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CHAPTER. 21. QUIT. Absolute Monarchs in Europe , 1500–1800. Chapter Overview. Time Line. Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism. 1. SECTION. MAP. France’s Ultimate Monarch. 2. SECTION. Central European Monarchs Clash. 3. SECTION. Russian Czars Increase Power. 4. SECTION.

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Absolute Monarchs in Europe , 1500–1800

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Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

CHAPTER

21

QUIT

Absolute Monarchs

in Europe, 1500–1800

Chapter Overview

Time Line

Spain’s Empire and European Absolutism

1

SECTION

MAP

France’s Ultimate Monarch

2

SECTION

Central European Monarchs Clash

3

SECTION

Russian Czars Increase Power

4

SECTION

GRAPH

Parliament Limits the English Monarchy

5

SECTION

Visual Summary


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

CHAPTER

21

Chapter Overview

HOME

Absolute Monarchs

in Europe, 1500–1800

From 1500 to 1800, absolute monarchs rule in Europe. In countries such as Spain and France, rulers wield great power and build major monuments to their rule. In countries such as England and the Netherlands, constitutional law limits royal power.


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

CHAPTER

21

1800

1500

HOME

Absolute Monarchs

in Europe, 1500–1800

Time Line

1533Ivan the Terrible begins to rule Russia.

1643Louis XIV begins to rule France.

1697Peter the Great begins European tour. He later built St. Petersburg to rival European capitals.

1579Netherlands declares independence from Spain.

1649Puritans under Oliver Cromwell execute English King.

1756Frederick the Great begins Seven Years’ War.


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

1

HOME

Spain’s Empire and

European Absolutism

MAP

Key Idea

In the 1500s, Philip II of Spain becomes the strongest ruler in Europe, helping establish absolute monarchy. But in time Spain weakens, and the Netherlands breaks away from Spanish rule.

Overview

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

1

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Spain’s Empire and

European Absolutism

MAP

Overview

•Philip II

•absolute monarch

•divine right

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

During a time of religious and economic instability, Philip II ruled Spain with a strong hand.

When faced with crises, many heads of government take on additional economic or political powers.

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

1

1

Section

Assessment

Absolute Monarch

HOME

Spain’s Empire and

European Absolutism

MAP

1. List the conditions that allowed European monarchs to gain power. Then list the ways they exercised their increased power.

Rise of cities

Wealth of colonies

Growth of national kingdoms

Breakdown of Church authority

Growth of middle class

Decline of feudalism

Revolts

Economic and religious crises

Reduced power of nobles and representative bodies

Created new government bureaucracies

Regulated worship, social gatherings, and economy

Increased size of court

continued . . .


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

1

HOME

Spain’s Empire and

European Absolutism

MAP

1

Section

Assessment

2. What does the art described in this section reveal about the cultures of Spain and the Netherlands?THINK ABOUT

•what the art of Velázquez and El Greco revealsabout Spain

•what the art of Rembrandt and Vermeer revealsabout the Netherlands

ANSWER

•Velázquez showed pride of Spanish monarchs.

•El Greco showed Catholic faith in Spain.

•Rembrandt and Vermeer showed the importance of merchants, civic leaders, and the middle class in the Netherlands.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 1


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

2

HOME

France’s Ultimate

Monarch

Key Idea

Religious wars plague France in the 1500s. With the rise of Louis XIV, France becomes Europe’s most powerful nation. Louis’s rule extends French power and prestige, but he leads the country into crippling wars.

Overview

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

2

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

France’s Ultimate

Monarch

Overview

•Edict of Nantes

•Cardinal Richelieu

•skepticism

•Louis XIV

•intendant

•Jean Baptiste Colbert

•War of the Spanish Succession

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

After a century of war and riots, France was ruled by Louis XIV, the most powerful monarch of his time.

Louis used his power to build a great palace and sponsor art that is part of France’s cultural legacy.

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

2

2

Section

Assessment

1643

1715

HOME

France’s Ultimate

Monarch

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the major events of Louis XIV’s reign.

1648-1653

1661

1667

1672

1685

1701-1713

Louis becomes king.

Riots disrupt France.

Louis starts rule.

Louis invades the Spanish Netherlands.

Louis invades the Dutch Netherlands.

Louis voids Edict of Nantes.

Louis fights War of Spanish Succession.

Louis dies.

continued . . .


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

2

HOME

France’s Ultimate

Monarch

2

Section

Assessment

2. Many historians think of Louis XIV as the perfect example of an absolute monarch. Do you agree? Explain why or why not. THINK ABOUT

•the description of an absolute monarch at the end of Section 1

•the ways in which Louis XIV fits that description

•any ways in which Louis XIV does not fit the description

ANSWER

Yes—regulated worship by voiding Edict of Nantes, weakened nobility by using intendants and making nobles live at court, built palace to show power, used mercantilist policies to control economy

Possible Response:

continued . . .


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

2

HOME

France’s Ultimate

Monarch

2

Section

Assessment

3. How did the policies of Colbert and Louis XIV affect the French economy? Explain both positive and negative effects. THINK ABOUT

•Colbert’s attempts to make France self-sufficient

•what happened when Louis cancelled the Edict of Nantes

•the cost of Versailles and wars

ANSWER

Colbert’s mercantilism helped economy by building up and protecting French industries.

Louis XIV helped economy by using Colbert’s policies but hurt it by voiding Edict of Nantes, which drove out Huguenots, and by taxing and spending to fund building and wars.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 2


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

3

HOME

Central European

Monarchs Clash

Key Idea

Central Europe also becomes the scene of devastating wars. The most destructive conflict, the Thirty Years’ War, severely weakens the Holy Roman Empire. Afterward, Austria and Prussia struggle for power.

Overview

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

3

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Central European

Monarchs Clash

Overview

•Thirty Years’ War

•Maria Theresa

•Frederick the Great

•Seven Years’ War

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

After a period of turmoil, absolute monarchs ruled Austria and the Germanic state of Prussia.

Prussia built a strong military tradition in Germany that contributed in part to world wars in the 20th century.

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

3

Points of Comparison

Maria Theresa

Frederick the Great

Years of reign

Foreign policy

Success in war

Steps to become absolute monarchs

HOME

Central European

Monarchs Clash

3

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Compare Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great.

1740-1780

1740-1786

Allied with former enemy France

Allied with Austria’s former ally Britain

Lost Silesia in War of Austrian Succession and did not regain it in Seven Years’ War

Gained Silesia in War of Austrian Succession and neither gained nor lost in Seven Years’ War

Followed his father’s military policies

Imposed limits on nobility

continued . . .


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

3

HOME

Central European

Monarchs Clash

3

Section

Assessment

2. Name several ways that the Peace of Westphalia laid the foundations of modern Europe. THINK ABOUT

•religious effects

•diplomatic effects

•political effects

ANSWER

•ended religious wars, allowing Europe to split into Catholic and Protestant areas

•weakened Holy Roman Empire

•recognized Europe as collection of independent states

•began modern way of negotiating

Possible Responses:

End of Section 3


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

4

HOME

Russian Czars

Increase Power

GRAPH

Key Idea

Russian rulers begin to dominate the nobility in the 16th and 17th centuries. Under Peter the Great, Russia opens up to the West and becomes a key European power.

Overview

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

4

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Russian Czars

Increase Power

GRAPH

Overview

•Ivan the Terrible

•boyars

•Peter the Great

•westernization

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Peter the Great made many changes in Russia to try to make it more like western Europe.

Many Russians today debate whether to model themselves on the West or to focus on traditional Russian culture.

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

4

Peter the Great

HOME

Russian Czars

Increase Power

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the important events of Peter the Great’s reign.

Had St. Petersburg built

Visited western Europe

Fought Sweden for Baltic land

Took control of church

Reduced power of landowners

Modernized army

Tried to westernize Russia

continued . . .


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

4

HOME

Russian Czars

Increase Power

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

2. Do you think Ivan the Terrible or Peter the Great was more of an absolute monarch? Explain the standards by which you made your decision. THINK ABOUT

•ways that each increased the power of the Russian czar

•long term effects of each one’s rule

ANSWER

Ivan—Took title czar, which means “caesar”; expanded Russia; gave law code; organized his own police force; persecuted boyars; created new class of nobles. Aimed to increase and protect his own power more than to improve Russia.

Peter—Took control of church; reduced power of landowners; strengthened army; imposed heavy taxes; forced nobles to move to St. Petersburg. Made reforms whether people wanted them or not.

Possible Responses:

continued . . .


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

4

HOME

Russian Czars

Increase Power

GRAPH

4

Section

Assessment

3. Which of Peter the Great’s actions reveal that he saw himself as the highest authority in Russia? Explain.

THINK ABOUT

•steps he took to reduce the authority of others

•actions that overturned traditional sources of authority in Russia

ANSWER

•showed he saw himself above church by taking control of it

•showed he saw himself above nobility by weakening it and forcing it to westernize

•showed he saw himself above tradition by forcing Western customs on Russia

Possible Responses:

End of Section 4


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

5

HOME

Parliament Limits the

English Monarchy

Key Idea

English kings battle Parliament for power in the 1600s, leading to civil war. Parliament wins, and a Puritan government is formed. The monarchy is later restored, but its power is limited by law.

Overview

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

5

TERMS & NAMES

MAIN IDEA

HOME

Parliament Limits the

English Monarchy

Overview

•Charles I

•English Civil War

•Oliver Cromwell

•Restoration

•habeas corpus

•Glorious Revolution

•constitutional monarchy

•cabinet

WHY IT MATTERS NOW

Absolute rulers in England were overthrown, and Parliament gained power.

Many of the government reforms of this period contributed to the democratic tradition of the United States.

Assessment


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

5

Monarch

Conflicts with Parliament

James I

Charles I

James II

HOME

Parliament Limits the

English Monarchy

5

Section

Assessment

1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List the causes of each monarch’s conflict with Parliament.

  • Believed in divine right to rule

  • Wanted large funds to pay for court and wars

  • Did not make Puritan reforms

  • Wanted funds to finance wars

  • Tried to force all subjects to be Anglican

  • Resisted Parliament’s attempts to restrict his power

  • Flaunted his faith

  • Named Catholics to high office

continued . . .


Absolute monarchs in europe 1500 1800

5

HOME

Parliament Limits the

English Monarchy

5

Section

Assessment

2. In your opinion, which decisions of Charles I made his conflict with Parliament worse? Explain.

THINK ABOUT

•decisions that lost him the support of Parliament

•decisions that lost him the support of his people

ANSWER

• He alienated Parliament by dissolving it, ignoring Petition of Right, and trying to arrest Parliamentary leaders.

• He alienated his subjects by imposing fines and fees on them and trying to force them all to be Anglican.

Possible Responses:

End of Section 5


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