The Evolution of Transcendentalism
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Pham, Remy Bloom, Erin Cerda, Jared Sandoval, René Gherman, Jennifer Maxfield-Kowalski, Hailey Modern Literature, P2 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Evolution of Transcendentalism . Pham, Remy Bloom, Erin Cerda, Jared Sandoval, René Gherman, Jennifer Maxfield-Kowalski, Hailey Modern Literature, P2. Key Elements. Philosophical, religious and literary movement Search for a liberating philosophy

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Pham, Remy Bloom, Erin Cerda, Jared Sandoval, René Gherman, Jennifer Maxfield-Kowalski, Hailey Modern Literature, P2

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Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

The Evolution of Transcendentalism

Pham, Remy

Bloom, Erin

Cerda, Jared

Sandoval, René

Gherman, Jennifer

Maxfield-Kowalski, Hailey

Modern Literature, P2


Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

Key Elements

  • Philosophical, religious and literary movement

  • Search for a liberating philosophy

  • Against the religious orthodoxy of New England Calvinism.

    • doctrines: of predestination, absolute sovereignty of God

  • Encouraged individuals to find “an original relation to the universe” (Emerson)

  • Criticism of contemporary society for blind conformity

HMK


Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

When?

  • Part of the Romantic movement (second half of 18th century)

  • Originated near Concord, Mass., ~1830 to 1855

  • Mellowed, but still continues

  •  Low point by the beginning of the 19th century

  • Succeeded by Modernism

HMK


How society influenced transcendentalism

How Society Influenced Transcendentalism

  • The turn away from romanticism, & towards Transcendentalism

    • questioned God

    • question gov (run by church)

    • began thinking

    • thinking turned to writing

    • writing spun out of control


Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

The Transcendentalists Expressed their thoughts through . . .

  • Literature

    • People & Works

    • Stylistic Devices

  • Art

  • Lecturing

  • Ethics

  • Culture

  • Spirituality

  • Politics

HMK


Characteristics of transcendentalism

Characteristics of Transcendentalism

  • Themes:

            Self-Wisdom

            Nature and its Meaning

            Social Reform


The end of romanticism a new beginning

The End of Romanticism & A New Beginning

  • Of the many events, these were most important: 

    • May 5, 1819: William E. Channing preaches Unitarian Christianity

      • sparked the spread of new religions

    • September 1836: Transcscendental Club formed

      • Included key people such as: Bronson Alcott, Henry David Thoreau, William H. Channing, James F. Channing, Sophia Ripley, Margaret Fuller, & more.

    • September 9, 1836: Emerson’s “Nature” published

      • Significance: After being published, the younger generations saw him as the next mentor of America

    • 1837/1838: Emerson speaks at Harvard (“The American Scholar"/ Divinity School Address)

  • 1845: First series of Emerson's essays published

  • 1845: Margaret Fuller publishes her “Woman in the Nineteenth Century”


The romantics

The Romantics  . . . 

 Walt Whitman

  • Leaves of Grass: stressed individualism that is key to transcendentalism

    Emily Dickinson

  • Poems by Emily Dickinson

  • Poems: Second Series

    • most poems stress a search for universal truths and investigate the human condition

      William Wordsworth

  • Lyrical Ballads:considered the start of the American Romanticism movement

Bloom


Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

. . . and the Transcendentalists

  • German transcendentalism (more so “idealism” linked with romanticism and rev. politics of Enlightenment)

    • Immanuel Kant

      • Root of transcendentalism

    • Samuel Taylor Coleridge / Thomas Carlyle

  • Ralph Waldo Emerson

    • American lecturer, essayist, and poet, leader of Transcendentalist movement

    • seen as a champion of individualism

    • Nature (1836): basis of American Transcendentalism

  • Henry David Thoreau

    • Walden, simplicity & natural surroundings

    • Essay, Civil Disobedience, resistance to civil government moral opposition to an unjust state.

Pham


Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

Who (Cont. . . )

  • Margaret Fuller

    • The Dial w/ Emerson; publication of many transcendentalist's works

    • Journalist, critic, and woman's rights advocate

  • Elizabeth Palmer Peabody

    • First English-language kindergarten in the United States

    • Record of a School, outlining the plan of the school and Alcott's philosophy of early childhood education

      • Alcott was who she learned teaching from

  • George Ripley

    • Founder of Unitarian community;

    • Editor for Harper’s Magazine; monthly mag. of lit., politics, culture, $$, & arts

Pham


Stylistic devices of the romantic and transcendent eras

Stylistic Devices of the Romantic and Transcendent Eras

  • The "Emersonian" tradition of romantic transcendentalism 

    • experimentation in writing

    • (E. E. Cummings used it!)

  • E. E. Cummings' "use of low dialect to create satire and the visual 'shaping' of poems."

  •  Symbolism / and myth for Man and Nature

  • desired to express the "inexpressible" 

  • importance of the individual, the unique, even the eccentric

  • rejected absolute systems, whether of philosophy or religion (acknowledged the hypocrisy of the churches)

Pham


Romantic transcendentalist artists

Romantic & Transcendentalist Artists

John Trumbull

Albert Bierstadt  

Thomas Cole

Gherman


Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

Time Line (cont'd...)

  • Spring 1845: Thoreau begins his stay at Walden Pond

  • December 25, 1846: Emerson’s poems Published

  • May 1849: Henry David Thoreau publishes Resistance to Cicil Government leter know as Cicil Disobedience in Elizabeth Peachbodys Aesthetic Papers

  • 1854: Publication of Walden (aka: Life in the Woods) by Henry David Thoreau

    • Significance: It showed what many transcendentalists were influenced by, the war.

  • February, 1862 Julia Ward Howe published “Battle Hymn of the Republic” in the Atlantic Monthly

    • A work that: was considered to be the most important song in the civil war

  • Death of Thoreau: May 6th, 1862

  • Death of Emerson: April 27th, 1882 

Cerda


The ethics of romanticism vs transcendentalism

The Ethics of Romanticism vs. Transcendentalism

  •  Romanticist Ethics

    • profound engagement with ethical questions

    • impelled by a will to value in the face of a prevailing reduction of value

  •  Transcendentalist Ethics

    • transcend the limits of human sense-experience

    • Emerson, reason is "the highest faculty of the soul . . . it never reasons, never proves, it simply perceives; it is vision"

    • spiritual and transcendental > material and empirical

HMK


Culture of transcendentalism

Culture of Transcendentalism

  • The Romantic culture is testified by those of the

    Transcendentalists  . . . 

  • Are strong believers in power of the individual and divine message

  • Study religious science, divine science and unity

Sandoval


Culture of transcendentalism cont

Culture of Transcendentalism (Cont...)

  • Wanted people to understand the circle of life/concept of it

    Transcendentalists . . .

  • Influenced Literature and Philosophy 

  • Used lots of jazz in their music

  • Used meditation for relaxation

  • Dominated thoughts of American Renaissance

Sandoval


Transcendentalist views on spiritually

Transcendentalist Views on Spiritually

  • Departed from orthodox Calvinism

    •  believed in importance of human striving rather than Puritan inescapable human depravity

    • emphasized unity rather than Trinity of God (Unitarian)

  • Jesus, inferior to God but greater than humans

  • some believe Jesus to be human but have special athority (Theologian Joseph Priestly)

  • Jesus saves humans from sin, not just punishment ( leading preacher William Ellery Channing)

  •  Channing said that humans should partake of Divinity so that "they may have a growing likeness to the Supreme Being"

Gherman


Intellect on transcendentalism

Intellect on Transcendentalism

  • Part of  God is in each Man

  • We learn through our Devine Intelect

  • Understand what is right in the world; understand what is good

  • We are divine animals

  • There is a direct line of communication between God and Man

  • The basic truths of the universe lie beyond the knowledge of what we obtain

  • We have the capability to acknoledge our own souls, to understand our existing

  •  We have the ability to know of the phyical world

Sandoval


Transcendentalist view on politics

Transcendentalist View on Politics

  • Utopia: include Alcott's Fruitlands, the Transcendentalists Club's Brook Farm, and Thoreau's cabin at Walden

  • Transcendentalists dissatisfied with society, focusing on American government policies

  • These include the treatment of Native Americans,the war with Mexico, and slavery

Bloom


Transcendentalist view on politics1

Transcendentalist View on Politics

  • Transcendentalists believed in the abolition of slavery

  • Thoreau wrote Resistance to Civil Government in 1849

  • Thoreau: nonviolent action (not paying taxes) could promote change

  • Civil disobedience could change the government

  • Citizens should not  recognize a government that passes unjust laws 

  • Citizens should not follow the unjust laws

Bloom


Pham remy bloom erin cerda jared sandoval ren gherman jennifer maxfield kowalski hailey modern literature p2

So why is this era important? 

  • Individualism

  • New views 

  •             ... & they were being heard!

  • HMK


    Websites

    websites

    http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/transcendentalism/

    http://public.wsu.edu/~campbelld/amlit/amtrans.htm

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transcendentalism

    http://www.transcendentalists.com/

    http://www.vcu.edu/engweb/transcendentalism/

    http://www.pbs.org/wnet/ihas/icon/transcend.html


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