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ECTOPARASITES. Lice. Order: Phthiraptera ( LICE). Two Orders (head width, mouthparts differentiate) (1) Mallophaga – (Chewing Lice) i. Chewing parasites with mandibulate mouthparts. ii. Feed: sloughed epidermis, feathers and sebaceous secretions.

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Order: Phthiraptera (LICE)

Two Orders (head width, mouthparts differentiate)

(1)Mallophaga – (Chewing Lice)

i. Chewing parasites with mandibulate mouthparts.

ii. Feed: sloughed epidermis, feathers and sebaceous secretions.

iii. Hosts: birds (most) and mammals.

iv. No species are parasites of man.

(2) Anoplura – (Sucking Lice)

i. Bloodsucking parasites of mammals

ii. Haustellum mouthpart

iii. Solenophagus (all lice)

iv. Hosts: mammal (humans have 3 species)


Biology
Biology

(1) Dorso-ventrally flattened body.

(2) Claws adapted to grasp the host

(3) All lice are wingless

(4) Hemimetabolous Life Cycle

Egg  Nymph  Adult


Family pthiridae crab louse
Family: Pthiridae (crab louse)

(1) Species: Phithirus pubis

(2) Morphology

(3) Location on Host

(4) Size

(5) Eggs attached to coarser body hairs.

(6) Habits

(7) Spread

(8) Transfer

(9) Diseases


Family pediculidae head louse
Family: Pediculidae (head louse)

(1) Species: Pediculus humanus capitis

(2) Location on Host

(3) Size

(4) Eggs attached to the hairs (glued).

(5) Habits

(6) Spread

(7) Transfer

(8) Diseases

(9) Treatment


Family pediculidae body louse
Family: Pediculidae (Body louse)

  • Species: Pediculus humanus humanus

    (2) Location on Host

    (3) Size

    (4) Eggs on clothing seams (glued).

    (5) Habits

    (6) Spread

    (7) Transfer


Louse borne diseases
Louse Borne Diseases

(1) Vagabond’s Disease

(a) Pediculosis

(b) Vector

(c) Saliva (toxic effects)

(d) Distribution

(e) Diagnosis


Louse borne diseases1
Louse Borne Diseases

(2) Trench Fever

(a) Vector

(b) Pathogen

(c) Reservoir

(d) Distribution

(e) Transmission

(f) Diagnosis

(g) Non pathogenic to louse


Louse borne diseases2
Louse Borne Diseases

(3) Epidemic Relapsing Fever

(a) Vector

(b) Pathogen

(c) Reservoir

(d) Distribution

(e) Transmission

(f) Diagnosis


Louse borne diseases3
Louse Borne Diseases

(4) Epidemic Typhus

(a) Vector

(b) Pathogen

(c) Reservoir

(d) Distribution

(e) Transmission

(f) Symptoms and Diagnosis


Louse Control

Body Lice – change and wash clothing in water hotter than 60C. In epidemic situations, 10% DDT in talc dusted on between body and underclothes (other insecticides – 1% malathion, 2% temephos, 1% propoxur, 0.5% permethrin). Protect from future infestation with insecticide treated clothing.

Head Lice – soap and water washing for adults and nymphs. Combing to remove nits or shaving head. Insecticides, but resistance in many areas of the world.

Pubic Lice – insecticidal emulsions and lotions. Resistance not as much of a problem. 1% permethrin – reapply because eggs not killed. 0.5% malathion – kills eggs too.