Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat
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Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat. * Lisa Pohlman , *Marjory Artzer , **Verona Chaffin. * Kansas State University, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology, **Allcare Animal Hospital, Shawnee,KS. History; 16-week-old intact female, Bengal (Poppy). RDVM December 28, 2007

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Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

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Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

*Lisa Pohlman, *Marjory Artzer, **Verona Chaffin

*Kansas State University, Department of Diagnostic Medicine/Pathobiology,

**Allcare Animal Hospital, Shawnee,KS

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


History 16 week old intact female bengal poppy

History; 16-week-old intact female, Bengal (Poppy)

RDVM December 28, 2007

  • Diarrhea, seromucoid nasal discharge & mild failure to thrive

    • De-wormed, antibiotics, SC fluids & sent home

      January 7th Recheck

  • Nasal discharge had cleared

  • Diarrhea worse → diagnosed coccidia

    • Albon

      January 11th Recheck

  • Diarrhea

  • Fecal wet mount → abundant motile organisms

    • A video recording of the organisms

    • A saline diluted, air-dried fecal smear

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

Wright’s 100x

  • A variety of bacteria (mostly rods), debris, and protozoal organisms (9 to 12 um x 6 to 9 um)

  • with 3 anterior flagella, 1 posterior flagella,1 nucleus, undulating membrane, central axostyle

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


Further tests diagnosis

Further tests & Diagnosis

  • Culture (In PouchTM TF-Feline)

  • PCR

  • Tritrichomonasfoetus

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


Trichomonads

Tritrichomonas foetus

Trichomonads

  • Primitive eukaryotic organisms

  • Obligate protozoan symbionts

  • Multiple anterior flagella

  • Undulating membrane

  • Reproduction via binary fission

  • Trophozoites are transferred from host to host directly

  • Commensal & pathogenic species identified

    • Tritrichomonasfoetus -- pathogenic

    • Pentatrichomonashominis – non-pathogenic

Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

http://vetsci.sdstate.edu/vetext/Trichomoniasis%20Range%20

Beef%20Cow%20Symposium%20web.htm


Tritrichomonas foetus

Tritrichomonas foetus

Cattle

  • Venereal pathogen

    Pigs

  • gastrointestinal tract & nasal mucosa

    • T. foetus = T. suis

      Dogs

  • Diarrhea

    Cats

  • Enteric pathogen of cats

  • Uterus

  • Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


    T foetus enteric pathogen in cats

    T. foetus; Enteric Pathogen in Cats

    • Colonizes colon

    • +/- observable symptoms

      • Chronic diarrhea

      • Feces dribble from anus

    • Young, densely housed cats

    • ~1/3 of the purebred feline population infected

    • Absence of diarrhea ≠ cat free of infection

    • Misidentified as

      • Giardia

      • Pentatrichomonas hominis

    Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


    Pentatrichomonas tritrichomonas giardia spp hominis foetus

    Pentatrichomonas Tritrichomonas Giardia spp.hominis foetus

    • Non-pathogenic

    • 5 anterior flagella

    http://vetsci.sdstate.edu/vetext/Trichomoniasis%20Range%20

    Beef%20Cow%20Symposium%20web.htm

    Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only

    http://www.st.rim.or.jp/~samacha/

    CareF/SickF/Protozo/Proto.html

    http://winnielovesus.blogspot.com/2007/09/

    one-week-done-35-to-go.html


    Histologic features of t foetus m j yaeger j l gookin vet pathol 42 797 804 2005

    Histologic Features of T. foetusM. J. Yaeger & J. L. Gookin, Vet Pathol 42:797-804 (2005)

    • Colonic trichomonads (6 sections recommended)

    • Lymphoplasmacytic & neutrophilic colitis

    • Eosinophils not a prominent feature

    • Crypt epithelial cell

      • Hypertrophy

      • Hyperplasia

      • ↑ mitotic activity

      • ↓ goblet cells

    • Crypt microabscesses

    • Attenuated superficial colonic mucosa

    • +/- Macrophages

    Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


    Prognosis other concerns

    Prognosis & Other Concerns

    Infected Cats

    • No effective antibiotic treatment

    • Overall health not adversely affected

    • ~90% diarrhea will stop within two years

    • Remain source of infection to other cats

      Hypothesis

    • Prolonged presence of organisms

      • Predisposition to IBD?

        Zoonotic Potential?

    • Human infection with T. foetus (1 case)

      • Immunosuppressed & previous stem cell transplantation

    Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


    Tritrichomonas foetus in a cat

    M. J. Yaeger and J. L. Gookin

    Vet Pathol 42:797-804 (2005)

    With Permission

    Unresponsive to antimicrobial treatment

    T.foetus

    PCR

    Histopathology

    Min. 6 sections

    Culture

    In PouchTM TF media

    • Saline diluted feces

    • Motile organisms

    • Air dried smear

    Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


    Acknowledgements

    Acknowledgements

    • Shon Koenig

    • Shelly Christenson

    • Nathan Rodriguez

    Presented at SEVPAC 2008 – Permission granted for use on SEVPAC website only


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