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The Fair Value Option. SFAS No. 159 With IFRS comparison at end. Why was FAS159 issued?. IFRS permits a fair-value election for financial instruments (IAS 39) FASB wants to converge with IASB This standards moves US GAAP closer to IFRS

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The fair value option

The Fair Value Option

SFAS No. 159

With IFRS comparison at end


Why was fas159 issued
Why was FAS159 issued?

  • IFRS permits a fair-value election for financial instruments (IAS 39)

    • FASB wants to converge with IASB

    • This standards moves US GAAP closer to IFRS

    • For some organizations, hedging becomes simpler than it would be under FAS 133 (derivatives)


A quick introduction to the concept
A quick introduction to the concept

A very simple company that starts with one asset and one liability – to keep it simple!


Example brand new inc
Example – Brand New Inc.

  • Two transactions first day in business:

    • Issues a 20-year bond payable for $1,000, interest is paid annually, coupon rate = yield rate of 10% (Bond A)

    • Buys a 20-year bond investment for $1,000, interest is paid annually, coupon rate = yield rate of 12% (Bond B)

  • At end of the first day, prepare balance sheet


Brand new inc 1 st day
Brand New Inc., 1st day

Let’s assume that Bond B is accounted for as part of the trading securities investment portfolio. Therefore it is marked to market at each balance sheet date and the gain/loss is reported on the income statement. Bond A is treated in the traditional way.


End of year interest rates change
End of year – interest rates change

  • Bond A (liability) yield rate is now 9%

  • Bond B (asset) yield rate is now 11%

  • PREPARE BALANCE SHEET ASSUMING THAT WE DO NOT USE THE FAIR VALUE OPTION FOR THE B/P

First step – find the present value of the bond investment. Remember, the coupon rate on Bond B is 12%

N=19, i=11%, Pmt = $1,000 * 12% = $120, FV=$1,000Solve for PV = __________________

$1,078


Brand new inc end of year 1 does not use fv option a
Brand New Inc., end of year 1Does not use FV option (a)

Interest revenue $120 – Interest expense $100 + gain $78 = $98 net income

This is our traditional accounting (book value for debt, fair value for investments classified as trading


Brand new inc end of year 1 does not use fv option b
Brand New Inc., end of year 1Does not use FV option (b)

Interest revenue $120 – Interest expense $100 = $20 net income with $78 gain on statement of comprehensive income

If the bond were classified as “available for sale” the gain would be reported in AOCI rather than on the income statement.


Now what if company used the fv option for the bonds payable
Now, what if company used the FV option for the bonds payable?

  • BOND A, coupon rate = 10%,yield rate is now 9%

  • Solve for fair value:

  • N=19, i=9%, pmt = $100 (10% * $1,000), fv=$1,000

  • solve for PV _______________________

  • Now, what does the balance sheet look like?

$1,090


Brand new inc end of year 1 uses fv option bond a at 9
Brand New Inc., end of year 1 payable?uses FV option, Bond A at 9%

Interest revenue $120 – gain $78 on investment - $90 loss on liability = $8 net income


What if the rate on bond a increased instead of decreased
What if the rate on Bond A increased instead of decreased? payable?

  • For BOND A, coupon rate = 10%, but yield is now 11%

  • Solve for fair value:

  • N=19, i=11%, pmt = $100 (10% * $1,000), fv=$1,000

  • solve for PV _______________________

  • Now, what does the balance sheet look like?

$922


New company end of year 1 uses fv option bond a at 11
New Company, end of year 1 payable?uses FV option, Bond A at 11%

Interest revenue $120 – Interest expense $100 + gain $78 on investment + $78 gain on liability = $176 net income


Fas159 fair value choice is permanent for each item
FAS159 – fair value choice is permanent for each item payable?

  • Companies may elect fair value measurement when an asset or liability is

    • First recognized, or

    • An event triggers a new basis of accounting (business combination)

  • Applies to entire contract

  • Election is irrevocable

  • Change in value is reported on the income statement


Eligible assets liabilities
Eligible assets & liabilities payable?

  • Recognized financial assets and financial liabilities

    • Includes some investments accounted for under the equity method

    • Excludes leases, pension plans, etc.

  • Written loan commitments

  • Firm commitments that involve only financial instruments

  • Rights & obligations under insurance contracts, warranties


Disclosures
Disclosures payable?

  • Fair-value measured items must be reported separately from similar items measured on another basis

  • Detailed disclosures as to why fair value election was made, how changes in fair-values affected earnings, differences between fair values and cash flows for certain items, etc.


Remember fair values are disclosed even when fas159 option is not used
Remember: fair payable?values are disclosed even when FAS159 option is not used

Under FAS107, the fair values of financial instruments are disclosed in the financial statements


The fair value option1

The Fair Value Option payable?

IAS 39 vs FAS 159

versus


Fair value option compared
Fair Value Option Compared payable?

IFRS

US GAAP

  • Must meet criteria so that financial reporting is improved by fair value measurement

    • Precludes similar items as listed in FAS159 (leases, pensions, etc.)

  • Determination is made at initial recognition and cannot be changed

  • Instrument by instrument decision

    • Applies only to items within scope of FAS159

  • Determination is made at initial recognition and cannot be changed


Ifrs permits the fair value option when doing so results in more relevant information because
IFRS permits the fair value option when doing so results in more relevant information because

  • It eliminates or significantly reduces a measurement or recognition inconsistency that would otherwise arise from measuring assets or liabilities or the gains and losses on them on different bases

  • A group of financial assets, financial liabilities or both is managed and its performance is evaluated on a fair value basis in accordance with a documented risk management or investment strategy


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