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CIS 101: Introduction to Computers. Chapter 7 Storage. Hard Disks. Memory Cards. What is storage ?. Holds data, instructions, and information for future use. Storage medium is physical material used for storage. Also called secondary storage. p. 7.02 Fig. 7-1. Kilobyte (KB).

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CIS 101: Introduction to Computers

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Cis 101 introduction to computers

CIS 101: Introduction to Computers

Chapter7Storage

Hard Disks

Memory Cards

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What isstorage?

  • Holds data, instructions, and information for future use

  • Storage mediumis physical material used for storage

  • Also called secondary storage

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS

p. 7.02 Fig. 7-1


Cis 101 introduction to computers

Kilobyte (KB)

1 thousand

Megabyte (MB)

1 million

1 billion

Gigabyte (GB)

Terabyte (TB)

1 trillion

Petabyte (PB)

1 quadrillion

Exabyte (EB)

1 quintillion

Zettabyte (ZB)

1 sextillion

Yottabyte (YB)

1 septillion

  • What iscapacity?

  • Number of bytes (characters) a storage medium can hold

Largest single database is 500 Terabytes at an east coast university (nuclear accelerator data)

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • How does volatility compare?

  • Storage medium is nonvolatile—contents retained when power is off

  • Memory is volatile—holds data and instructions temporarily

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

Functions as source of Input

Records Output

  • What is astorage device?

Hardware = I/O or Read/Write Devices

Memory

SDRAM

Reading

Process of transferring items from storage media to memory

Writing

Process of transferring items from memory to storage media

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

Stores …

Primary Storage

Memory (most RAM)

Items waiting to be interpretedand executed by the processor

Secondary Storage

Hard Disk

Operating system, applicationsoftware, user data and information

Flash Memory Cards and USB Flash Drives

Digital pictures or files to be transported

CDs and DVDs

Software, backups, movies, music

Tape

Backups

  • Access time is the combination of two tasks:

  • Time it takes storage device to locate item on storage medium

  • Time required to deliver item from memory to processor

Remember, the access time of RAM is 200,000 times faster than a hard drive

fastertransferrates

Data Transfer Rate

slowertransferrates

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

Link to “How Hard Disks Work”

hard disk installedin system unit

  • What is ahard disk?

  • High-capacity storage

  • Consists of several inflexible, circular platters that store items magnetically

  • Components enclosed in airtight, sealed case for protection

  • High-speed platters spin at 5400-7200 rpm

Hard Drive = 7200 rpm

120 rpSecond

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Magnetic disks

Magnetic Disks

Trackis narrow recording bandthat forms fullcircle on disk

Sectorstores up to512 bytesof data

Formatting prepares disk for use


How does disk storage work

How does disk storage work?

  • Disks areMagnetic = data is stored by aligning positive & negative particles

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Magnetic disks1

Magnetic Disks

Sample Hard Disk Characteristics

Advertised capacity120 GB

Platters3

Read/write heads6

Cylinders16,383

Bytes per second512

Sectors per track63

Sectors per drive234,441,648

Revolutions per minute7,200

Transfer rate133 MB per second

Access time8.9 ms

  • What are characteristics of a hard disk?

actualdiskcapacity

Check the capacity of our lab computers

750 GB

Fall 2006

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS

p. 361 Fig. 7-11


How does a hard drive look

How does a hard drive look?

Platters are made of metal (aluminum), glass, or ceramic & has a metal surface that can be magnetized.

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Video install a new hard drive

Video: Install a New Hard Drive

Sale

Obsolete

Speed up your computer with a new hard drive

Hard Drive

Video

$60

$65

$60

Sept. 2009

$90

New

1 Terabyte

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

platter

  • What is acylinder?

track

  • Vertical section of track through all platters

  • Same track number on multiple surfaces

sector

  • Single movement of read/write head arms accesses all platters in cylinder; reduce access time

read/writehead

platter

sides

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS

cylinder


Maintaining hard disk data

Maintaining Hard Disk Data

  • A little Preventive maintenance!

    • Defragment = reorganize files to make better used of space; programs will run faster

Two ways: 1 – Start, Accessories, System Tools

2 – My Computer, Properties,

Disk Cleanup & Tools

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is ahead crash?

  • Occurs when read/write head touchesplatter surface

  • Spinning creates cushion of air that floats read/write head above platter

  • Clearance between head and platter is approximately two-millionths of an inch

  • A smoke particle, dust particle, or human hair could render drive unusable

hair

read/write head

dust

clearance

smoke

platter

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

processor

disk cache

first requestfor data—to disk cache

second requestfor data—to hard disk

hard disk

  • What is adisk cache?

  • Portion of memory that processor uses to store frequentlyaccessed items

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What areexternal hard disksandremovable hard disks?

  • Used to back up or transfer files

External hard disk — freestandinghard disk that connects to system unit

Removable hard disk — hard diskthat you insert and removefrom hard disk drive

Hard drive is designated as drive C

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is a miniature hard disk?

  • Provide greater storage capacities than flash memory

  • Smaller than notebook computer hard disks

  • A pocket hard drive is a self-contained unit

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Magnetic disks what is a disk controller

Magnetic Disks – What is a disk controller?

SATA(Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) controller uses serial signals to transfer data, instructions, and information

EIDE (EnhancedIntegratedDrive Electronics) controller supports four hard disks, provides connections for CD and DVD drives

SCSIcontroller supports up to fifteendevices including hard disks, CDand DVD drives, tape drives, printers, scanners, network cards

SAScontroller supports many connecteddevices at once, including hard disks,CD and DVD drives, printers,scanners, digital cameras, and more

  • Chip and circuits that control transfer of data from disk


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is online storage?

  • Service on Web that provides storagefor minimal monthly fee

  • Files can be accessed from any computer with Web access

  • Large files can be downloaded instantaneously

  • Others can be authorized to access your data

  • Offsite backup of data

Video

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Magnetic disks what is a floppy disk

Magnetic Disks – What is a floppy disk?

  • Portable, inexpensive storage medium (also called diskette)

Obsolete?

Thin, circular, flexible film enclosedin 3.5” wide plastic shell


Optical discs cds and dvds

Optical Discs = CDsand DVDs

Push the button toslide out the tray.

  • Flat, round, portable metal discs with protective plastic coating

  • Can be read only or read/write

Insert the disc,label side up.

  • Most PCs include an optical disc drive

Push the same buttonto close the tray.

Disc: Alternative spelling of disk. Disc is often used for optical discs, while disk generally refers to magnetic discs, but there is no real rule.

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

disc label

lens

lens

pit

land

Step 3.Reflected light is deflected to alight-sensing diode, which sends digital signals of 1 to computer. Absence of reflected light is read as digital signal of 0.

0

1

prism

prism

light-sensingdiode

light-sensingdiode

laserdiode

laserdiode

  • How does a laser read data on a CD or DVD?

Link to “How CDs Work”

Pit

Land

Step 2.If light strikesa pit, it scatters. If light strikes a land, it is reflected back toward diode.

Step 1.Laser diode shines a light beam towarddisc.

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • How is data stored on a CD or DVD?

  • Typically stored in singletrack

  • Track divided into evenly sizedsectorsthat store items

single trackspirals to edgeof disc

disc sectors

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is aCD-ROM?

  • Compactdiscread-onlymemory

  • Cannot erase or modifycontents

    • Single-session

  • Typically holds 650 MB to 1 GB

  • Commonly usedto distributemultimedia (music) and complexsoftware

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is the data transfer rate of a CD-ROM drive?

Original CDs

Transferred at

150 KBps

(kilo bytes per second)

1X

10X = 150 x 10

or 1,500 KBps

1X

10X

48X

75X

?

48X: 48  150 KBps = 7,200 KBps or 7.2 MBps

75  150 KBps = 11,250 KBps or 12.25 MBps

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

Stores digital versions of roll of film

Film developers offer Picture CD service

Can be modified using photo editing software

Kodak

  • What is aPicture CD?

Step 1.Drop off film to be developed. Mark the Picture CD box on the film-processing envelope.

Step 3.At home, print images from Picture CD on your ink-jet photo printer.

Step 2.When you pick up prints and negatives, a Picture CD contains digital images of each photograph.

At a store, print images to Picture CD at kiosk.

A CD-ROM drive can read a Picture CD & other CDs

(but CAN NOT read DVDs)

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS

p. 7.19 Fig. 7-25


Cis 101 introduction to computers

Multi-session?

  • What areCD-Rs and CD-RWs?

Must haveCD recorderor CD-R drive

CD-R (compact disc-recordable)

—c disc you can write on once

Cannot erasedisc’s contents

CD-RW (compact disc-rewritable)

— ceerasabledisc you can write onmultiple times

Must haveCD-RW softwareand CD-RW drive

DVD-R

DVD-RW

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

What is aDVD-ROM ?

  • digital versatile disc -ROMor

  • digital video disc -ROM?

  • High capacity disc capable of storing 4.7 GB to 17 GB

  • Must haveDVD-ROM driveor DVD player to read DVD-ROM

  • Stores databases, music, complex software, and movies

DVD

DVD drive

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

DVDs

  • Blu-ray discsstorage capacity = 100 GB

    • Blu-ray has won the high definition storage medium for movies

  • HD-DVD discs lost out to Blue-ray

  • HD-VMDs have storage capacity of up to 40 GB or more

    • Competitor to Blu-ray

    • 20 layers

  • UMDcan store up to 1.8 GB

    • Mini-DVD; PlayStation Portable

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

DVD-ROM Storage Capacities

SidesLayersStorage Capacity

1147 GB

118.5 GB

219.4 GB

2217 GB

  • How does a DVD-ROM store data?

  • Two layers of pits are used, lower layer is semitransparent so laser can read through

  • Some are double-sided

  • Data is packed (pits are closer together) more densely

  • DVD-RWis a rewritable DVD

    • It can write on CD-R, CD-RW, DVD-R & DVD-RW

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What istape?

  • Magnetically coated plastic ribboncapable of storing large amountsof data at low cost

    • Sequential access, like music

  • Primarily used for backup

  • Sequential access is the opposite of Direct access — used on hard disks, CDs, and DVDs — which can locate particular item immediately

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS

p. 7.24 Fig. 7-29


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is aPC Card?

  • Adds capabilities to computer

  • Credit-card-sized device commonlyused in notebook computers

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

CompactFlash

Secure Digital

xD Picture Card

Memory Stick

  • What isminiature mobile storage media?

  • Storage for small mobile devices

Miniaturemobile storagemedia

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is acard reader?

  • Reads information stored on miniature mobile storage media

  • Type of card determines type of card reader needed

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is aUSB Flash Drive?

  • Plugs in a USB port on a computer or mobile device

  • Storage capacities up to 64 GB

Video

How flash drives are made. Check out the robotics.

8 minutes

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • What is asmart card?

  • Stores data on microprocessor embedded in small card

  • Input, process, output, and storage capabilities

    • Sometimes calledintelligentsmart card

Prepaid telephone cards

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

Microfilm — 100- to215-foot roll of film

Microfiche — small sheet of film, usually 4”  6”

  • What aremicrofilmandmicrofiche?

Store microscopic imagesof documents on roll or sheet of film

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Cis 101 introduction to computers

  • How do life expectancies of various media compare?

  • Microfilm and microfiche have longest life of any storage media

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Drive letter designations

Drive Letter Designations

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS

Floppy Disks

Drive Letter A & B

Hard Disks

Drive Letter C

More Hard Disks = D, E, etc.

Optical Drives

Next available letter after hard disks

Flash Drives

Next available letter after optical drives


Other storage devices

Other Storage Devices

View Video

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS

Dogtags


Other storage devices1

Other Storage Devices

Storage Cube

View Video

Notice Floppy Disks and Magnetic Tape

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


Summary of storage

Summary of Storage

Chapter 7 Completed

Levi Krein

Associate Professor CIS


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