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1. U.S. Foreign Policy Strategies: Past to Present
2. Early Isolationism (1790-1890) Isolationism = A general avoidance of involvement in world affairs (mostly political and military – trade was still encouraged)
Suggested by George Washington in his farewell address to the nation and reinforced throughout the early 1800’s
“The American continents…are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers…we owe it…to the amicable relations between the United States and those powers to declare that we should consider any attempt on their part to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety…” – James Monroe, 1823
3. Imperialism (1890-WWI) Imperialism = Extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by establishing economic and political influence over other nations.
Suggested by politicians and writers following the Civil War and conquering of the West they offered up many reasons for Imperialism such as ‘civilizing others’, expansion of ideas and religion, trade, world progress etc…
“God has not been preparing the English-speaking…peoples for a thousand years for nothing but vain and idle self-admiration. No! He has made us the master organizers of the world to establish systems where chaos reigns…he has made us adept in government that we may administer government among savages and senile people.” – Albert T. Beveridge, 1900
4. 20th Century Isolationism (WWI-WWII) Similar to Early Isolationism but more as a response to the imperialist experience; WWI; fear and the depression
The United States realized that we would be involved with other countries after the war but proclaimed again a sense of isolationism as the focus shifted to needs at home at the end of WWI
“All the world knows that the whole extent of our influence is against war and in favor of peace, against the use of force and in favor of negotiation, arbitration, and adjudication as a method of adjusting international differences. We look with disfavor upon all aggressive warfare.” - Calvin Coolidge, 1926
5. Post WWII Internationalism (WWII – Vietnam) Internationalism = A policy of cooperation among nations (however, for many different reasons)
During this time government leaders such as the President, Congress and the Secretaries of State and Defense established many policies that involved the U.S. in economic, military and communist containment efforts.
“I believe that we must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes…” – Harry S. Truman, 1947
6. Modern Internationalism (Vietnam – Present) Modern Internationalism continues using a policy of cooperation among nations but usually combines several efforts at once such as foreign aid and military support
Government leaders are the directors of most foreign policy along with international organizations; most notably the United Nations
“Our interests and our values have to go hand in hand. In fact, our interests are reinforced by our values and vice versa. There is no doubt that American interests are better advanced today in a world in which more countries share our values of individual liberty, of freedom, of the belief that the ruled ought to be able to chose those who will rule them, of freedom of the press, of human rights, and of human dignity.” – Condoleeza Rice, 2001
7. Foreign Policy “Tools” Political:
Diplomacy (formal discussions with other nations) is the chief tool.
Economic sanctions or agreements
Foreign aid (military and economic assistance to friendly nations)
Regional security alliances