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Just a little C37.2 history. Probably the oldest standard in regular useFirst published in 1928 as AIEE No. 26Provided a language to describe
The 2008 Revision of IEEE C37.2 Standard Electrical Power...

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1. The 2008 Revision of IEEE C37.2 Standard Electrical Power Device Function Numbers, Acronyms and Contact Design ations ? and Its Impact on Relay & Control Engineers John T. Tengdin ? WG Chair PSRC I14 and Substations C5 Working Groups Consultant, OPUS Publishing San Clemente, CA 92673 Email: j.t.tengdin@ieee.org 1 First, my company. All we publish is a web site for S/A info First, my company. All we publish is a web site for S/A info

2. Just a little C37.2 history Probably the oldest standard in regular use First published in 1928 as AIEE No. 26 Provided a language to describe ?Automatic Substations? Has always been a Substations standard So what were these Automatic Substations? 2

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5. Evans Avenue Substation of the United Railways of St. Louis showing Automatic Control and Reclosing Feeders for Two 1000 KW Synchronous Converters (circa 1924) 5

6. 6 Many of these 1924 function numbers are still in use today, and are still in IEEE C37.2Many of these 1924 function numbers are still in use today, and are still in IEEE C37.2

7. First edition (1928) of C37.2 had lots of familiar device numbers 27 ? undervoltage relay 40 ? field relay 49 ? machine or transformer thermal relay 50 ? instantaneous overcurrent relay 51 ? ac time overcurrent relay 52 ? ac circuit breaker 72 ? dc circuit breaker 79 ? reclosing relay (just ac, another number for dc) 7 50 = ?operates with no intentional time delay? Originally were plunger relays When ?cup type? instantaneous relays were invented, the suffix HS was added for ?high speed?, as 50 HS relays were faster than ordinary 50 ?instantaneous? relays50 = ?operates with no intentional time delay? Originally were plunger relays When ?cup type? instantaneous relays were invented, the suffix HS was added for ?high speed?, as 50 HS relays were faster than ordinary 50 ?instantaneous? relays

8. And some not so familiar to this audience 1 ? master element 7 ? rate of change relay 10 ? unit sequence switch 19 ? starting to running transition contactor 22 ? equalizer circuit breaker 82 ? dc load measuring reclosing relay 8 Device 1 = ?A device, such as a control switch, etc. that serves - - - -to place equipment in or our of operation Yuba City trolley at June 07 PES General Meeting A device 82 measured the rate of rise of dc current on a feeder. A fast rate of rise meant a fault (conductor down, hazardous, so no reclosing). A slow rate of rise probably meant an over aggressive trolley motor man who had cranked his controller around to a higher speed too fast. Reclosing OK Device 1 = ?A device, such as a control switch, etc. that serves - - - -to place equipment in or our of operation Yuba City trolley at June 07 PES General Meeting A device 82 measured the rate of rise of dc current on a feeder. A fast rate of rise meant a fault (conductor down, hazardous, so no reclosing). A slow rate of rise probably meant an over aggressive trolley motor man who had cranked his controller around to a higher speed too fast. Reclosing OK

9. Some not defined in 1928 Others added later as needed These not originally defined 16 ? ?not used (Reserved for future applications)? 95-99 ? ?used only in specific applications if none of the functions 1 through 94 are suitable? Others were added as needs arose 24 ? volts per hertz relay (added in 1962) 9 Device 24 addition (a brand new relay) was prompted by GSU failures on over excitation during startupDevice 24 addition (a brand new relay) was prompted by GSU failures on over excitation during startup

10. Lots of past (infrequent) revisions 1937, 1945, 1956, 1962, 1979, 1987, 1996 Major changes in 1996 Added ?filled box? and ?empty box? methods of defining the contents of a Device 11 multifunction device (three or more functions) Added eight examples of proper use of suffixes N and G in ground detector relay applications Reaffirmed in 2001 (no changes) 10 In 2001, both PSRC and Substations working groups agreed to reaffirmation, as so no need for any changes!In 2001, both PSRC and Substations working groups agreed to reaffirmation, as so no need for any changes!

11. 2007/2008 Update of C37.2 JTT?s infamous observation at PSRC Sept 06 ?Nothing changed, just plan to reaffirm? Alex Apostolov ? ?at least add a cross reference table to IEC 61850 logical nodes ? I?ll do it? Then came Eric Udren?s proposal for the use of Device 16 (then ?reserved for future apps?) Formed WG I14 in PSRC, C5 in Substations plus corresponding members from IAS, etc. 11 WG Corresponding members from IEEE Industry Applications Society Standards Committee, its Rural Electric Power Committee and the IEEE Rail Traction Standards SubcommitteeWG Corresponding members from IEEE Industry Applications Society Standards Committee, its Rural Electric Power Committee and the IEEE Rail Traction Standards Subcommittee

12. First thought ? we just need seven new function numbers Question ? Could we retire and reuse old numbers dating back to 1928? 10 - unit sequence switch 22 ? equalizer circuit breaker 35 ? brush operating or slip-ring short circuiting device 58 ? rectifier failure relay 70 ? rheostat (electrically operated) 82 ? load measuring reclosing relay 93 ? field changing contactor How to find out if still in use? Use IEEE Strategic Planning Services 12

13. IEEE Strategic Research and Planning in Piscataway ? Marc Beebe, Mgr. Helped structure a simple on-line questionnaire For each function, included the full description from IEEE C37.2 For each function, asked for recommendations Definitely keep Perhaps keep Perhaps retire & reuse Definitely retire & reuse Don?t know 13

14. On line Email survey Simple to structure ? web page for answers Initiated by an Email invitation letter Initially sent to five IEEE lists Added several large Email lists Data summary by IEEE staff ? great job! 14 Survey Services of IEEE Strategic Planning and Research Washington State helped by sending the invitation letter to everyone on their WPDAC and their WPRC Email lists. So did Texas A& M and Georgia Tech. and so did several manufacturersWashington State helped by sending the invitation letter to everyone on their WPDAC and their WPRC Email lists. So did Texas A& M and Georgia Tech. and so did several manufacturers

15. Strategic message forwards Philadelphia Electric engineer ? no, but try Amtrak engineer at 30th St. Station ? yes, using some function numbers, also ask NYC Subway System engineer ? yes to those plus others. Also ask: Rail Transit System consulting engineer ? yes to those plus more 15

16. Survey Results Almost 1900 responses Five of the seven function numbers definitely in use now and in the future Two are borderline, but New Information ? we need at least fifteen new functions, not just seven 16

17. WG Suggestion ? How about acronyms (many in common active use now) Alternate solution ? use numbers above 99 (opposed by some ? already used, per C37.2 examples) Heated discussion in both working groups Did an Email ballot of the then 42 members of combined I14 & C5 working groups Ballot was 2:1 in favor of acronyms Formal IEEE SA ballot ? no Negative ballots on the use of acronyms 17

18. Formal IEEE SA Ballot Invitations to the IEEE SA Email lists for: PSRC, PSCC, Substations, IAS Standards Committee, IAS PSPC & Rural Electric Power Committees and the IEEE Rail Traction Standards Subcommittee Balloting body membership of 203 persons Balloting completed in May 2008 (4 recircs) Approved by RevCom at its June 08 meeting Final editing underway Hope to publish soon (but a glitch) 18

19. Final Document will include Complete description of Device 16 with example diagrams (including a dual redundant configuration) Addition of seventeen new acronyms Complete cross reference table to IEC 61850 logical nodes Ten suffix letters (new to C37.2 e.g. SOTF, POTT) Addition of a new ?List Box? method to describe contents of a Device 11 Addition of a ?Coordinated Trip Circuit Fusing? diagram from a PSRC WG report 19

20. Device 16 Suffixes First suffix letter S (= serial device) or E (= Ethernet device) Subsequent suffix letters: C ? Security processing function (VPN, encryption, etc.) F ? Firewall or message filter function M ? Network managed function (e.g., configured via SNMP) R ? Router S ? Switch (Examples: Port switch on a dial up connection is 16SS, an Ethernet switch is 16ES) T ? Telephone component (Example: Auto-answer modem) Combinations - 16ERFCM = Ethernet Router / Firewall / VPN / Network Managed 20

21. Substation Comm Configurations IEC 61850 Part 6 limitations Only can show logical connections, not physical Cannot show switches, firewalls, network management No redundancy (?out of scope?) IEEE C37.2 Device 16 Suffixes include all 21

22. 22 Serial connections 16 SCT = Serial - Security function - Telephone auto answer modem 16 SS = Serial - port switch Serial connections 16 SCT = Serial - Security function - Telephone auto answer modem 16 SS = Serial - port switch

23. 23 16 ESM = Ethernet ? Switch ? SNMP Network managed 16 ERFCM = Ethernet ? Router ? Firewall ? security function ? Network managed16 ESM = Ethernet ? Switch ? SNMP Network managed 16 ERFCM = Ethernet ? Router ? Firewall ? security function ? Network managed

24. 24 This dual redundant diagram was added in the 2nd Recirc BallotThis dual redundant diagram was added in the 2nd Recirc Ballot

25. What New Acronym Functions in C37.2? Note: These are functions that may reside in a single function device or in a multifunction device 11 First list ?DFR, HMI, PMU, RTU, SER Added functions: AFD, CLK, DDR, ENV, HIZ, HST, LGC, MET, PDC, PQM, RIO, TCM 25

26. Seventeen New C37.2 Functions AFD ? Arc Flash Detector CLK ? Clock or timing source DDR ? Dynamic Disturbance Recorder DFR ? Digital Fault Recorder ENV ? Environmental data HIZ ? High Impedance Fault Detector HMI ? Human Machine Interface HST ? Historian LGC ? Scheme logic (function, as in a RAS? not a device like a PLC) MET ? Substation Metering PDC ? Phasor Data Concentrator PMU ? Phasor Measurement Unit (the function) PQM ? Power Quality Monitor RIO - Remote Input/Output Device RTU ? Remote Terminal Unit / Data Concentrator SER ? Sequence of Events Recorder TCM ? Trip Circuit Monitor 26 Obviously, some are not ?new? (DFR, HIZ, HMI, PMU, RTU, SER) but were never before in C37.2 TCM added in the 1st Recirc BallotObviously, some are not ?new? (DFR, HIZ, HMI, PMU, RTU, SER) but were never before in C37.2 TCM added in the 1st Recirc Ballot

27. TCM ? Trip Circuit Monitor Today?s red light on a relay or control panel signifies what? Circuit breaker is closed What else? Tripping voltage? Trip coil intact? None of these if just fed from a 52a contact TCM definition A device / function that monitors an associated circuit breaker?s trip circuit for continuity and for the presence of tripping voltage, and sets an externally readable alarm when continuity or tripping voltage is lost. 27

28. Figure 4 Independent trip and close fusing 28 Can close the breaker even if the trip fuse is blownCan close the breaker even if the trip fuse is blown

29. Figure 5 Control circuits with coordinated trip and close fusing ? no close w/o trip voltage 29 C37.2 -2008 Figures 4 & 5 were copied from the Power System Relaying Committee Working Group Report ?Relay Trip Circuit Design? available at http://www.pes-psrc.org/ C37.2 -2008 Figures 4 & 5 were copied from the Power System Relaying Committee Working Group Report ?Relay Trip Circuit Design? available at http://www.pes-psrc.org/

30. Ten (new to C37.2) Device number suffix letters BU ? Back up DCB ? Directional comparison blocking DCUB ? Directional comparison unblocking DUTT - Direct underreaching transfer trip GC - Ground check POTT - Permissive overreaching transfer trip PUTT - Permissive underreaching transfer trip SOTF - Switch on to fault TD - Time delay Z - Impedance

31. List Box Method 31 This is a much more useful method than either of the two earlier methods Xxxx is for the manufacturer?s model number This is a much more useful method than either of the two earlier methods Xxxx is for the manufacturer?s model number

32. Example from cross reference table (3 pages long in C37.2 Annex) 32 All of the C37.2 function numbers and acronyms are listed in the table, whether or not there is a corresponding IEC logical nodeAll of the C37.2 function numbers and acronyms are listed in the table, whether or not there is a corresponding IEC logical node

33. Members of Joint C5/I14 WG 33

34. Special Recognition to: Alex Apostolov ? for his push for and creation of the IEC 61860 cross reference table Eric Udren ? for his development of Device 16 for communication devices ? serial and Ethernet (plus example diagrams) Mike Thompson ? for his development of the much more useful ?List Box? method to describe contents of a Device 11 - And to a very dedicated joint working group and to Soo Kim at IEEE SA who helped make it happen! Next ? spreading the word ? in house + conferences, PES /IAS chapter meetings 34

35. So - Why Should Relay and Control Engineers Care? 35 Let me give you a capsule summaryLet me give you a capsule summary

36. Major revisions the first since 1995 Substantial additions 1 - New ? ten more suffix letter combinations 2 - New ? seventeen acronyms for new functions 3 - New ? use of Device #16 for substation data comm 4 ? New ? ?List Box? method to describe Device 11 5 ? New ? Large cross reference table to IEC 61850 6 ? New (to C37.2) Coordinated Trip & Close Fusing Plus clarified language Work done by joint PSRC/PES Substations WG (C37.2-2008 Published October 2008) 1 ? used to better describe functions, more relay functions like POTT, SOTF ?also ?GC? for Ground Check 2 ? ran out of numbers, IEEE SA survey proved all old numbers still in use 3 ? Device # 16 has its own set of unique suffix letters 4 ? Better way to describe all the contents of a multifunction device 11 ? From Negative ballot 5 ? Cross reference table is three pages long 6 ? Close fuse downstream from trip fuse ? From PSRC WG Report ?Relay Trip Circuit Design ? From ballot comment 1 ? used to better describe functions, more relay functions like POTT, SOTF ?also ?GC? for Ground Check 2 ? ran out of numbers, IEEE SA survey proved all old numbers still in use 3 ? Device # 16 has its own set of unique suffix letters 4 ? Better way to describe all the contents of a multifunction device 11 ? From Negative ballot 5 ? Cross reference table is three pages long 6 ? Close fuse downstream from trip fuse ? From PSRC WG Report ?Relay Trip Circuit Design ? From ballot comment

38. Questions? John T. Tengdin, P.E Life Fellow IEEE OPUS Publishing 2859 Calle Heraldo San Clemente, CA 92673-3572 ph/fax 949-361-9595 Email: j.t.tengdin@ieee.org Chair - Joint PES Substations WG C5 & Power System Relaying Committee WG I14 38

39. Anyone putting comm in harsh E/M environments? Check out IEEE 1613 ?Standard Environmental and Testing Requirements for Communications Networking Devices in Electric Power Substations? Based on four PSRC standards 39


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