Measuring and comparing ethnic segregation in cities
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Measuring and Comparing Ethnic Segregation in Cities. drawn from Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton American Apartheid. Indices. Index of segregation Calculate the percentage of A population that would have to move in order to even out the ratio of A to B among all the districts

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Measuring and Comparing Ethnic Segregation in Cities

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Measuring and comparing ethnic segregation in cities

Measuring and Comparing Ethnic Segregation in Cities

drawn from

Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton

American Apartheid


Indices

Indices

  • Index of segregation

    • Calculate the percentage of A population that would have to move in order to even out the ratio of A to B among all the districts

  • Index of isolation

    • Calculate the ratio of A to B that is experienced in the surrounding district by every member of A, then calculate the average


Index of segregation of reds

Index of Segregation (of reds)

0%

40%

2/5

0%

80%

8/10


Index of isolation of reds

Index of Isolation (of reds)

33%

49.2%

[(3x60)+(2x33.33)] / 5

50%

83.7%

[(8x100)+(1x20)+(1x16.7)] / 10


Notes on indices

Notes on indices

  • Both vary from 0 to 100

  • Both are generally above 60 when cities are fairly strongly segregated

  • Index of segregation is high if there is segregation, regardless of the absolute number of people in a minority population

  • Index of isolation may be low when a minority is very small, even if it is strongly segregated

  • Index of segregation is the best means of comparing between populations and cities

  • Index of isolation is more reflective of the experience of the racial isolation/mixture in cities


History of segregation in the us 1

History of segregation in the US:1

  • Was ethnic segregation in American cities stronger or weaker at the start of the 20th c.?

    • Weaker

  • Where did most of America’s black population live at this time?

    • In the South

    • On farms

    • Sharecroppers

    • Oppression took the form of debt peonage, vagrancy laws, etc.


Consequences of the great migration

Consequences of the Great Migration

Source: Dr. Stanley K. Schultz, UW-Madison, http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/lectures/lecture09.html


History of segregation in the us 2

History of Segregation in the US: 2

  • Blockbusting

    • quietly buy up properties in areas that resist integration then install black renters and owners en masse

    • scare residents with predictions of an invasion and appear to be the savior who has come to bail them out

    • buy cheap

    • sell expensive

    • target people who are likely to default on their loans so you can re-sell the same property

    • subdivide buildings and greatly increase the residential density so as to maximize profits

    • lure in the most successful black families early, then make more money off them when they become surrounded by a new ghetto and want to move again


History of segregation in the us 3

History of Segregation in the US: 3

  • For other responses to Great Migration see previous presentation

  • After WWII, all forms of “fight” were replaced by “flight” in the form of white suburbanization. What encouraged this?

    • new technologies

      • automobile

      • balloon frame house

    • federal assistance

      • Federal Aid Highway Act (FAHA) 1956

      • Federal Housing Authority (FHA loans)

      • Veterans Administration (VA loans)


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