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Do Now:. If you had to make a speech , what would you do? Try to think of the way in which you would approach this task. Turn to your partner, and narrow this list down to TWO procedures. Aim: How do you assess the writing situation?. Situation/Context.

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do now
Do Now:
  • If you had to make a speech, what would you do? Try to think of the way in which you would approach this task.
aim how do you assess the writing situation1
Aim: How do you assess the writing situation?
  • SOAPSTone: a strategy for reading and writing
  • SOAPSTone is an acronym for a series of questions that students must first ask themselves, and then answer, as they begin to plan their compositions.

Who is the Speaker?

The voice that tells the story. Before you begin to write, you must decide whose voice is going to be heard. Whether this voice belongs to a fictional character or to the writer, you should determine how to insert and develop those attributes of the speaker that will influence the perceived meaning of the piece.


What is the Occasion?

The time and the place of the piece; the context that prompted the writing. Writing does not occur in a vacuum. All writers are influenced by the larger occasion: an environment of ideas, attitudes, and emotions that swirl around a broad issue. Then there is the immediate occasion: an event or situation that catches the writer\'s attention and triggers a response.


Who is the Audience?

The group of readers to whom this piece is directed. As you begin to write, you must determine who the audience is that you intend to address. It may be one person or a specific group. This choice of audience will affect how and why you write a particular text.


What is the Purpose?

The reason behind the text. You need to consider the purpose of the text in order to develop the thesis or the argument and its logic. You should ask yourself, "What do I want my audience to think or do as a result of reading my text?“

To inform, to persuade, to entertain…


What is the Subject?

The thesis and material of your writing. You should be able to state the subject in a few words or phrases. This step helps you to focus on the task throughout the writing process.


What is the Tone?

The attitude of the author. The spoken word can convey the speaker\'s attitude and thus help to impart meaning through tone of voice. With the written word, it is tone that extends meaning beyond the literal, and you must learn to convey this tone in your diction (choice of words), syntax (sentence construction), and imagery (metaphors, similes, and other types of figurative language). The ability to manage tone is one of the best indicators of a sophisticated writer.

an example with reading
An example withreading…
  • “America, in the face of our common dangers, in this winter of our hardship, let us remember these timeless words. With hope and virtue, let us brave once more the icy currents, and endure what storms may come. Let it be said by our children\'s children that when we were tested we refused to let this journey end, that we did not turn back nor did we falter; and with eyes fixed on the horizon and God\'s grace upon us, we carried forth that great gift of freedom and delivered it safely to future generations. “

Barack Obama, January 20th, 2009


Speaker: President Obama

  • Occasion: Inaugural address
  • Audience: The American people
  • Purpose: To comfort, to inspire, to reassure
  • Subject: America’s strength will allow her to survive, prosper, and triumph.
  • Tone: Confident, passionate, determined
an example with writing
An example with writing…
  • The Situation: Your social studies class is studying 20th-century American inventions. For your project, you have decided to write a report about the invention of the electric guitar and how it has helped to shape contemporary music. In preparation for writing your report, listen to an account by historian Monica M. Smith about the invention of the electric guitar. Then use relevant information from the account to write your report.
        • August 2008, ELA Regents Task I

Writing Prompt: Introduce readers to a place that you have visited. For example, you might take readers into an unfamiliar or exotic world—a scuba diving expedition, a spelunking adventure, or a boat trip through the Everglades. Or you could encourage readers to visit a favorite museum, historic district, or park (or discourage them from visiting a place you found disappointing). Or you could introduce readers to a foreign country or an ethnic neighborhood with which you are familiar.

homework 2
Homework #2
  • Complete the SOAPSTone in your notebook (Subject and Tone).
  • Be specific and record your answers in LIST form (as we did in class).