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Managing Design Processes Session 03. Course: T0593 / Human Computer Intera ct i on Year : 2012. Outline. Organization Design and Support Usability The Four Pillars of Design Development Methodologies Ethnographic Observation Participatory Design Scenario Development

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Managing Design Processes Session 03

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Managing Design ProcessesSession 03

Course: T0593 / Human Computer Interaction

Year: 2012


Organization Design and Support Usability

The Four Pillars of Design

Development Methodologies

Ethnographic Observation

Participatory Design

Scenario Development

Social Impact Statement for Early Design Review


Organizational Design and Support Usability

Design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and their systems in whole life cycles. (ICSID – International Council of Societies of Industrial Design)

Design is inherently creative and unpredictable. Interactive system designers must blend knowledge of technical feasibility with a mystical esthetic sense of what attracts users. hared language


Organizational Design and Support Usability (Cont.)

  • One Method to Characterize design (Rosson and Carrol, 2002) is:

    • Design is a process.

    • The design process is nonhierarchical.

    • The process is radically transformational.

    • Design intrinsically involves the discovery of new goals.

The Four Pillars of Design


The Four Pillars of Design (Cont.)

User Interface Requirements

Soliciting and clearly specifying user requirements is a major key to success in any development activity

Laying out the user-interface requirements is part of the overall requirements development and management process

User interface requirements describe system behavior


The Four Pillars of Design (Cont.)

  • Guidelines documents and processes

    Each project has different needs, but guidelines should be considered for:

  • Words, icons, and graphics

  • Screen-layout issues

  • Input and output devices

  • Action sequences

  • Training

The Four Pillars of Design (cont.)

  • User-Interface Software Tools

  • One difficulty in designing interactive systems is that customers and users may not have a clear idea of what the system will look like when it is done. Since interactive systems are novel in many situation, user may not realize the implications of design decisions. unfortunately, it is difficult, costly, and time-consuming to make major changes to systems once those systems have been implemented.

  • Sophisticated tools such as Sun’s Java provide cross-platform development capabilities and a variety of services.

The Four Pillars of Design (Cont.)

Expert Reviews and Usability Testing

In addition to a variety of expert review methods, test with the intended users, surveys, and automated analysis tools are proving to be valuable.

Procedures vary greatly depending on the goals of the usability study, the number of expected users, the danger of errors, and the level of investment


Development Methodologies

There are dozens of advertised development methods, one of them is The Rapid Contextual Design Method (Holtzblatt et al.).

The rapid contextual design method involves the following steps:

1. Contextual Inquiry

2. Interpretation sessions and work modeling

3. Model Consolidation and affinity diagram building

4. Persona Development


Development Methodologies (cont.)

The rapid contextual design method involves the following steps (cont.):

5. Visioning

6. Storyboarding

7. User environment design

8. Interviews and evaluations with paper prototypes and mock-ups.


Ethnographic Observation


Understand organization policies and work culture.

Familiarize yourself with the system and its history.

Set initial goals and prepare questions.

Gain access and permission to observe/interview.

Field Study

Establish rapport with managers and users.

Observe/interview users in their workplace and collect subjective/objective quantitative/qualitative data.

Follow any leads that emerge from the visits.


Ethnographic Observation (cont.)

  • Analysis

    • Compile the collected data in numerical, textual, and multimedia databases.

    • Quantify data and compile statistics.

    • Reduce and interpret the data.

    • Refine the goals and the process used.

  • Reporting

    • Consider multiple audiences and goals.

    • Prepare a report and present the findings.


Participatory Design

(Source : Pearson Addison – Wesley, 2010)


Participatory Design (cont.)


More user involvement brings:

more accurate information about tasks

more opportunity for users to influence design decisions

a sense of participation that builds users' ego investment in successful implementation

potential for increased user acceptance of final system


Participatory Design (cont.)

On the negative side, extensive user involvement may:

be more costly

lengthen the implementation period

build antagonism with people not involved or whose suggestions rejected

force designers to compromise their design to satisfy incompetent participants

build opposition to implementation

exacerbate personality conflicts between design-team members and users

show that organizational politics and preferences of certain individuals are more important than technical issues


Participatory Design (cont.)


Scenario Development

Day-in-the-life scenarios:

characterize what happens when users perform typical tasks

can be acted out as a form of walkthrough

may be used as basis for videotape

useful tools

table of user communities across top, tasks listed down the side

table of task sequences

flowchart or transition diagram


Social Impact Statement for Early Design Review

Describe the new system and its benefits

Convey the high level goals of the new system.

Identify the stakeholders.

Identify specific benefits


Social Impact Statement for Early Design Review (cont.)

Address concerns and potential barriers

Anticipate changes in job functions and potential layoffs.

Address security and privacy issues.

Discuss accountability and responsibility for system misuse and failure.

Avoid potential biases.

Weigh individual rights vs. societal benefits.

Assess trade-offs between centralization and decentralization.

Preserve democratic principles.

Ensure diverse access.

promote simplicity and preserve what works.


Social Impact Statement for Early Design Review (cont.)

Outline the development process

Present and estimated project schedule.

Propose process for making decisions.

Discuss expectations of how stakeholders will be involved.

Recognize needs for more staff, training, and hardware.

Propose plan for backups of data and equipment.

Outline plan for migrating to the new system.


Supporting Materials


Q & A

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