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# Measuring and Comparing Ethnic Segregation in Cities - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Measuring and Comparing Ethnic Segregation in Cities. drawn from Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton American Apartheid. Indices. Index of segregation Calculate the percentage of A population that would have to move in order to even out the ratio of A to B among all the districts

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### Measuring and Comparing Ethnic Segregation in Cities

drawn from

Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton

American Apartheid

• Index of segregation

• Calculate the percentage of A population that would have to move in order to even out the ratio of A to B among all the districts

• Index of isolation

• Calculate the ratio of A to B that is experienced in the surrounding district by every member of A, then calculate the average

0%

40%

2/5

0%

80%

8/10

33%

49.2%

[(3x60)+(2x33.33)] / 5

50%

83.7%

[(8x100)+(1x20)+(1x16.7)] / 10

• Both vary from 0 to 100

• Both are generally above 60 when cities are fairly strongly segregated

• Index of segregation is high if there is segregation, regardless of the absolute number of people in a minority population

• Index of isolation may be low when a minority is very small, even if it is strongly segregated

• Index of segregation is the best means of comparing between populations and cities

• Index of isolation is more reflective of the experience of the racial isolation/mixture in cities

• Was ethnic segregation in American cities stronger or weaker at the start of the 20th c.?

• Weaker

• Where did most of America’s black population live at this time?

• In the South

• On farms

• Sharecroppers

• Oppression took the form of debt peonage, vagrancy laws, etc.

Source: Dr. Stanley K. Schultz, UW-Madison, http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture09.html

• Blockbusting

• quietly buy up properties in areas that resist integration then install black renters and owners en masse

• scare residents with predictions of an invasion and appear to be the savior who has come to bail them out

• sell expensive

• target people who are likely to default on their loans so you can re-sell the same property

• subdivide buildings and greatly increase the residential density so as to maximize profits

• lure in the most successful black families early, then make more money off them when they become surrounded by a new ghetto and want to move again

• For other responses to Great Migration see previous presentation

• After WWII, all forms of “fight” were replaced by “flight” in the form of white suburbanization. What encouraged this?

• new technologies

• automobile

• balloon frame house

• federal assistance

• Federal Aid Highway Act (FAHA) 1956

• Federal Housing Authority (FHA loans)