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Counting Atomic Particles. Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons. The Modern Atomic Model. Electron “Shells”. Nucleus. The Nucleus. Each atom has a nucleus at its center . The nucleus is too small to be seen by any known scientific instrument

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Counting atomic particles

Counting Atomic Particles

Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons


The modern atomic model
The Modern Atomic Model

Electron “Shells”

Nucleus


The nucleus
The Nucleus

  • Each atom has a nucleus at its center.

  • The nucleus is too small to be seen by any known scientific instrument

  • The nucleus is composed of two sub-atomic particles:

    • Protons

    • Neutrons


Proton facts
Proton Facts

  • Protons “live” in the nucleus

  • Protons have a positive charge

  • The number of protons determines what type of element the atom is

  • Each type of element has a different number of protons in its nucleus

    • Hydrogen – 1 proton

    • Oxygen – 8 protons


Atomic number
Atomic Number

  • Elements are organized in the periodic table according to atomic number

  • The atomic number is the same as the number of protons in the atom

    • All atoms of the same type of element have the same number of protons

    • Atoms with different number s of protons are different types of elements

4

Be

Beryllium

9.0


Counting protons
Counting Protons

Atomic Number = # of Protons

or

# of Protons = Atomic Number


Neutron facts
Neutron Facts

  • Neutrons “live” in the nucleus

  • Neutrons have no charge (They are neutral)

  • Neutrons add mass to the atom

  • Neutrons also help protons to stick together

  • An atom usually has a differentnumber of neutrons and protons


Atomic mass
Atomic Mass

  • Protons and Neutrons have the same mass

    • mass = 1 AMU

  • Note: Round to nearest whole number in periodic table

4

Be

Beryllium

9.0

Atomic Mass = (# of Protons) + (# of Neutrons)


Counting neutrons
Counting Neutrons

# of Neutrons= Atomic Mass - (# of Protons)

or

Atomic Mass= # of Protons + # of Neutrons


Electrons the 3 rd particle
Electrons – The 3rd Particle

  • Electrons are the third (and final) particle that make up the atom

  • Electrons “live” outside the nucleus

  • Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus called the electron shell.


Electrons have very little mass
Electrons have Very Little Mass

  • Electrons have almost no mass

  • They do not add to the atomic mass of the atom

  • Only protons and neutrons in the nucleus are counted for mass


Electrons have charge
Electrons Have Charge

  • Electrons have a negative charge of -1

    • Electrons are written e-

  • Protons have a positive charge of +1

    • Protons are written p+

  • Neutrons have no charge

    • Neutrons are written n0


Counting electrons
Counting Electrons

  • Atoms have an overall charge of zero

  • This means that the total number of protons (+1) and electrons (-1) must be equal.

  • Therefore:

    # of Protons = # of Electrons


Standard atomic notation
Standard Atomic Notation

  • Write the symbol of the element

  • Write the mass number at the top left

  • Write the atomic number at the bottom left

Ex Lithium

7

Li

3


Summary

4

Summary

Be

  • Atomic Number = # of Protons

  • Atomic Mass = (# of Protons) + (# of Neutrons)

Beryllium

9.0

Periodic Table

9

Be

4

Standard Notation


Practice
Practice:

  • Warm-up Questions:

    • How many protons does Boron have?

    • What is the atomic mass of Boron (rounded to the nearest whole number)?

    • How many neutrons does Boron have?

    • How many electrons does Boron have?

  • First 20 Elements Worksheet

    • Complete Day #2 information:

      • Protons, Neutrons, Electrons, & Standard Notation

      • Questions #3, #4


Summary1
Summary:

  • Atomic Number = # of Protons

  • Atomic Mass = (# of Protons) + (# of Neutrons)

    • Note: First round Atomic Mass to nearest whole number

  • (# of Neutrons) = Atomic Mass - (# of Protons)

    • Note: First round Atomic Mass to nearest whole number

  • (# of Electrons) = (# of Protons)


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