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FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001). Scares each side away from intentional aggression. Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz. Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:. Sov. bomber able to hit US. Anti nuclear protests in West.

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FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

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Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Sov. bomber able to hit US

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

US space program to catch SU

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Sov. bomber able to hit US

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

US space program to catch SU

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Sov. bomber able to hit US

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

US space program to catch SU

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Sov. bomber able to hit US

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

US space program to catch SU

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Sov. bomber able to hit US

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

US space program to catch SU

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

US space program to catch SU

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

US develops H-bomb by 1952

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

US space program to catch SU

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

US develops H-bomb by 1952

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

US space program to catch SU

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

US develops H-bomb by 1952

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

US space program to catch SU

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

Anti nuclear protests in West

US develops H-bomb by 1952

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

FC.144 THE NUCLEAR ARMS RACE (1945-2001)

Scares each side away from intentional aggression

Human or mech. error could  Destr. of civiliz.

Growing threat & fear of nuclear war in 1950s as seen in:

Sov. bomber able to hit US

Anti nuclear protests in West

Sov’s dev. ICBMs & launch Sputnik

US reacts more to fear of Sov. nucl. superiority than to fear of nucl. war:

US space program to catch SU

Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD): nuclear strategy of inflicting total destr. on aggressor 

US develops H-bomb by 1952

Tensions over Cuba nearly trigger nuclear war (1962)

SU develops A-bomb by 1949

US spy flights Get caught (1960) Huge Sov. nucl. tests to cover its nucl. inferiority

Growing strain on US & Sov. Econ’s

Both sides work on much more destructive H-bomb

EFFORTS BY BOTH SIDES TO AVOID NUCLEAR WAR:

• Hot line to ensure better communications during crisis (1962)

• Test Ban Treaty outlawing atmospheric tests (1963)

• Nuclear non proliferation treaty to stop spread of Nukes (1968)

• SALT I Treaty limiting number of new weapons (1972)

• SALT II Treaty  New cap on number of new weapons (1979)

• INF (Intermediate Nucl. Forces) Treaty eliminates many missiles, esp. in Eur. (1987)

• START I (Strategic Arms Reduction Tr.) cut #Nukes from 23,500  15,400 (1991)

• START II Eliminated land based MIRV’s (Multiple Indep. Re-entry Vehicles) (1993)

• Agreement to cut # of US & Russian warheads to under 2000 each (2001)

SU develops H-bomb by 1953

Cont. dev. of more powerful nukes

Stalin’s rule in E. Eur. (FC.138)

West reacts vs. Stalin (FC.138)

Other side fearful of 1st side  Develops new weapons

One side fearful of other side  Develops new weapons

Sov. Espionage in US (FC.140)

US has A-bomb (FC.137)

Criticized for being soft on Commun.  Ike raises defense budgets

Stress science & math in US educ.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

The Trinity test (July, 1945)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

The Trinity test (July, 1945)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Effects of a Nuclear Detonation

1. An immediate or Prompt Radiation burst of primarily gamma rays and neutrons. Gamma-rays, which are generated by radioactive atoms and in nuclear explosions, have the smallest wavelengths and the most energy of any other wave in the electromagnetic spectrum. Gamma-rays are produced by such violent events as supernova explosions or the destruction of atoms. They can kill living cells, and are used discretely to kill cancerous cells. When unleashed in the massive burst of a hydrogen bomb, they are indiscriminately deadly to any cells in their path.

The best shield from gamma radiation is a dense mass of material, such as lead, although a thick mass of lighter materials such as aluminum, concrete, or soil can be as effective as a thin shield of lead.

A burst of gamma rays from an exploding supernova may have been responsible for the extinction of 70 percent of the marine creatures that thrived during the Ordovician period (488 to 443 million years ago) by destroying the ozone layer and cooling the planet.

Left; what our galaxy would look like if we could see gamma rays.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Effects of a Nuclear Detonation

2. EMP (electromagnetic pulse), also caused by lightning and solar flares, is an intense pulse of electromagnetic energy lasting some 200 nanoseconds with a peak power on the order of 500 billion megawatts. EMP will fry the circuits of any unshielded electronics within its range. On July 8, 1962, in the "Starfish Prime" test, the EMP from a 1.4 Mt burst 250 miles above Johnston Island in the Pacific turned off 300 streetlights in Oahu, Hawaii (740 miles away). Today’s integrated circuits are one million times more vulnerable to EMP than older vacuum tube electronics in use in 1962. We still face the threat of a thermonuclear blast 300 miles above the center of the United States that could critically damage our nation’s infrastructure.

Left: the EMP range of damage caused by a high yield burst detonated at 400 km over the United States.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Effects of a Nuclear Detonation

3.Thermal radiation. Directly viewing a nuclear explosion can burn the retinas, although the eyes will often recover if bandaged for a couple weeks. More serious are the heat effects. Direct exposure of flesh to a 1-megaton blast from seven miles away will cause first degree burns, comparable to a bad sunburn. A person will suffer second degree burns at a distance of six miles, and third degree burns five miles out. At a closer range, the heat can sear the flesh and even melt one’s eyeballs. It can also ignite flammable materials such as wood, clothes, and draperies, causing widespread fires.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Effects of a Nuclear Detonation

4. The blast and shock wave can travel several hundred kilometers per hour, atomizing just about anything close to ground zero and doing progressively less damage outward. It can also start fires by rupturing natural gas lines and fuel tanks. The blast wave is measured in pounds per square inch (psi) "overpressure" beyond normal psi. Even a moderate overpressure of 5 psi can rupture internal organs and do substantial damage to normal buildings. The overpressure created by the shock wave’s outward motion leaves a low-pressure area at ground zero, causing a subsequent strong backwash of winds to fill in that low-pressure area. The fires ignited by the blast wave may join with those triggered by thermal radiation to generate what is known as a firestorm.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Effects of a Nuclear Detonation

5. Firestorms. In some cases, the fires created by the heat flash and shock waves combine to create intense fires. These lead to low pressure in the middle as the heat rises, sucking in surrounding air to stoke the fire, generating hotter fires, etc. This rush of air into the center of the fire causes gale force winds that suck people into the firestorm. The firestorm also replaces surrounding oxygen with carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide, leading to asphyxiation of people even in the supposed safety of shelters. Firestorms were generated by the conventional fire bombings of Hamburg, Dresden, and Tokyo as well as the atomic attack on Hiroshima. However, hilly terrain at Nagasaki blocked winds and the formation of a firestorm.

A firestorm continues until there is nothing left to burn.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Effects of a Nuclear Detonation

6. Radioactive Fallout starts within hours of detonation as ionized radioactive particles lifted into the mushroom cloud fall back to earth. A ground burst ionizes more dust particles than an air burst does, thus leading to more fallout. It takes 2-3 weeks for the fallout to settle back to earth. Where fallout comes down and in what concentrations depends on wind patterns. People in fallout areas should remain in airtight shelters with supplies of uncontaminated food and water stored beforehand, until the fallout has settled out of the atmosphere.

Since it takes thousands of years for radioactive isotopes like strontium-90 and cesium-136 to deteriorate, everything must be thoroughly cleaned and several inches of the topsoil buried before “normal” life resumes.

Exposure to large doses of fallout can lead to radiation sickness. The heavier the dose, the more quickly symptoms show up, with severe doses leading to symptoms occurring within 30 minutes. Radiation especially attacks reproductive, intestinal, and hair cells. Early symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and bloody diarrhea (from the breakdown of intestinal cells) while hair loss, the inability of wounds to heal, dizziness, fatigue, and headaches also typically occur. Roughly 50% of those exposed to heavy doses of radiation die from radiation sickness. Even after recovering from radiation sickness, other long-term effects may show up, such as cancer, tumors, and birth defects.


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Nuclear strategies

Counter-value. In the early days of nuclear weapons, guidance systems were so inaccurate that neither side could count on hitting anything smaller than a city. Therefore, each side targeted the other’s cities, the understanding being that you destroy one of my cities, I destroy at least one of yours->

MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Nuclear strategies

Counter-value. In the early days of nuclear weapons, guidance systems were so inaccurate that neither side could count on hitting anything smaller than a city. Therefore, each side targeted the other’s cities, the understanding being that you destroy one of my cities, I destroy at least one of yours->

MAD (Mutually Assured Destruction)

Counterforce. As guidance systems got more accurate in the 1960s and 1970s, each side was able to accurately target the other’s missile silos, thus avoiding the massive loss of life caused by hitting the enemy’s cities. Unfortunately, this also made it seem that nuclear war could be limited and won. Of course, the question was, would both sides be able to keep such a war limited to enemy silos when no other known war had been voluntarily limited?


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Weapons that blurred the distinction between conventional and nuclear war

Tactical nuclear weaponsSmaller yield weapons with a yield of 10-15Kt (kilotons), comparable to the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Especially deployed by NATO forces to stop the much larger conventional forces of the Warsaw Pact. Of course, if we initiate the use of nuclear weapons, where would it stop?


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Weapons that blurred the distinction between conventional and nuclear war

Tactical nuclear weaponsSmaller yield weapons with a yield of 10-15Kt (kilotons), comparable to the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Especially deployed by NATO forces to stop the much larger conventional forces of the Warsaw Pact. Of course, if we initiate the use of nuclear weapons, where would it stop?

Enhanced Radiation Warheads (Neutron Bombs) yield up to 80% of their energy in the form of high-energy neutrons. This is six times the yield in ordinary nuclear weapons which produce most of their energy as blast and heat. In the mid 1970s neutron bombs were proposed for development and deployment against Soviet tank columns to fry the tank crews inside their tanks with a burst of radiation while doing minimal damage to civilian property and creating little fallout.

A one kiloton enhanced radiation warhead can deliver an instantaneous lethal dose of 8000 rads over a radius of 690m (2260 ft) while the blast radius would be limited to approximately 550m (1800 ft). In contrast a regular 10 kT nuclear device would have the same lethal radiation radius but a blast radius of 1220m (4000 ft).


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Weapons that blurred the distinction between conventional and nuclear war

Tactical nuclear weaponsSmaller yield weapons with a yield of 10-15Kt (kilotons), comparable to the bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Especially deployed by NATO forces to stop the much larger conventional forces of the Warsaw Pact. Of course, if we initiate the use of nuclear weapons, where would it stop?

Enhanced Radiation Warheads (Neutron Bombs) yield up to 80% of their energy in the form of high-energy neutrons. This is six times the yield in ordinary nuclear weapons which produce most of their energy as blast and heat. In the mid 1970s neutron bombs were proposed for development and deployment against Soviet tank columns to fry the tank crews inside their tanks with a burst of radiation while doing minimal damage to civilian property and creating little fallout.

A one kiloton enhanced radiation warhead can deliver an instantaneous lethal dose of 8000 rads over a radius of 690m (2260 ft) while the blast radius would be limited to approximately 550m (1800 ft). In contrast a regular 10 kT nuclear device would have the same lethal radiation radius but a blast radius of 1220m (4000 ft).

Degraded uranium is extremely dense, and thus very effective when used for the tips of anti-tank shells. Unfortunately, the shell’s explosion spreads radioactive uranium all over. D-tipped shells were used extensively in the Gulf War and Kossovo, and have been blamed for the mysterious malady, Gulf War Syndrome, found in many soldiers who were sent, without chemical protection suits, to clean up after the shells. The symptoms for Gulf War Syndrome are consistent with radiation sickness.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

NUCLEAR TREATIES

1959Antarctic Treaty

1963Hot Line Agreement

1963Limited Test Ban Treaty

1967Outer Space Treaty

1967Latin America Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

1968Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

1971Seabed Treaty

1972Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I / ABM Treaty

1972Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty I Interim Agreement

1974Threshold Test Ban Treaty

1976Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty

1977Environmental Modification Convention

1979Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty II Treaty

1985South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty

1987Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty - INF

1988Ballistic Missile Launch Notification Agreement

1991Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty

1993Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty II

1996Treaty of Pelindaba

1996Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Countries that have, probably have (e.g., Israel), or are actively trying to get nuclear weapons


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

The Titan missile, one of our early ICBMs


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

The Minuteman missile, backbone of our ICBM (InterContinental Ballistic Missile) forces. American nuclear strategy was based on the Triad of land-based ICBMs, submarine launched missiles (SLBMs), and manned bombers.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

U.S. and Russian Nuclear Missiles

WarheadYieldType# Made

Mk-115-16 Kt A5

Mk-318-49 Kt A120

Mk-41-32 Kt A550

Mk-56-120 Kt A or C140

Mk-68-160 Kt A or C1100

Mk-78-61 Kt A or C1700-1800

Mk-825-30 Kt F40

Mk-1125-30 Kt F40

Mk-1212-14 kT T or C250

Mk-145-7 Mt A5

Mk-151.6-3.9 Mt A1500

Mk-166-8 MT A5

Mk-1710-15 MT A or C200

Mk-18500 kT A or C90

Mk-214-5 MT A/C/L275

Mk-2410-15 MT A or C105

Mk-2870 Kt - 1.1 MtA or C4500

Mk-369-10 MT A/C/R940

Mk-393-4 MT A/C/RL700

Mk-4125 MT RA/C/L500

Mk-4370 Kt - 1 MtRA/C/L1000

Mk-539 MT RA/C/L350

Mk-575-20 Kt RA/C/L3100

Mk-6180-340 Kt RA/C/L3150

Mk-83Low Kt to 1.2 MtRA/CL650

A = Airburst | C = Contact | CL = Contact Laydown

| F = Pyrotechnic Delay | L = Laydown | R = Retarded

| RA = Retarded Airburst | RL = Retarded Laydown | T = Timer


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

The B-52, workhorse of our strategic nuclear bomber fleet since 1960 is still used as a static bomber for launching cruise missiles and is expected to stay in service until 2030.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

The Advanced Cruise Missile, capable of carrying a conventional or nuclear warhead, can be launched from the ground, surface ships, or “static” flying platforms such as the B-52. It flies at a relatively low speed, but hugs the contour of the ground, making it difficult to detect with ground-based radar.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

The B-2 Stealth bomber which can avoid detection by enemy radar is our most modern strategic bomber, having replaced the B-52 in that capacity.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

U.S. Nuclear Free-Fall Bombs

Nuclear BombYield= to how many Hiroshima blastsTypeWeight of Bomb

B2870kt to 1.45 MT4.6 - 95Fusion919kg-1152kg (2,026-2,540 lb)

B431MT66.6Fusion934kg-971kg (2,060-2,141 lb)

B539MT600Fusion4014kg (8,850 lb)

B575kT to 10kT0.3 - 0.6Fission231kg-322kg (509-710 lb)

B6110kT to 500kT0.6 - 33.3Boosted Fission326kg-347kg (719-765 lb)

B831-2 MT66.6-133.3Fission1092kg (2,407 lb)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Each Ohio class Trident submarine, which is the backbone of the submarine leg of America’s nuclear triad, has 24 Submarine Launched Ballistic Missile (SLBMs) ,each of which can carry up to eight 100Kt warheads, These submarines are extremely quiet and virtually invulnerable to enemy attack. They use ultra-low frequency radio waves to maintain communications with the mainland that are as secure as the land-based ICBMs.

The Navy, which worried about being made obsolete by nuclear weapons in the 1950s, now contends land-based ICBMs and the manned bomber forces of SAC (Strategic Air Command) are what are obsolete.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

NUCLEAR WAR IN POPULAR CULTURE


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

A more serious, if somewhat misinformed book on Atomic power published in the aftermath of World War II


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

An educational comic on the atomic bomb from 1946


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

This came out largely in response to the navy’s fear that atomic warfare would make traditional navies obsolete


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

An inspiration for Ronald Reagan’s Star Wars and Bush’s missile defense shield? An electronic shield to protect America in this book, War in the Atomic Age?


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Even Superman gets involved in atomic weapons. And with Superman protecting us, how much of a threat can nuclear weapons be?


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

On October 17, 1951 (Only 12 days after I was born. No wonder I’m so messed up!) Colliers Magazine came out with this issue with articles by various well known authors previewing what they thought would happen in a nuclear war.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

A nuclear attack on Moscow starts the nuclear exchange


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Then the Soviets retaliate against Washington D.C.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

However, despite all the destruction, it’s worth it because the people enslaved by Communism rise up to overthrow the oppressive Soviet regime


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

In the aftermath, a Russian woman, quite attractive despite her somewhat unfashionable overalls, helps a handsome American soldier rebuild Philadelphia. However, American women need not worry about competition from this fetching foreign lass for the heart of the brave young American, because she has been sterilized by the nuclear radiation.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

A public service comic distributed in 1952 through neighborhood fire departments reassuring people on how easy it is to survive a nuclear war.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Louis Beard poses with his contribution to the fashion world inspired by the nuclear tests in the Bikini Islands in the South Pacific in 1946.


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Pro-atomic energy comics distributed in schools during the 1950s


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

A post-apocalyptic board game making fun out of nuclear devastation


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Not that we ever got over it, as seen in these more recent computer games


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Slim Pickens rides an H-bomb, cowboy style, down to its Russian target in Dr. Strangelove a very dark, twisted (and funny) comedy about nuclear war by Stanley Kubrick,


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Another nuclear apocalypse album cover, this time for Midnight Oil’s Red Sails in the Sunset in the early 1980s


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

A comic from 1974


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Homer Simpson in a 1993 parody of superheroes transformed by the powers of radioactivity


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

"A day when civilization came to an end!" Ray Milland (they brag about his Oscar) goes on a fishing trip with his family while L.A. is "devastated by a nuclear attack." The family goes to their "vacation spot" in an effort "to escape the cold lawlessness around them." Their daughter is kidnapped and raped by "three hoodlums." The family retaliates and kills two of the gang. They conclude by saying, "gripping drama meets edge-of-your-seat suspense in this controversial, futuristic nightmare!” (1962)


Fc 144 the nuclear arms race 1945 2001

Length

180 Meters (Larva, 1961)

135 Meters (Adult, 1961)

40 Meters (Larva, 1964-1968)

Unknown (Adult, 1964-1966)

120 Meters (Larva, 1992)

65 Meters (Adult, 1992)

Weight:

20,000 Tons (Larva, 1961)

15,000 Tons (Adult, 1961)

8,000 Tons (Larva, 1964-1968)

Unknown (Adult, 1964-1966)

15,000 Tons (Larva, 1992)

20,000 Tons (Adult, 1992)

Wingspan:

250 Meters (1961)

80 Meters (1964-1966)

175 Meters (1992)

Air Speed:

Mach 3 (1961)

Unknown (1964-1966)

Mach 2 (1992)

Special Weapons:

*Gives Off Poisonous Yellow Dust

*Emits Rays From Antennae

*Discharges Bolts Of Lightning From Wings

*Can block Godzilla's radioactive breath ray

*Telepathic


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