Cassava Breeding Community of
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Cassava Breeding Community of Practice in Africa for Accelerated Production and Dissemination of Farmer-Preferred Cassava Varieties Resistant to Pests and Diseases. ARI. Cassava. Cassava is a strategic food security crop Important staple for millions in Africa

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Ari

Cassava Breeding Community of Practice in Africa for Accelerated Production and Dissemination of Farmer-Preferred Cassava Varieties Resistant to Pests and Diseases

ARI


Cassava

Cassava

  • Cassava is a strategic food security crop

  • Important staple for millions in Africa

  • Grown mainly by the poor resource famers

  • Nigeria, Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda are key producers in Africa


Bottlenecks of cassava breeding

Low seed set

Long breeding cycle

High genetic load

Heterozygosity

Confounding effects of dominance on selection of progenitors

Limited financial resources

Bottlenecks of Cassava Breeding


Rationale

Rationale

  • There is an urgent need for improved varieties to stop the rapid spread of pest and diseases, especially the cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and the cassava mosaic disease (CMD).

  • National Agricultural Research Systems (NARs) are best suited to breed cassava for local needs

  • NARs in the past limited their activities mainly to testing and selection of improved germplasm, but more recently NARs breeders have began formal cassava breeding.


Capacity components required for plant breeding programs

Capacity components required for plant breeding programs

Fred Bliss 2010


The cop

The CoP

  • Ghana

  • Nigeria

  • Tanzania

  • Uganda

  • CIAT

  • IITA

  • More countries to be included in 2011


Ari

  • A group of people who share a concern or passion for something they do and how to do it better as they interact regularly.

  • They have a commitment to a common interest and engage in joint activities They therefore interact and learn together and in the process build a strong relationship.

  • It is a specialized compact network. It is intended as interactive forums for collaboration among scientists from different countries.


Cassava mosiac disease

Cassava Brown Streak Disease

Cassava Mosiac disease

Leaves: chlorosis

– bottom leaves

Roots: dry necrotic rot – most damaging

Stems: brown streaks


Objectives

Objectives

  • Stimulate breeder-to-breeder training germplasmresource exchange, and web-based information to achieve breeding goals

  • Facilitate the integration of MAS with field-based breeding

  • Strengthen the capacity of National program breeders through training programs

  • Build linkages with primary, secondary, and tertiary users


Priority initiatives

Priority Initiatives

  • Access to improved germplasm and development

  • MAS for CMD resistance

  • Improvement for combined resistance to CMD and CBSD

  • Gene discovery for CBSD and CMD


Screening for cmd2 in african elite lines

Screening for CMD2 in African elite lines


Marker aided germplasm transfer from ciat to africa

Marker-aided germplasm transfer from CIAT to Africa

  • Over 300 CIAT MAS developed genotypes introduced to Africa

  • Back cross populations of PPD delivered to African NARs (with MAS for CMD)

  • Backcross populations of beta carotene and protein to NARs (with MAS for CMD)

  • F1 populations of drought tolerant materials (as in vitro and seeds)


Germplasm introduction

Germplasm Introduction


Novel traits introgressed from wild relatives

Novel traits introgressed from wild relatives

Based on ABC involving MAS for CMD resistance


Bsa scheme for gene discovery for cmd

BSA scheme for gene discovery for CMD


Ari

TMS 97/2205 with good

CMD resistance across agro-ecologies

TMS97/2205 x NR 8083


Response profile of cmd2 genotypes

Response profile of CMD2 genotypes


Ari

MAS Scheme to Improve Cassava Germplasm

Local varieties

(selected by farmers)

Improved

introductions

Crossing block

Polycrossdesign

(MAS)

Seedling trial

Field trials

Combining

ability studies

Farmer participatory trial


Cbsd x cmd crosses tanzania

CBSD x CMD crosses (Tanzania)


Pre selected cbsd and cmd resistant lines in tanzania

Pre-selected CBSD and CMD resistant lines in Tanzania


Qtl mapping

QTL mapping

  • A total of10 putative QTL were identified for protein.

  • QTL found accounted for PVD ranges between 15% and 25% for protein content.

  • All the QTL showed additive gene action with values ranging between 3.21 and 6.20 (Fig. 15).


Ari

Diversity

Esuma, 2011


Analysis based on 48 snps

Analysis based on 48 SNPs

Melissa - FABI


Development of populations

Development of populations

  • Crosses

    • F1 populations of elite genotypes

    • Introgression of introduced germplasm into local adapted varieties and landraces

    • Selfed populations – inbreeding (partial inbred lines).


Homozogygosity at cmd loci

MAS-based activities for CMD resistance breeding

Homozogygosity at CMD Loci

Pyramiding of CMD2 and CMD3 genes


Ari

Ugandan Breeder, Anthony Pariyo in Office at A.R.I, Naliendeli, Mtwara discussing the breeding schemes with the Tanzanian team

Breeder to breeder visit

Elizabeth Parkes in Nigeria; taking notes on field layout/design for crossing blocks

Tanzanian Breeder, BernadethaKimata discussing CBSD symptom expression in the field at NaCRRI, Namulonge, Uganda.


Product delivery

Product delivery

Ghana

  • Markers for CMD2 available in NARS

  • Advanced populations development

  • Capacity building in MAB (workshop/training)

  • Sharing of GCP project developed elite materials with stake holders (e.g. Songhai center, Benin Republic)

  • Channels

    • Farmer participatory breeding

    • Linked projects

    • Multi-locational testing with partner institutes

    • Networks

Tanzania


Variety release mas develop latin american genotype

Variety release:MASdevelop Latin American genotype


Ari

Web based data base for CoP

  • http://www.cassavacop.org/cbcopa/

Molecular breeding community of practice to validate, refine, and

apply new technologies in African NARs


Ari

Workshops and Training

Third workshop in Ghana 2010

Participants at the third CoP workshop 2010 in Ghana.

Linking with New Genotyping Platforms and Marker system : Demonstration of the IlluminaBeadXpress at the SNP workshop


Ari

MAS Labs in NARS

Ghana-

Uganda

Nigeria


New generation of cassava breeders

New generation of cassava breeders

Country - Uganda Nigeria Ghana GhanaGhana Tanzania

Name - Mr. Esuma Dr. Olasanmi Mr. Peprah Ms. Prempeh Mr. Danquah Ms. Kimata

Degree - M.Sc. Ph.D. M. Phil Ph.D. Ph.D. M.Sc.

Status On-going Completed On-going On-going On-going Ongoing


Cassava ci project 5 cassava breeding community of practice cop

Cassava CI Project 5: Cassava Breeding Community of Practice (CoP)


Partial inbred line development

Partial Inbred line development

Genotyping of S1 populations- 2011

  • Five populations

  • Selection for reduced heterozygousity

    Development of new selfed populations - 2011

  • S2 populations

  • S3 populations (two populations)


Gene pool development

Gene pool development


Inbred line development six families

Inbred line development (six families)


Ari

  • selection index for 2009 – 2011 for Latin America germplasm

Local check

Potentials


Conclusion

Conclusion

  • Research capability of NARs strengthened research capability in modern breeding incorporating markers in cassava improvement

  • CMD resistant variety released in Nigeria

  • Genotypes combining CBSD and CMD resistance developed in Tanzania

  • Web-database created

  • Genetic stock fixed for CMD2 and CGM alleles developed

  • Genetic diversity of breeding lines analyzed

  • Genetic mapping for early bulking and high protein conducted

  • Breeding populations for key traits developed

  • Introgression of novel traits into CMD resistance genetic background achieved.

  • Training of new generation of breeders accomplished

  • Introduction of valuable germplasm into Africa


Acknowledgement

Acknowledgement

  • Y. Baguma

  • A. Pariyo

  • B. Kimata

  • C. Sichalwe

  • C. Egesi

  • E. Parkes

  • B. Peprah

  • G. Mkamilo

  • J. Onyeka

  • M. Fregene

  • S. Rounsley

  • E. Lotsu

  • M.D. Quain

  • P. Rabinowicz

  • Z. Myburg

  • P. Kulakow

  • H. Murtah

  • X. Delannay

  • NdeyeNdackDiop

  • K. Ogundapo

  • F. Ewa

  • B. Olasanmi

  • E. Okogbenin

  • H. Gomez

  • C. de Vicente

  • M. Gedil

  • A. Dixon

  • H. Kulembeka

  • A. Mbanaso

  • R. Thompson

  • P. Boateng

  • O. Akinbo

  • M. Reynolds

  • A. Okono

  • N.C. Ezebuiro

  • Larry Butler


Ari

Thank You for Your Attention


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