation


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  • Participation: they had a written code of ethics all interest groups affected by a development should be involved in the decision making process.


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The key stakeholders in sustainable tourism they had a written code of ethics

Tourism

Industry

Governmental

Bodies

The Host Community

Tourists

Sustainable

Tourism

Pressure Groups

Voluntary Sector/NGOs

Experts

Media


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  • ACTIVITY 2 – 20 MINUTES they had a written code of ethics

  • YOUR VIEWS ON WHO SHOULD TAKE THE LEAD IN DEVELOPING SUSTAINABLE TOURISM


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Solutions? - Destination management they had a written code of ethics


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Destination Management or Marketing Organisations (DMO)? they had a written code of ethics

The concept of the DMO (where “M” stands for management rather than simply marketing)- a quite recent form of organizing the destination management.

DMO - responsible for well-being of all aspects of the destination

marketing is no longer the sole purpose


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Linking competitiveness with sustainability they had a written code of ethics

Ritchie and Crouch, (2003)


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4 Pillars of sustainability ( they had a written code of ethicsRitchie & Crouch, 2003:44-47)

  • Ecological sustainability

  • Economic sustainability

  • Socio-cultural sustainability

  • Political (governance) sustainability


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Political sustainability (governance) they had a written code of ethics

  • Political sustainability is rarely identified as one of the pillars of sustainability.

  • However-critical to the acceptability of any solution.

  • Problem lies on how one determines sustainability.

  • A philosophical question – a political debate.

  • Who decides? Power structures, elites and democracy.

    (Ritchie & Crouch 2003.)


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A framework for monitoring destination impacts they had a written code of ethics

Six factors

  • Economic and regional development benefits

  • Adverse environmental effects

  • Quality of life & employment opportunities

  • Improved community environment

  • Cultural erosion

  • Crime


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Core indicators of sustainable tourism they had a written code of ethics

  • Site protection

  • Stress

  • Use intensity

  • Social impact

  • Development control

  • Waste management

  • Planning processes

  • Critical ecosystems

  • Consumer satisfaction

  • Local satisfaction

  • Tourism’s contribution

  • to local economy


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What is important in the definition of indicators? they had a written code of ethics

  • Relevance to the issue

  • Data availability (capacity to collect and process)

  • Credibilityof the information

  • Clarityand understandability to users

  • Comparabilityover time and across jurisdictions or regions


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A WTO guidebook on indicators they had a written code of ethics


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Other issues in sustainable tourism debate they had a written code of ethics

To name some of the key issues in the sustainable tourism debate

  • visitor management

  • concept of carrying capacity

  • role of public sector planning

  • role of industry

  • tourist education

  • private versus public transportation

  • value judgment and lack of factual evidence etc.


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Also - Links to Ecotourism they had a written code of ethics

Looks at -

  • policy frameworks;

  • conservation management frameworks;

  • WTO & ecotourism

  • Definitions of ecotourism


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Further websites to assist benchmarking your destination they had a written code of ethics

  • United Nations Environment Program

  • See more about sustainable tourism from the following webpages:

  • www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism

  • The impacts of tourism in environment:

  • http://www.uneptie.org/pc/tourism/sust-tourism/environment.htm


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  • ACTIVITY 3 – Think of over Lunch they had a written code of ethics

  • PRACTICAL WAYS FORWARD

  • THE ROLE OF INDUSTRY – WHAT CAN YOU DO IN YOUR BUSINESS TO CONTRIBUTE TO SUSTAINABLE TOURISM?


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Thank You! they had a written code of ethics

Discussion

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