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## PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Data Structures' - cosima

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Dictionaries/Dynamic sets

- Maintain a set of items.
- Each item has key and info fields.
- Keys belong to a totally ordered universe, and can be compared with each other
- Support the following operations: Insert, Delete, Search, Min, Max, …

Extremely useful data structure!

Abstract Data Type: Dictionaries

Dic-Item(k,i) – Create a dictionary item containing keyk andinfoi, Key(I), Info(I) – The keyand info contained in Dic-ItemI.

- Dictionary() – Create an emptydictionary
- Insert(D,I) – Insert Iinto D
- Delete(D,I) – Delete Ifrom D (assuming Iis in D)
- Search(D,k) – Find a dic-item with key k in D, if any.
- Min(D) – Return the dic-item with the minimum key in D.
- Max(D) – Return the dic-item with the maximum key in D.
- Successor(D,I) – Return the successor of Iin D.
- Predecessor(D,I) – Return the predecessor of Iin D.

Assume that dic-items have distinct keys

Implementing dictionaries using lists

- Store the dic-items in a list (in no particular order).
- Insert a new dic-item to an arbitrary position of the list, e.g., the first or last position.
- Delete a dic-item by either using a supplied pointer to it, or by first locating it in the list.
- Search, and other operations, are implemented by scanning the list.

Implementing dictionaries using doubly linked lists (ver. 1)

- Store the dic-items in a list, in no particular order.
- Insert a new dic-item to an arbitrary position of the list, e.g., the first or last position.
- Delete a dic-item using a supplied pointer to it.
- Search, and other operations, are implemented by scanning the list.

Insert, Delete – O(1) time

Other operations – O(n) time

Implementing dictionaries using doubly linked lists (ver. 2)

- Store the dic-items in a list, in increasing order of keys.
- Insert a new dic-item to the appropriate position
- Delete a dic-item by using a supplied pointer to it.
- Search is implemented by scanning the list, stopping when the key of the current item is larger than the key sought.

Insert,Search – O(n) time (or O(n/2) “on average”)

Delete – O(1) time

Min, Max, Successor, Predecessor – O(1) time

Implementing dictionaries using (circular) arrays

- Store the dic-items in a list, in increasing order of keys.
- Insert a new dic-item to the appropriate position
- Delete a dic-item by using a supplied pointer to it.
- Search implemented using binary search.

Insert, Delete– O(n) time (or O(n/2) )

Min, Max, Successor, Predecessor – O(1) time

Search – O(log n)

Binary search

Key k was foundin position mid

Key(Retrieve(L,mid))

Key k should be insertedin position mid or mid+1

Can we implement alloperations in O(log n) time?

Yes! Using Binary Search Trees

2

8

1

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10

Binary search treesA binary tree in which each node contains a dic-item.

Satisfies the binary-search-tree property:If y is in the left subtree of x, then y.key < x.key.

If y is in the right subtree of x, then y.key > x.key.

x

parent

key

info

right

left

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Binary search treesD.root

x

Dic-Item ≡ Tree-Node

parent

key

info

right

left

left, right, parent are initially null

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A set can be represented using several different treesheight=4

4

height=2

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Height – length of a longest path to a leaf

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Tree-Search(x,k) – Look for k in the subtree of xx

x

x

Tree-Search(x,5)

We usually start the search at the root of the tree:

Search(D,k) Tree-Search(D.root,k)

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Tree-Position(x,k) – Look for k in the subtree of xReturn the last node encounteredx

x

x

y

y

y

Tree-Position(x,6)

Returns the node containing 5

Tree-Position(x,k) is used to find insertion points

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Printing the elements of a BST in sorted order(In-order walk)3

1

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0

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5

Printing, of course, is just an example…

Successor(x)

If x has a right child, the successor of xis the minimal element in x.right.

x

“Go right once, and then left all the way”

What if x.right=null ?

Successor(x)

If x.right=null, the successor of x is the lowestancestory of x such that x is in its right subtree

y

“Go up from x untilthe first turn right’’

x

Binary Search Tree Animations

http://webdiis.unizar.es/asignaturas/EDA/AVLTree/avltree.html

http://webdiis.unizar.es/asignaturas/EDA/AVLTree/avltree.html

For the time being, turn all buttons on the right off

Warning: There are some differences with what we learn

Deletion: easy cases first

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Delete(6) – 6 is a leaf; simply remove it.

Delete(8) – 8 has only one child; bypass it.

Delete(10) – 10 has only one child; bypass it.

Delete(2) – more complicated…

Deletion of a binary node

If z has two children,let y be the successor of z

z

y has no left child

Remove y from the tree

Replace z by y

y

Binary-search-tree property preserved!

Is it enough to let z.keyy.key?

And maybe also z.infoy.info?

Analysis

Each operation takes O(h+1)time, where h is the height of the tree

In general h may be as large as n

Want to keep the tree with small h

Balanced trees

A full tree of height h contains n=2h+1 − 1 nodes

h = log2(n+1)−1

How do we keep the tree more or less balanced?

Randomly built BSTs

Maybe balancing will take care of itself?

Not if we insert the elements in sorted order.We get a path of length n

Things are usually ok if weinsert the elements in random order

Theorem: If n distinct keys are inserted into a BST in random order, then the expected height of the tree is O(log n).

We want worst-case results…

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