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Counting Atomic Particles. Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons. The Modern Atomic Model. Electron “Shells”. Nucleus. The Nucleus. Each atom has a nucleus at its center . The nucleus is too small to be seen by any known scientific instrument

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counting atomic particles

Counting Atomic Particles

Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons

the modern atomic model
The Modern Atomic Model

Electron “Shells”

Nucleus

the nucleus
The Nucleus
  • Each atom has a nucleus at its center.
  • The nucleus is too small to be seen by any known scientific instrument
  • The nucleus is composed of two sub-atomic particles:
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
proton facts
Proton Facts
  • Protons “live” in the nucleus
  • Protons have a positive charge
  • The number of protons determines what type of element the atom is
  • Each type of element has a different number of protons in its nucleus
    • Hydrogen – 1 proton
    • Oxygen – 8 protons
atomic number
Atomic Number
  • Elements are organized in the periodic table according to atomic number
  • The atomic number is the same as the number of protons in the atom
    • All atoms of the same type of element have the same number of protons
    • Atoms with different number s of protons are different types of elements

4

Be

Beryllium

9.0

counting protons
Counting Protons

Atomic Number = # of Protons

or

# of Protons = Atomic Number

neutron facts
Neutron Facts
  • Neutrons “live” in the nucleus
  • Neutrons have no charge (They are neutral)
  • Neutrons add mass to the atom
  • Neutrons also help protons to stick together
  • An atom usually has a differentnumber of neutrons and protons
atomic mass
Atomic Mass
  • Protons and Neutrons have the same mass
    • mass = 1 AMU
  • Note: Round to nearest whole number in periodic table

4

Be

Beryllium

9.0

Atomic Mass = (# of Protons) + (# of Neutrons)

counting neutrons
Counting Neutrons

# of Neutrons= Atomic Mass - (# of Protons)

or

Atomic Mass= # of Protons + # of Neutrons

electrons the 3 rd particle
Electrons – The 3rd Particle
  • Electrons are the third (and final) particle that make up the atom
  • Electrons “live” outside the nucleus
  • Electrons form a cloud around the nucleus called the electron shell.
electrons have very little mass
Electrons have Very Little Mass
  • Electrons have almost no mass
  • They do not add to the atomic mass of the atom
  • Only protons and neutrons in the nucleus are counted for mass
electrons have charge
Electrons Have Charge
  • Electrons have a negative charge of -1
    • Electrons are written e-
  • Protons have a positive charge of +1
    • Protons are written p+
  • Neutrons have no charge
    • Neutrons are written n0
counting electrons
Counting Electrons
  • Atoms have an overall charge of zero
  • This means that the total number of protons (+1) and electrons (-1) must be equal.
  • Therefore:

# of Protons = # of Electrons

standard atomic notation
Standard Atomic Notation
  • Write the symbol of the element
  • Write the mass number at the top left
  • Write the atomic number at the bottom left

Ex Lithium

7

Li

3

summary

4

Summary

Be

  • Atomic Number = # of Protons
  • Atomic Mass = (# of Protons) + (# of Neutrons)

Beryllium

9.0

Periodic Table

9

Be

4

Standard Notation

practice
Practice:
  • Warm-up Questions:
    • How many protons does Boron have?
    • What is the atomic mass of Boron (rounded to the nearest whole number)?
    • How many neutrons does Boron have?
    • How many electrons does Boron have?
  • First 20 Elements Worksheet
    • Complete Day #2 information:
      • Protons, Neutrons, Electrons, & Standard Notation
      • Questions #3, #4
summary1
Summary:
  • Atomic Number = # of Protons
  • Atomic Mass = (# of Protons) + (# of Neutrons)
    • Note: First round Atomic Mass to nearest whole number
  • (# of Neutrons) = Atomic Mass - (# of Protons)
      • Note: First round Atomic Mass to nearest whole number
  • (# of Electrons) = (# of Protons)
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